CtDNA detected by ddPCR reveals changes in tumour load in metastatic malignant melanoma treated with bevacizumab.
ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab is included in an increasing number of clinical trials. To find biomarkers to predict and monitor treatment response, cancer and angiogenesis relevant mutations in tumour and circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) were investigated in 26 metastatic melanoma patients treated with bevacizumab. Patients with >1% BRAF/NRAS ctDNA at treatment start had significantly decreased progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (PFS: p?=?0.019, median 54 vs 774 days, OS: p?=?0.026, median 209 vs 1064 days). Patients with >1% BRAF/NRAS ctDNA during treatment showed similar results (PFS: p?=?0.002, OS: p?=?0.003). ?1% BRAF/NRAS ctDNA and normal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels both significantly predicted increased response to treatment, but BRAF/NRAS ctDNA was better at predicting response compared to LDH at treatment start (OR 16.94, p?=?0.032 vs OR 4.57, p?=?0.190), and at predicting PFS (HR 6.76, p?=?0.002) and OS (HR 6.78, p?=?0.002) during therapy. ctDNA BRAF p.V600D/E/K and NRAS p.G12V/p.Q61K/L/R were better biomarkers for response prediction than TERT promoter mutations (OR 1.50, p?=?0.657). Next generation sequencing showed that all patients with ?2 mutations in angiogenesis-relevant genes had progressive disease, but did not reveal other biomarkers identifying responders. To conclude, ctDNA and LDH are useful biomarkers for both monitoring and predicting response to bevacizumab.
Project description:This randomized phase II trial compared panitumumab plus fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI as second-line chemotherapy for wild-type (WT) KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and to explore the values of oncogenes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and serum proteins as predictive biomarkers. Patients with WT KRAS exon 2 mCRC refractory to first-line chemotherapy containing oxaliplatin and bevacizumab were randomly assigned to panitumumab plus FOLFIRI or bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI. Of 121 randomly assigned patients, 117 were eligible. Median overall survival (OS) for panitumumab plus FOLFIRI and bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI were 16.2 and 13.4 months [hazard ratio (HR), 1.16; 95% CI, 0.76-1.77], respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) was also similar (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.78-1.66). KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF status using ctDNA was successfully examined in 109 patients, and mutations were identified in 19 patients (17.4%). Panitumumab plus FOLFIRI showed favorable survival compared with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI in WT patients and unfavorable survival in those with mutations (P for interaction = 0.026 in OS and 0.054 in PFS). OS with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI was better than panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with high serum vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) levels and worse in those with low levels (P for interaction = 0.016). Second-line FOLFIRI plus panitumumab and FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab showed a similar efficacy in patients with WT KRAS exon 2 mCRC. RAS and BRAF mutation in ctDNA could be a negative predictive marker for panitumumab.
Project description:Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) can be used to identify gene alterations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the detection of ctDNA, based on the identification of BRAF and NRAS mutations before systemic treatment initiation, was associated with the prognosis of metastatic melanoma. In total, 68 BRAF or NRAS-mutated stage IV or unresectable stage III metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients were included and tested for the presence of BRAF and NRAS mutations in circulating DNA before treatment initiation, using the Cobas BRAF/NRAS Mutation Test (Roche). The expected mutation was detected in the plasma of 34/68 patients (50% sensitivity). ctDNA detection was associated with AJCC stage, along with the number and nature of metastases. ctDNA was less frequently detected in NRAS-mutated than in BRAF-mutated melanoma (36% and 66%, respectively). At initiation of first-line treatment, ctDNA detection was associated with poor prognosis in Progression Free Survival (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS) in univariate analysis (log-rank: p = 0.002 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, ctDNA detection was an independent factor of poor prognosis in OS, after adjustment for AJCC stage, number and nature of metastases and gender (HR = 4.384; 95% CI: (1.308; 14.699); p = 0.017).
