DNA nanodevices map enzymatic activity in organelles.
ABSTRACT: Cellular reporters of enzyme activity are based on either fluorescent proteins or small molecules. Such reporters provide information corresponding to wherever inside cells the enzyme is maximally active and preclude minor populations present in subcellular compartments. Here we describe a chemical imaging strategy to selectively interrogate minor, subcellular pools of enzymatic activity. This new technology confines the detection chemistry to a designated organelle, enabling imaging of enzymatic cleavage exclusively within the organelle. We have thus quantitatively mapped disulfide reduction exclusively in endosomes in Caenorhabditis elegans and identified that exchange is mediated by minor populations of the enzymes PDI-3 and TRX-1 resident in endosomes. Impeding intra-endosomal disulfide reduction by knocking down TRX-1 protects nematodes from infection by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, revealing the importance of this minor pool of endosomal TRX-1. TRX-1 also mediates endosomal disulfide reduction in human cells. A range of enzymatic cleavage reactions in organelles are amenable to analysis by this new reporter strategy.
Project description:The thioredoxin (Trx)-coupled arsenate reductase (ArsC) is a family of enzymes that catalyzes the reduction of arsenate to arsenite in the arsenic detoxification pathway. The catalytic cycle involves a series of relayed intramolecular and intermolecular thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Structures at different reaction stages have been determined, suggesting significant conformational fluctuations along the reaction pathway. Herein, we use two state-of-the-art NMR methods, the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and the CPMG-based relaxation dispersion (CPMG RD) experiments, to probe the conformational dynamics of B. subtilis ArsC in all reaction stages, namely the enzymatic active reduced state, the intra-molecular C10-C82 disulfide-bonded intermediate state, the inactive oxidized state, and the inter-molecular disulfide-bonded protein complex with Trx. Our results reveal highly rugged energy landscapes in the active reduced state, and suggest global collective motions in both the C10-C82 disulfide-bonded intermediate and the mixed-disulfide Trx-ArsC complex.
Project description:Thioredoxins are a class of evolutionarily conserved proteins that have been demonstrated to play a key role in many cellular processes involving redox reactions. We report here the genetic and biochemical characterization of Caenorhabditis elegans TRX-3, the first metazoan thioredoxin with an intestine-specific expression pattern. By using green fluorescent protein reporters we have found that TRX-3 is expressed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of intestinal cells, with a prominent localization at the apical membrane. Although intestinal function, reproductive capacity, longevity, and resistance of trx-3 loss-of-function mutants to many stresses are indistinguishable from those of wild-type animals, we have observed a slight reduction in size and a minor reduction in the defecation cycle timing of trx-3 mutants. Interestingly, trx-3 is induced upon infection by Photorhabdus luminescens and Candida albicans, and TRX-3 overexpression provides a modest protection against these pathogens. Together, our data indicate that TRX-3 function in the intestine is dispensable for C. elegans development but may be important to fight specific bacterial and fungal infections.
Project description:Despite functional evidence for disulfide bond-reducing activity in endosomal compartments, the mechanistic details pertaining to such process (e.g., kinetics and sites of disulfide reduction) remain largely controversial. To address these questions directly, we have synthesized a previously uncharacterized fluorescent folate conjugate, folate-(BODIPY FL)-SS-rhodamine (folate-FRET), that changes fluorescence from red to green upon disulfide bond reduction. Using this construct, we have observed that disulfide reduction: (i) occurs with a half-time of 6 h after folate-FRET endocytosis, (ii) begins in endosomes and does not depend significantly on redox machinery located on the cell surface or within the lysosome or the Golgi apparatus, (iii) occurs independently of endocytic vesicle trafficking along microtubules, and (iv) yields products that are subsequently sorted into distinct endosomes and trafficked in different directions. Finally, colocalization of folate and transferrin receptors suggest that conclusions derived from this study may apply to other endocytic pathways.
