Two new species and the molecular phylogeography of the freshwater crab genus Bottapotamon (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae).
ABSTRACT: Bottapotamon chenzhouense sp. n. and B. luxiense sp. n. are described from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, respectively. These species both have diagnostic features of the genus Bottapotamon and discernible characteristics as new species. B. chenzhouense sp. n. can be distinguished from co-geners by features such as the G1, which has a fold covering the surface of the entire subterminal article with a distal region. B. luxiense sp. n. has an elliptical carapace, and a sturdy and blunt terminal article of G1. The molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Bottapotamon (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) were studied, using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA COI), 16S rRNA and nuclear histone H3 gene fragments. The results support the assignment of the two new species to the genus Bottapotamon. In addition, the divergence time of the genus Bottapotamon was estimated to be 3.49-1.08 Ma, which coincided with various vicariant and dispersal events that occurred in the geological area where the genus Bottapotamon is commonly distributed. Mountains appear to have played an important role in the distribution of this genus. The Wuyi Mountains gradually formed offshore and inland of southeastern China by the compression of the Pacific plate and the Indian plate in the Neogene-Quaternary, and the Luoxiao Mountains formed continuously in the continued forming in the north-south direction because of neotectonic movement, have resulted in the geographical distribution pattern of the genus Bottapotamon, which was also established gradually.
Project description:Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China.
Project description:Two new species of the genus Amphinemura, A.albicauda sp. n. and A.dingoidea sp. n. from the southern Qinling Mountains, Foping County of Shaanxi Province, western China, are described based on both sexes and the larval stage. The new species are compared with related taxa, and the A.sinensis species group is defined for an Oriental lineage of the genus. Amphinemurasinensis (Wu, 1926) and A.unihamata (Wu, 1973) are reported from Shaanxi for the first time, and the hitherto unknown female of A.unihamata is described. A distribution map of the Amphinemurinae known from Qinling Mountains is given.
Project description:Three cryptic species, which were previously reported as Nidirana adenopleura, are revealed on the basis of comprehensive approaches. Nidirana guangdongensis Lyu, Wan, and YY Wang, sp. nov. is distributed in Nanling Mountains and southern Luoxiao Mountains, Nidirana mangveni Lyu, Qi, and YY Wang, sp. nov. is known from northern Zhejiang, and Nidirana xiangica Lyu and YY Wang, sp. nov. occurs in Xiangjiang River Basin, while the true Nidirana adenopleura is designated from Taiwan Island, northern Fujian, southern Zhejiang, and central Jiangxi. These three new species can be distinguished from all congeners by significant divergences in the mitochondrial 16S and CO1 genes, differences in advertisement calls, and the combination of multiple characteristics. This work indicates that the current records of Nidirana adenopleura should be of a species complex composed of multiple species and have clarified the true identity of N. adenopleura.
Project description:Four species of spider genus <i>Cheiracanthium</i> C. L. Koch, 1839 are reported from Jinggang Mountains, Jiangxi Province, China. Two of them are described as new to science: <i>C. auriculatum</i><b>sp. n.</b> (??) and <i>C. echinulatum</i><b>sp. n.</b> (?). <i>Cheiracanthium taiwanicum</i> Chen, Huang, Chen & Wang, 2006 is recorded from Mainland China for the first time. <i>Cheiracanthium zhejiangense</i> Hu & Song, 1982, the most similar species to <i>C. auriculatum</i><b>sp. n</b>., is a newly recorded species of Jiangxi Province. Detailed descriptions, diagnoses, and photographs of the two new species are given. <i>Cheiracanthium taiwanicum</i> and <i>C. zhejiangense</i> are also illustrated.
Project description:A new species of freshwater crab of the genus Indochinamon Yeo & Ng, 2007 (family Potamidae), is described from highlands north of Myitkyina in Kachin State, Myanmar. Indochinamonkhinpyae sp. n. is distinguished from congeners by its very rugose carapace, broad male pleon and distinctively structured male first gonopod; and is the first potamid species recorded from northern Myanmar.
Project description:<i>Calanthe sieboldopsis</i>, a new species, is here described and illustrated from Luoxiao Mountains, Jiangxi Province, eastern China. It is morphologically similar to <i>C. sieboldii</i> Decne. ex Regel, but differs from the latter in having smaller flowers, longer spurs, rectangular mid-lobes with emarginate apex (<i>vs.</i> elliptic mid-lobes with mucronate apex), disc with 3 ridges and the proximal ends of the lateral 2 ridges enlarged with light reddish spots and minute white hairs (<i>vs.</i> disc with 5 ridges and 2 rows of white short hairs at base) and pollinia equal in size (<i>vs.</i> unequal in size). A preliminary risk-of-extinction assessment, according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, is given for the new species.