Project description:Bevacizumab is used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, there are still no available predictors of clinical outcomes. We investigated selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in VEGF-dependent and -independent angiogenesis pathways and other major intracellular signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of mCRC as an attempt to find predictors of clinical outcome. Forty-six patients treated with first-line bevacizumab-based chemotherapy were included in this study with a 5 year follow up. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood for the analysis of VEGF-A (rs2010963, 1570360, rs699947), ICAM-1 (rs5498, rs1799969) SNPs and from tumor tissue for the detection of genomic variants in KRAS, NRAS, BRAF genes. PCR and next generation sequencing were used for the analysis. The endpoints of the study were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The VEGF-A rs699947 A/A allele was associated with increased PFS (p = 0.006) and OS (p = 0.043). The ICAM-1 rs1799969 G/A allele was associated with prolonged OS (p = 0.036). Finally, BRAF wild type was associated with increased OS (p = 0.027). We identified VEGF-A and ICAM-1 variants in angiogenesis and other major intracellular signaling pathways, such as BRAF, that can predict clinical outcome upon bevacizumab administration. These identified biomarkers could be used to select patients with mCRC who may achieve long-term responses and benefit from bevacizumab-based therapies.
Project description:Background:The combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy is still one of the standard treatments for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in the new era of targeted therapy. Although a high level of baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was found to predict survival benefit from bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, the predictive value of serum level of LDH in NSCLC patients treated with bevacizumab has not been investigated yet. Moreover, dynamic evaluation of serum level of LDH changes may be more informative and promising in predicting patients' prognosis. We thus sought to analyze LDH kinetics and evaluate its predictive role in the response and survival of advanced NSCLC patients treated with bevacizumab. Method:We retrospectively collected and analyzed a total of 161 advanced NSCLC patients who had undergone treatment with bevacizumab. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of serum level of LDH were used for response analyses, and Cox models for both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival analyses (PFS). Longitudinal analysis of LDH was performed using a mixed-effect regression model. Results:On multivariate Cox models, increase of serum level of LDH after 4 cycles with bevacizumab (INC4) treatment was shown to be the independent risk factor for OS (hazard ratio =2.17, 95% CI: 1.21-3.90, P=0.009), and the serum level of LDH after 2 cycles (LDH2) and the increase of LDH after 6 cycles with bevacizumab (INC6) treatment were the predictive factors for PFS (hazard ratio =2.33, 95% CI: 1.38-3.93, P=0.001; hazard ratio =1.96, 95% CI: 1.27-3.03, P=0.002, respectively). Patients with increase of serum level of LDH after 2 cycles of treatment with bevacizumab (INC2) (odds ratio =3.75, 95% CI: 1.83-7.68, P<0.001) were more likely to attain stable disease/progressive disease on multivariate logistic regression analyses, while patients with complete response (CR)/partial response (PR) experienced a reduction of serum level of LDH every 2 cycles (Coef =-0.076, std error =0.017, P<0.001) over time. Conclusion:Dynamic changes of LDH were superior to baseline LDH in predicting prognosis of NSCLC patients treated with bevacizumab. Serum level of LDH reducing over time was a potential biomarker for patients to achieve good clinical response (CR/PR) to bevacizumab.