Project description:Endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 9 recognize viral pathogens and induce signals leading to the activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)-dependent proinflammatory cytokines and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-dependent type I interferons (IFNs). Recognition of viral nucleic acids by TLR9 requires its cleavage in the endolysosomal compartment. Here, we show that TLR9 signals leading to the activation of type I IFN, but not proinflammatory cytokine genes, require TLR9 trafficking from endosomes to a specialized lysosome-related organelle. Furthermore, we identify adapter protein-3 as the protein complex responsible for the trafficking of TLR9 to this subcellular compartment. Our results reveal an intracellular mechanism for bifurcation of TLR9 signals by selective receptor trafficking within the endosomal system.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In yeast and mammals, many plasma membrane (PM) proteins destined for degradation are tagged with ubiquitin. These ubiquitinated proteins are internalized into clathrin-coated vesicles and are transported to early endosomal compartments. There, ubiquitinated proteins are sorted by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery into the intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes. Degradation of these proteins occurs after endosomes fuse with lysosomes/lytic vacuoles to release their content into the lumen. In plants, some PM proteins, which cycle between the PM and endosomal compartments, have been found to be ubiquitinated, but it is unclear whether ubiquitin is sufficient to mediate internalization and thus acts as a primary sorting signal for the endocytic pathway. To test whether plants use ubiquitin as a signal for the degradation of membrane proteins, we have translationally fused ubiquitin to different fluorescent reporters for the plasma membrane and analyzed their transport. RESULTS: Ubiquitin-tagged PM reporters localized to endosomes and to the lumen of the lytic vacuole in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and in tobacco epidermal cells. The internalization of these reporters was significantly reduced if clathrin-mediated endocytosis was inhibited by the coexpression of a mutant of the clathrin heavy chain, the clathrin hub. Surprisingly, a ubiquitin-tagged reporter for the Golgi was also transported into the lumen of the vacuole. Vacuolar delivery of the reporters was abolished upon inhibition of the ESCRT machinery, indicating that the vacuolar delivery of these reporters occurs via the endocytic transport route. CONCLUSIONS: Ubiquitin acts as a sorting signal at different compartments in the endomembrane system to target membrane proteins into the vacuolar degradation pathway: If displayed at the PM, ubiquitin triggers internalization of PM reporters into the endocytic transport route, but it also mediates vacuolar delivery if displayed at the Golgi. In both cases, ubiquitin-tagged proteins travel via early endosomes and multivesicular bodies to the lytic vacuole. This suggests that vacuolar degradation of ubiquitinated proteins is not restricted to PM proteins but might also facilitate the turnover of membrane proteins in the early secretory pathway.
Project description:Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX) flavoenzymes catalyze the direct, facile, insertion of disulfide bonds into reduced unfolded proteins with the reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. To date, only QSOXs from vertebrates have been characterized enzymatically. These metazoan sulfhydryl oxidases have four recognizable domains: a redox-active thioredoxin (Trx) domain containing the first of three CxxC motifs (C(I)-C(II)), a second Trx domain with no obvious redox-active disulfide, a helix-rich domain, and then an Erv/ALR domain. This last domain contains the FAD moiety, a proximal C(III)-C(IV) disulfide, and a third CxxC of unknown function (C(V)-C(VI)). Plant and protist QSOXs lack the second Trx domain but otherwise appear to contain the same complement of redox centers. This work presents the first characterization of a single-Trx QSOX. Trypanosoma brucei QSOX was expressed in Escherichia coli using a synthetic gene and found to be a stable, monomeric, FAD-containing protein. Although evidently lacking an entire domain, TbQSOX shows catalytic activity and substrate specificity similar to the vertebrate QSOXs examined previously. Unfolded reduced proteins are more than 200-fold more effective substrates on a per thiol basis than glutathione and some 10-fold better than the parasite bisglutathione analogue, trypanothione. These data are consistent with a role for the protist QSOX in oxidative protein folding. Site-directed mutagenesis of each of the six cysteine residues (to serines) shows that the CxxC motif in the single-Trx domain is crucial for efficient catalysis of the oxidation of both reduced RNase and the model substrate dithiothreitol. As expected, the proximal disulfide C(III)-C(IV), which interacts with the flavin, is catalytically crucial. However, as observed with human QSOX1, the third CxxC motif shows no obvious catalytic role during the in vitro oxidation of reduced RNase or dithiothreitol. Pre-steady-state kinetics demonstrates that turnover in TbQSOX is limited by an internal redox step leading to 2-electron reduction of the FAD cofactor. In sum, the single-Trx domain QSOX studied here shows a striking similarity in enzymatic behavior to its double-Trx metazoan counterparts.
Project description:The human thioredoxin (TRX)-interacting protein is found in multiple subcellular compartments and plays a major role in redox homeostasis, particularly in the context of metabolism (e.g., lipidemia and glycemia) and apoptosis. A molecular approach to the protein's modus operandi is still needed because some aspects of the TRX-interacting protein-mediated regulation of TRX are not clearly understood. To this end, His-tagged TRX-interacting proteins were over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Because the protein is expressed mainly in inclusion bodies, it was denatured in high concentrations of guanidium hydrochloride, centrifuged, and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. His-TRX-interacting protein was then refolded by dialysis and its restructuring monitored by circular dichroism spectrometry. This preparation resulted in the formation of a covalent complex with recombinant human TRX, demonstrating that association occurs without the intervention of other partner proteins. Multiple cysteine-to-serine mutants of TRX-interacting protein were produced and purified. These mutations were efficient in limiting the formation of disulfide-linked homo-oligomers in an oxidizing environment. The mutants were also used to gain functional insight into the formation of the TRX-interacting protein-TRX complexes. These complexes were able to form in the absence of internal disulfide bridges. A mutant with all but one cysteine changed to serine (Cys ²??) also showed an enhanced capacity to form complexes with TRX demonstrating, in a pure molecular system, that this particular cysteine is likely responsible for the disulfide bridge between TRX-interacting protein and TRX.
