APASL HCV guidelines of virus-eradicated patients by DAA on how to monitor HCC occurrence and HBV reactivation.
ABSTRACT: In the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) era for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, sustained virological response (SVR) is very high, but close attention must be paid to the possible occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with co-infection who achieved SVR in short term. HCC occurrence was more often observed in patients with previous HCC history. We found occurrence of HCC in 178 (29.6%) of 602 patients with previous HCC history (15.4 months mean follow-up post-DAA initiation) but, in contrast, in only 604 (1.3%) of 45,870 patients without previous HCC history (18.2 months mean follow-up). Thus, in these guidelines, we recommend the following: in patients with previous HCC history, surveillance at 4-month intervals for HCC by ultrasonography (US) and tumor markers should be performed. In patients without previous HCC history, surveillance at 6- to 12-month intervals for HCC including US is recommended until the long-term DAA treatment effects, especially for the resolution of liver fibrosis, are confirmed. This guideline also includes recommendations on how to follow-up patients who have been infected with both HCV and HBV. When HCV was eradicated in these HBsAg-positive patients or patients with previous HBV infection (anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs-positive), it was shown that HBV reactivation or HBV DNA reappearance was observed in 67 (41.4%) of 162 or 12 (0.9%) of 1317, respectively. For these co-infected patients, careful attention should be paid to HBV reactivation for 24 weeks post-treatment.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be classified as a prototypical inflammation-driven cancer that generally arises from a background of liver cirrhosis, but that in the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), could develop in the absence of fibrosis or cirrhosis. Tumor-promoting inflammation characterizes HCC pathogenesis, with an epidemiology of the chronic liver disease frequently encompassing hepatitis virus B (HBV) or C (HCV). HCC tumor onset and progression is a serial and heterogeneous process in which intrinsic factors, such as genetic mutations and chromosomal instability, are closely associated with an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which may have features associated with the etiopathogenesis and expression of the viral antigens, which favor the evasion of tumor neoantigens to immune surveillance. With the introduction of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for HCV infection, sustained virological response (SVR) has become very high, although occurrence of HCC and reactivation of HBV in patients with co-infection, who achieved SVR in short term, have been observed in a significant proportion of treated cases. In this review, we discuss the main molecular and TME features that are responsible for HCC pathogenesis and progression. Peculiar functional aspects that could be related to the presence and treatment of HCV/HBV viral infections are also dealt with.
Project description:The introduction of a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) rates with fewer adverse events, and it could shorten the treatment duration relative to the interferon era. Although most recent clinical studies have demonstrated that the occurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are decreased by SVR with both interferon-based and interferon-free-regimens, there are several reports about the unexpected observation of high rates of early tumor occurrence and recurrence in patients with HCV-related HCC undergoing interferon-free therapy despite SVR. Several mechanisms of HCC occurrence and rapid immunological changes, including cytokines and chemokines during and after DAA treatment, have also been reported. We focused on the possibilities that HCC occurs or recurs during and after DAA treatment, based on the reported clinical and basic studies. Further studies and observations will be needed to determine the short-term and long-term effects on hepatocarcinogenesis caused by the eradication of HCV with DAAs. New serum biomarkers and a follow-up system for HCV-patients with SVR should be established.
Project description:Background:We investigated changes in patient characteristics, rate of sustained virologic response (SVR), and factors associated with SVR after anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens in real-world practice in Japan, where patients with HCV are characterized by older age and high prevalence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods:Changes in patient characteristics and SVR rates were evaluated from medical records among 10 688 patients who started interferon (IFN)-free DAA therapy between September 2014 and June 2018 in a nationwide, multicenter study. Factors associated with failure of SVR were analyzed. In particular, effects of cirrhosis or history of HCC on SVR were assessed by exact matching. Results:Patient age was becoming younger and baseline liver fibrosis was becoming milder over time. Overall SVR rate was 95.4%. The SVR rates increased over time in patients without a history of IFN-free DAA therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that cirrhosis was unfavorably associated with achievement of SVR in both patients with genotype 1 (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.21) and genotype 2 (odds ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.01-2.78). Comparisons after exact matching showed that the SVR rate was significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis than without it, whereas patients with and without a history of HCC had similar SVR rates. Conclusions:Background characteristics of patients who undergo IFN-free DAA therapy are changing in Japan. Patients without a history of IFN-free DAA therapy have high SVR rates. Exact matching confirmed that cirrhosis significantly influences the achievement of SVR in real-world settings.