Project description:Melanoma lacks a clinically useful blood-based biomarker of disease activity to help guide patient management. To determine whether measurements of circulating, cell-free, tumor-associated BRAF(mutant) and NRAS(mutant) DNA (ctDNA) have a higher sensitivity than LDH to detect metastatic disease prior to treatment initiation and upon disease progression we studied patients with unresectable stage IIIC/IV metastatic melanoma receiving treatment with BRAF inhibitor therapy or immune checkpoint blockade and at least 3 plasma samples obtained during their treatment course. Levels of BRAF(mutant) and NRAS(mutant) ctDNA were determined using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays. Among patients with samples available prior to treatment initiation ctDNA and LDH levels were elevated in 12/15 (80%) and 6/20 (30%) (p = 0.006) patients respectively. In patients with RECIST scores <5 cm prior to treatment initiation, ctDNA levels were elevated in 5/7 (71%) patients compared to LDH which was elevated in 1/13 (8%) patients (p = 0.007). Among all disease progression events the modified bootstrapped sensitivities for ctDNA and LDH were 82% and 40% respectively, with a median difference in sensitivity of 42% (95% confidence interval, 27%-58%; P < 0.001). In addition, ctDNA levels were elevated in 13/16 (81%) instances of non-RECIST disease progression, including 10/12 (83%) instances of new brain metastases. In comparison LDH was elevated 8/16 (50%) instances of non-RECIST disease progression, including 6/12 (50%) instances of new brain metastases. Overall, ctDNA had a higher sensitivity than LDH to detect disease progression, including non-RECIST progression events. ctDNA has the potential to be a useful biomarker for monitoring melanoma disease activity.
Project description:We assessed the utility of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to evaluate the potential of using circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) as a post therapy monitoring tool in melanoma by comparing it to serum LDH levels and RECIST scores. ddPCR was shown to be reliable in distinguishing mutant from wild type alleles with no false positives. Subsequently, we quantified ctDNA ((V600E)BRAF,(V600K)BRAF or (Q61H)NRAS) in 6 stage IV melanoma patients across several time points during their treatment course. All tested patients had detectable ctDNA, which exhibited dynamic changes corresponding to the changes in their disease status. The ctDNA levels fell upon treatment response and rose with detectable disease progression. In our group of patients, ctDNA was more consistent and informative than LDH as a blood-based biomarker. In addition, BRAF mutant ctDNA as detected by ddPCR could be used diagnostically where the tumour block was unavailable. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the applicability of using ddPCR to detect and quantify ctDNA in the plasma of melanoma patients.
Project description:Repeat tumor biopsies to study genomic changes during therapy are difficult, invasive and data are confounded by tumoral heterogeneity. The analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can provide a non-invasive approach to assess prognosis and the genetic evolution of tumors in response to therapy. Mutation-specific droplet digital PCR was used to measure plasma concentrations of oncogenic BRAF and NRAS variants in 48 patients with advanced metastatic melanoma prior to treatment with targeted therapies (vemurafenib, dabrafenib or dabrafenib/trametinib combination) or immunotherapies (ipilimumab, nivolumab or pembrolizumab). Baseline ctDNA levels were evaluated relative to treatment response and progression-free survival (PFS). Tumor-associated ctDNA was detected in the plasma of 35/48 (73%) patients prior to treatment and lower ctDNA levels at this time point were significantly associated with response to treatment and prolonged PFS, irrespective of therapy type. Levels of ctDNA decreased significantly in patients treated with MAPK inhibitors (p < 0.001) in accordance with response to therapy, but this was not apparent in patients receiving immunotherapies. We show that circulating NRAS mutations, known to confer resistance to BRAF inhibitors, were detected in 3 of 7 (43%) patients progressing on kinase inhibitor therapy. Significantly, ctDNA rebound and circulating mutant NRAS preceded radiological detection of progressive disease. Our data demonstrate that ctDNA is a useful biomarker of response to kinase inhibitor therapy and can be used to monitor tumor evolution and detect the early appearance of resistance effectors.