Project description:Thioredoxin 1 (TRX), an essential intracellular redox regulator, is also secreted by mammalian cells. Recently, we showed that TRX activates extracellular transglutaminase 2 via reduction of an allosteric disulfide bond. In an effort to identify other extracellular substrates of TRX, macrophages derived from THP-1 cells were treated with NP161, a small-molecule inhibitor of secreted TRX. NP161 enhanced cytokine outputs of alternatively activated macrophages, suggesting that extracellular TRX regulated the activity of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and/or interleukin 13 (IL-13). To test this hypothesis, the C35S mutant of human TRX was shown to form a mixed disulfide bond with recombinant IL-4 but not IL-13. Kinetic analysis revealed a kcat/KM value of 8.1 ?M-1?min-1 for TRX-mediated recognition of IL-4, which established this cytokine as the most selective partner of extracellular TRX to date. Mass spectrometry identified the C46-C99 bond of IL-4 as the target of TRX, consistent with the essential role of this disulfide bond in IL-4 activity. To demonstrate the physiological relevance of our biochemical findings, recombinant TRX was shown to attenuate IL-4-dependent proliferation of cultured TF-1 erythroleukemia cells and also to inhibit the progression of chronic pancreatitis in an IL-4-driven mouse model of this disease. By establishing that IL-4 is posttranslationally regulated by TRX-promoted reduction of a disulfide bond, our findings highlight a novel regulatory mechanism of the type 2 immune response that is specific to IL-4 over IL-13.
Project description:Antibody-drug conjugate therapy entails targeted killing of cancer cells with cytotoxic compounds covalently linked to tumor-specific antibodies and shows promise in the treatment of several human cancers. Current antibody-drug conjugate designs that incorporate a disulfide linker between the antibody and cytotoxic drug are inspired by indirect evidence suggesting that the redox potential within the endosomal system is reducing. It is presumed that antigen-dependent endocytosis leads to disulfide linker reduction and intracellular release of free drug, but direct demonstration of such a mechanism is lacking. To determine whether the disulfide N-succinimidyl 4-(2-pyridyldithio)pentanoate (SPP) linker would be reduced during endocytic recycling of the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin, Genentech), we synthesized a trastuzumab-SPP-Rhodamine red conjugate and developed a linker cleavage assay by using the self-quenching property of this fluorophore. In breast carcinoma SKBr3 cells, no SPP linker cleavage was observed, as detected by fluorescence dequenching upon internalization. By contrast, the conjugate did display fluorescence dequenching when diverted to the lysosomal pathway by geldanamycin, an effect partly due to proteolytic degradation rather than disulfide reduction. To understand why linker reduction was inefficient, we measured redox potentials of endocytic compartments by expressing a redox-sensitive variant of GFP fused to various endocytic proteins. Unexpectedly, we found that recycling endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes are not reducing, but oxidizing and comparable with conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that intracellular reduction is unlikely to account for the potency of disulfide-linked antibody-drug conjugates.
Project description:Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are used to manage a wide range of cancers and autoimmune disorders. However, mAb-based treatments are not always successful, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the factors influencing mAb efficacy. Increased levels of oxidative stress associated with several diseases are counteracted by the activities of various oxidoreductase enzymes, such as thioredoxin (Trx), which also reduces allosteric disulfide bonds in proteins, including mAbs. Here, using an array of in vitro assays, we explored the functional effects of Trx-mediated reduction on the mechanisms of action of six therapeutic mAbs. We found that Trx reduces the inter-chain disulfide bonds of the mAbs, after which they remain intact but have altered function. In general, this reduction increased antigen-binding capacity, resulting in, for example, enhanced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) neutralization by two anti-TNF mAbs. Conversely, Trx reduction decreased the anti-proliferative activity of an anti-tyrosine kinase-type cell-surface receptor HER2 (HER2) mAb. In all the mAbs, Fc receptor binding was abrogated by Trx activity, with significant loss in both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of the mAbs tested. We also confirmed that without alkylation, Trx-reduced inter-chain disulfide bonds reoxidize, and ADCC activity is restored. In summary, Trx-mediated reduction has a substantial impact on the functional effects of an mAb, including variable effects on antigen binding and Fc function, with the potential to significantly impact mAb efficacy in vivo.