Project description:A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran.
Project description:Measuring the dispersal of wildlife through landscapes is notoriously difficult. Recently, the categorical least cost path algorithm that integrates population genetic data with species distribution models has been applied to reveal population connectivity. In this study, we use this method to identify the possible dispersal corridors of five plant species (Castanopsis tibetana, Schima superba, Cyclocarya paliurus, Sargentodoxa cuneata, Eomecon chionantha) in the Poyang Lake Basin (PLB, largely coinciding with Jiangxi Province), China, in the late Quaternary. The results showed that the strongest population connectivity for the five species occurred in the Wuyi Mountains and the Yu Mountains of the eastern PLB (East Corridor) during the late Quaternary. In the western PLB, populations of the five species were connected by the Luoxiao Mountains and the Jiuling Mountains (West Corridor) but with a lower degree of connectivity. There were some minor connections between the eastern and the western populations across the Gannan Hills. When the corridors of five species were overlaid, the East Corridor and the West Corridor were mostly shared by multiple species. These results indicate that plant species in the PLB could have responded to the Quaternary climate changes by moving along the East Corridor and the West Corridor. Given that dispersal corridors have seldom been considered in the governmental strategies of biodiversity conservation in the PLB, preserving and restoring natural vegetation along these corridors should be prioritized to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic climate change by facilitating migration of plant species and other biota.
Project description:A preliminary study was carried out on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 582 species and subspecies (few identified only to the genus level) belonging to 129 families and representing 17 orders were recorded. Two of these species are described as new, namely: Monomorium sarawatensis Sharaf & Aldawood, sp. n. [Formicidae, Hymenoptera] and Anthrax alruqibi El-Hawagry sp. n. [Bombyliidae, Diptera]. Another eight species are recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia, namely: Xiphoceriana arabica (Uvarov, 1922) [Pamphagidae, Orthoptera], Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier, 1791) [Pyrgomorphidae, Orthoptera], Catopsilia florella (Fabricius, 1775) [Pieridae, Lepidoptera], Anthrax chionanthrax (Bezzi, 1926) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Spogostylum near tripunctatum Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818 [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Cononedys dichromatopa (Bezzi, 1925) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Mydas sp. [Mydidae, Diptera], and Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758 [Hippoboscidae, Diptera]. Al-Baha Province is divided by huge and steep Rocky Mountains into two main sectors, a lowland coastal plain at the west, known as "Tihama", and a mountainous area with an elevation of 1500 to 2450 m above sea level at the east, known as "Al-Sarat or Al-Sarah" which form a part of Al-Sarawat Mountains range. Insect species richness in the two sectors (Tihama and Al-Sarah) was compared, and the results showed that each of the two sectors of Al-Baha Province has a unique insect community. The study generally concluded that the insect faunal composition in Al-Baha Province has an Afrotropical flavor, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. Consequently, we tend to agree with those biogeographers who consider that parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha Province, should be included in the Afrotropical region rather than in the Palaearctic region or the Eremic zone.
Project description:The vulnerable Chinese cobra (Naja atra) ranges from southeastern China south of the Yangtze River to northern Vietnam and Laos. Large mountain ranges and water bodies may influence the pattern of genetic diversity of this species. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA control region (1029 bp) using 285 individuals collected from 23 localities across the species' range and obtained 18 sequences unique to Taiwan from GenBank for phylogenetic and population analysis. Two distinct clades were identified, one including haplotypes from the two westernmost localities (Hekou and Miyi) and the other including haplotypes from all sampling sites except Miyi. A strong population structure was found (?st?=?0.76, P<0.0001) with high haplotype diversity (h?=?1.00) and low nucleotide diversity (??=?0.0049). The Luoxiao and Nanling Mountains act as historical geographical barriers limiting gene exchange. In the haplotype network there were two "star" clusters. Haplotypes from populations east of the Luoxiao Mountains were represented within one cluster and haplotypes from populations west of the mountain range within the other, with haplotypes from populations south of the Nanling Mountains in between. Lineage sorting between mainland and island populations is incomplete. It remains unknown as to how much adaptive differentiation there is between population groups or within each group. We caution against long-distance transfers within any group, especially when environmental differences are apparent.