Project description:The approval of all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has led to the expansion of therapy to include patients with cirrhosis who have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Data on the use of DAAs in HCV+ patients with HCC is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of all-oral-DAA regimens in HCV+ cirrhotic patients who have or had HCC compared to those without HCC.A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all cirrhotic patients who were treated for HCV with DAAs at our institution between January 2014 and November 2015.A total of 421 HCV+ patients with cirrhosis were identified, of whom 33% had active or a history of HCC. Failure to achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) occurred in 21% of patients with HCC compared to 12% of patients without HCC (p=0.009). Of the 29 patients with HCC who did not achieve SVR, 27 (93%) occurred when an active tumor was present. DAA therapy in the presence of an inactive tumor or after removal of tumor (resection/transplant) resulted in excellent SVR rates, similar to those without HCC (p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, the primary predictor of DAA treatment failure was the presence of active HCC at the time of HCV treatment initiation (adjusted odds ratio=8.5, 95% confidence interval=3.90-18.49).The presence of active HCC tumor at the initiation of HCV therapy is significantly associated with all-oral DAA treatment failure. HCV treatment after curative therapies for HCC resulted in excellent SVR.The new medications for hepatitis C have excellent cure rates. However, our study shows that in patients with both liver cancer and hepatitis C, they do not achieve these cure rates. Patients with liver cancer are almost 8 times more likely to fail hepatitis C treatment than patients without liver cancer.
Project description:Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are now the mainstay of treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, there is some controversy over whether use of DAAs for HCV, as compared with IFN-based regimens, leads to an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. We investigated the association between use of DAAs and subsequent development of HCC in longitudinal data from patients with HCV from diverse backgrounds (various ages, ethnicities, and geographic regions) across the United States. The design was a retrospective study performed using medical and pharmacy claims from OptumLabs. HCV treatment exposure was categorized as DAA-only, DAA + IFN, any-DAA, or IFN-only. To account for confounding by indication, inverse probability of treatment weighting was performed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 5,781 patients with HCV with no history of HCC at baseline. Compared with IFN-only regimen, no significant increase in HCC risk was found for use of DAA-only (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.73-3.23), DAA + IFN (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.51-2.06), or any-DAA (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.65-1.65). When stratified by sustained virological response (SVR), we noted a higher HCC risk for DAA-only among patients who achieved SVR post-treatment (HR, 7.53; 95% CI, 1.48-38.34), but the CIs were wide, which might be due to the small sample size of the subgroups. Among those who did not achieve SVR, no association was found for use of DAA-only (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.19-1.91). These findings do not provide compelling evidence for the conception that use of DAAs for HCV is associated with increased risk of HCC development.
Project description:Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection patients (CH) results in a sustained viral response (SVR) in over 95% of patients. However, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs in 1-5% of patients who achieved an SVR after treatment with interferon. We attempted to develop a minimally invasive and highly reliable method of predicting the occurrence and recurrence of HCC in patients who achieved an SVR with DAA therapy. The exosomal miRNA expression patterns of 69 CH patients who underwent HCC curative treatment and 70 CH patients were assessed using microarray analysis. We identified a miRNA expression pattern characteristic of SVR-HCC by using machine learning. Twenty-five of 69 patients had HCC recurrence. The expression of four exosomal miRNAs predicted HCC recurrence with 85.3% accuracy. Fifteen of 70 patients had HCC occurrence. The expression of four exosomal miRNAs predicted the onset of HCC with 85.5% accuracy. The expression patterns of miR-4718, 642a-5p, 6826-3p, and 762 in exosomes were positively correlated with those in the liver, and downregulation of these miRNAs induced cell proliferation and prevented apoptosis in vitro. Aberrant expression of four miRNAs, which was used for prediction, was associated with HCC onset after HCV eradication. Expression patterns of exosomal miRNAs are a promising tool to predict SVR-HCC.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection can be encountered in either virus endemic countries. Co-infection can also be found in populations at risk of parenteral transmission. Previous studies demonstrated a high risk of liver disease progression in patients with HCV/HBV co-infection; thus, they should be treated aggressively. Previous evidence recommended therapy combining peginterferon (pegIFN) alfa and ribavirin for co-infected patients with positive HCV RNA. Recent trials further advise using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the clearance of HCV in the co-infected patients. Reactivation of HBV has been observed in patients post-intervention, with higher risks and earlier onset in those having had HCV cured by DAA- versus pegIFN-based therapy. The mechanism of HBV reactivation is an interesting but unsolved puzzle. Our recent study revealed that in vitro HBV replication was suppressed by HCV co-infection; HBV suppression was attenuated when interferon signaling was blocked. In vivo, the HBV viremia, initially suppressed by the presence of HCV super-infection, rebounded following HCV clearance by DAA treatment and was accompanied by a reduced hepatic interferon response. In summary, major achievements in the treatment of HCV/HBV co-infection have been accomplished over the past 20 years. Future clinical trials should address measures to reduce or prevent HBV reactivation post HCV cure.