Project description:To investigate the impact of pre-treatment lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on the outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with or without the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, in a phase III prospective multicentre randomized ITACa (Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer) trial.Three hundred and seventy patients enrolled onto the ITACa first-line trial were considered for this study, 176 receiving chemotherapy (either FOLFIRI or FOLFOX) plus bevacizumab and 194 receiving chemotherapy only. Pre-treatment LDH levels were evaluated to identify a potential correlation with progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and objective response rate.Information on pre-treatment LDH levels was available for 344 patients. High LDH levels were predictive of a lower median PFS (8.1 months vs. 9.2 months, p< 0.0001) and median OS (16.1 months vs. 25.2 months, p< 0.0001) in the overall population. In the chemotherapy plus bevacizumab group, median PFS was 9.1 and 9.8 months in patients with high LDH and low LDH, respectively (p= 0.073), whereas in the chemotherapy-only arm it was 6.9 and 9.1 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). In patients with high LDH, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy led to a reduction in the rate of progressive disease (16.4 vs. 30.5%, p= 0.081) and to a prolonged PFS (p= 0.028).A high LDH value was confirmed as a marker of poor prognosis. Bevacizumab reduced the progressive disease rate and improved PFS in the high-LDH subgroup, making serum LDH a potentially effective an easily available and marker to select patients who benefit from bevacizumab.NCT01878422 ClinicalTrials.gov.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment with anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies improves the survival of metastatic melanoma patients but only a subgroup of patients benefits from durable disease control. Predictive biomarkers for durable benefit could improve the clinical management of patients. METHODS:Plasma samples were collected from patients receiving anti-PD1 therapy for ctDNA quantitative assessment of BRAFV600 and NRASQ61/G12/G13 mutations. RESULTS:After a median follow-up of 84 weeks 457 samples from 85 patients were analyzed. Patients with undetectable ctDNA at baseline had a better PFS (Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.47, median 26 weeks versus 9 weeks, p = 0.01) and OS (HR = 0.37, median not reached versus 21.3 weeks, p = 0.005) than patients with detectable ctDNA. Additionally, the HR for death was lower after the ctDNA level became undetectable during follow-up (adjusted HR: 0.16 (95% CI 0.07-0.36), p-value < 0.001). ctDNA levels > 500 copies/ml at baseline or week 3 were associated with poor clinical outcome. Patients progressive exclusively in the central nervous system (CNS) had undetectable ctDNA at baseline and at subsequent assessments. In multivariate analysis adjusted for LDH, CRP, ECOG and number of metastatic sites, the ctDNA remained significant for PFS and OS. A positive correlation was observed between ctDNA levels and total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV), number of metastatic sites and total tumor burden. CONCLUSIONS:Assessment of ctDNA baseline and during therapy was predictive for tumor response and clinical outcome in metastatic melanoma patients and reflected the tumor burden. ctDNA evaluation provided reliable complementary information during anti-PD1 antibody therapy.
Project description:Predictive biomarkers of efficacy and toxicity of bevacizumab have not yet been validated. This study assessed the influence of IL-8, eNOS and VEGF-A polymorphisms in RAS mutated metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving bevacizumab-based chemotherapy.120 patients treated with first-line combination FOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab were included. A historical cohort of 112 RAS mutated colorectal cancer patients treated with FOLFOX6 alone served as control group. The following SNPs were analyzed: IL-8 c.-251T>A; eNOS c.-786T>C and c.-894G>T; VEGF-A c.936C>T, c.958T>C, c.1154A>G and c.2578C>A. Correlation of SNPs, baseline IL-8 serum levels and bevacizumab-efficacy was done.In the bevacizumab group, carriers of the IL-8 alleles c.-251TA+AA showed a shorter PFS (P=0.002) and OS (P=0.03) compared to TT alleles. Patients with pre-treatment IL-8 < 18.25 pg/ml showed significantly longer median PFS and OS (PFS: 10.9 vs 7.6 months, P=0.005; OS: 30.7 vs 18.2 months, P<0.001) compared to patients with IL-8 higher levels (>18,25 pg/ml). IL-8 c.-251TA+AA carriers had significantly higher IL-8 levels (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed association of IL-8 polymorphism with PFS, and of IL-8 baseline levels with both PFS and OS. IL-8 SNP did not affect the outcome in the control group. The eNOS polymorphism c.-894G>T was found associated with higher severe toxicity (P=0.0002) in patients carrying the c.-894TT genotype.Although our data need prospective validation, IL-8 and eNOS SNPs may be have a role as predictive biomarkers for bevacizumab efficacy and toxicity.