Project description:Background:The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for HCV has led to high rates of HCV eradication. Treatment of patients awaiting liver transplantation (LT) has been controversial. Recent data suggests that DAA treatment may accelerate recurrent HCC. The impact of DAA on delisting for HCC progression or recurrent HCC post-LT has not been well characterized. Methods:A retrospective review of both waitlist patients and LT recipients at a single institution was performed. Patient demographics, HCV treatment, HCC features and treatments, biopsy results, and graft and patient survival were evaluated. Patients on the LT waitlist or who were transplanted between January 2014 and December 2015 were included. Data was collected through December 2017 to have a minimum of two years of follow-up. Results:In the study period, 128 adult LT were performed. 44 patients were HCV+, and 68.2% (N=30) also had HCC. 38.6% (N=17) of HCV+ patients received DAA pre-LT, and 94.1% (N=16/17) achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) pre-LT. Among untreated HCV+ patients who underwent LT, 81.5% (N=22/27) received DAA post-LT, with 82.6% achieving SVR post-LT (N=18/22). 82.1% (N=23/28) of untreated post-LT patients underwent liver biopsy prior to therapy, and 52.2% had at least F1 METAVIR fibrosis. 87.5% (N=14/16) of active waitlist patients received DAA and achieved SVR. HCV eradication did not result in higher rates of delisting for HCC progression. Due to local HCC listing criteria of total tumor volume and AFP, 60% (N=18/30) of HCV+/HCC patients were beyond Milan criteria at the time of LT. Despite this, there was no difference in HCC recurrence rates post-LT, whether patients achieved SVR pre- or post-LT. Conclusions:These data suggest that HCV eradication pre-LT does not significantly impact waitlist time for HCV+ patients with HCC. HCV eradication does not impact rates of delisting for HCC progression or rates of HCC recurrence post-LT.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:It is unclear whether direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment-induced sustained virologic response (SVR) reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with HCV infection. Therefore, in the current study, our aim was to determine the impact of DAA-induced SVR on HCC risk. METHODS:We identified 62,354 patients who initiated antiviral treatment in the Veterans Affairs (VA) national healthcare system from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2015, including 35,871 (58%) interferon (IFN)-only regimens, 4,535 (7.2%) DAA?+?IFN regimens, and 21,948 (35%) DAA-only regimens. We retrospectively followed patients until 15 June 2017 to identify incident cases of HCC. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to determine the association between SVR and HCC risk or between type of antiviral regimen (DAA-only vs. DAA?+?IFN vs. IFN-only) and HCC risk. RESULTS:We identified 3,271 incident cases of HCC diagnosed at least 180 days after initiation of antiviral treatment during a mean follow-up of 6.1 years. The incidence of HCC was highest in patients with cirrhosis and treatment failure (3.25 per 100 patient-years), followed by cirrhosis and SVR (1.97), no cirrhosis and treatment failure (0.87), and no cirrhosis and SVR (0.24). SVR was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HCC in multivariable models irrespective of whether the antiviral treatment was DAA-only (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 0.29; 95% CI 0.23-0.37), DAA?+?IFN (AHR 0.48; 95% CI 0.32-0.73) or IFN-only (AHR 0.32; 95% CI 0.28-0.37). Receipt of a DAA-only or DAA?+?IFN regimen was not associated with increased HCC risk compared with receipt of an IFN-only regimen. CONCLUSIONS:DAA-induced SVR is associated with a 71% reduction in HCC risk. Treatment with DAAs is not associated with increased HCC risk compared with treatment with IFN. LAY SUMMARY:It was unclear whether direct-acting antiviral treatment-induced sustained virologic response reduces the risk of liver cancer in patients with HCV infection. We demonstrated that eradication of HCV infection with direct-acting antiviral agents reduces the risk of liver cancer by 71%.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was uncommon before direct-acting antiviral (DAA) medications. Real-world effectiveness of DAAs for HCV in patients with HCC is unclear. We describe rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) with DAA regimens by HCV genotype in patients with a history of HCC. METHODS:We identified patients who initiated antiviral treatment between January 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 in the national Veterans Affairs health care system. Regimens included sofosobuvir, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, and paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir with or without ribavirin. HCC patients were divided into those who were treated with liver transplantation after HCC diagnosis ("HCC/LT" group) and those treated with other modalities prior to antiviral therapy ("HCC" group). RESULTS:Of 17,487 HCV treatment recipients, 624 (3.6%) had prior HCC, including 142 with HCC/LT and 482 with HCC. Overall SVR was 91.1% in non-HCC, 74.4% in HCC, and 94.0% in HCC/LT. Among HCC patients, genotype 1 had the highest SVR overall (79.1% in HCC and 96.4% in HCC/LT), and genotype 3 the lowest (47.0% in HCC and 88.9% in HCC/LT). After adjustment for confounders, the presence of HCC was associated with lower likelihood of SVR overall (AOR 0.38 [95% CI 0.29, 0.48], p<0.001). CONCLUSION:HCV can be cured with DAAs in the majority of patients with prior HCC, and in virtually all HCC patients post-liver transplant. Deferral of HCV treatment until the post-transplant setting may be considered among HCC patients listed for transplantation. LAY SUMMARY:Over three-quarters of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have hepatitis C can achieve viral cure with direct-acting antiviral drugs. Among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who subsequently received liver transplantation, over 90% of patients can achieve viral cure.