Cytokine secretion in breast cancer cells - MILLIPLEX assay data.
ABSTRACT: Metastatic breast cancer is the most advanced stage of breast cancer and the leading cause of breast cancer mortality. Although understanding of the cancer progression and metastasis process has improved, the bi-directional communication between the tumor cell and the tumor microenvironment is still not well understood. Breast cancer cells are highly secretory, and their secretory activity is modulated by a variety of inflammatory stimuli present in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we characterized the cytokine expression in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T-47D, and BT-474) in vitro using 41 cytokine MILLIPLEX assay. Further, we compared cytokine expression in breast cancer cells to those in non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells.
Project description:Pleiotrophin (PTN, Ptn) is an 18-kDa secretory cytokine expressed in many breast cancers; however, the significance of Ptn expression in breast cancer has not been established. We have now tested three models to determine the role of inappropriate expression of Ptn in breast cancer. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter-driven Ptn expressed in MMTV-polyoma virus middle T antigen (PyMT)-Ptn mouse breast cancers was first shown to induce rapid growth of morphologically identified foci of "scirrhous" carcinoma and to extensively remodel the microenvironment, including increased tumor angiogenesis and striking increases in mouse protocollagens Ialpha2, IValpha5, and XIalpha1, and elastin. Ectopic Ptn expression in MCF-7 (human breast cancer)-Ptn cell xenografts also was shown to markedly increase MCF-7-Ptn cell xenograft growth in nude mice; furthermore, it induced extensive remodeling of the microenvironment and tumor angiogenesis. In a coculture model of equal numbers of NIH 3T3 stromal fibroblasts and MCF-7-Ptn cells, PTN secreted from MCF-7-Ptn cells was then shown to induce a more malignant MCF-7-Ptn breast cancer cell phenotype and extensive remodeling of the MCF-7-Ptn/NIH 3T3 cell microenvironment; it up-regulated expression of markers of aggressive breast cancers, including PKCdelta and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in both MCF-7-Ptn and NIH 3T3 cells. The morphological phenotypes of MCF-7-Ptn cell xenografts and MCF-7-Ptn cell/NIH 3T3 cell cocultures closely resembled breast cancers in MMTV-PyMT-Ptn mice. Inappropriate expression of Ptn thus promotes breast cancer progression in mice; the data suggest that secretion of PTN through stimulation of the stromal cell microenvironment alone may be sufficient to account for significant features of breast cancer progression.
Project description:Luminal breast cancer represents a therapeutic challenge in terms of aggressive disease and emerging resistance to targeted therapy. (-)-Oleocanthal has demonstrated anticancer activity in multiple human cancers. The goal of this study was to explore the effect of (-)-oleocanthal treatment on growth of luminal breast cancer cells and to examine the effect of combination of (-)-oleocanthal with tamoxifen. Results showed that (-)-oleocanthal inhibited growth of BT-474, MCF-7, and T-47D human breast cancer cells in mitogen-free media with IC50 values of 32.7, 24.07, and 80.93µM, respectively. Similarly, (-)-oleocanthal suppressed growth of BT-474, MCF-7, and T-47D cells in 17?-estradiol-supplemented media with IC50 values of 22.28, 20.77, and 83.91µM, respectively. Combined (-)-oleocanthal and tamoxifen treatments resulted in a synergistic growth inhibition of BT-474, MCF-7, and T-47D cells with combination index values of 0.65, 0.61, and 0.53 for each cell line, respectively. In-silico docking studies indicated high degree of overlapping for the binding of (-)-oleocanthal and 17?-estradiol to estrogen receptors, while (-)-oleocanthal and tamoxifen have distinguished binding modes. Treatment with 5mg/kg or 10mg/kg (-)-oleocanthal resulted in 97% inhibition of tumor growth in orthotopic athymic mice bearing BT-474 tumor xenografts compared to vehicle-treated animals. (-)-Oleocanthal treatment reduced total levels of estrogen receptors in BT-474 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, (-)-oleocanthal showed a potential beneficial effect in suppressing growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer and improving sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. These findings provide rational for evaluating the effect of (-)-oleocanthal in combination with endocrine treatments in luminal breast cancer.
Project description:The most life-threatening aspect of breast cancer is the occurrence of metastatic disease. The tumor draining lymph nodes typically are the first sites of metastasis in breast cancer. Collagen I fibers and the extracellular matrix have been implicated in breast cancer to form avenues for metastasis. In this study, we have investigated extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen I fibers in the lymph nodes of mice bearing orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts. The lymph nodes in mice with metastatic MDA-MB-231 and SUM159 tumor xenografts and tumor xenografts grown from circulating tumor cell lines displayed an increased collagen I density compared to mice with no tumor and mice with non-metastatic T-47D and MCF-7 tumor xenografts. These results suggest that cancer cells that have metastasized to the lymph nodes can modify the extracellular matrix components of these lymph nodes. Clinically, collagen density in the lymph nodes may be a good marker for identifying lymph nodes that have been invaded by breast cancer cells.
Project description:Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma and retinoid X receptor (RXR) induces antitumor effects in cancer. We evaluated the ability of combined treatment with nanomolar levels of the PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone (BRL) and the RXR ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid (9RA) to promote antiproliferative effects in breast cancer cells. BRL and 9RA in combination strongly inhibit of cell viability in MCF-7, MCF-7TR1, SKBR-3, and T-47D breast cancer cells, whereas MCF-10 normal breast epithelial cells are unaffected. In MCF-7 cells, combined treatment with BRL and 9RA up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of both the tumor suppressor p53 and its effector p21(WAF1/Cip1). Functional experiments indicate that the nuclear factor-kappaB site in the p53 promoter is required for the transcriptional response to BRL plus 9RA. We observed that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in MCF-7 cells displays an ordinated sequence of events, including disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, strong caspase 9 activation, and, finally, DNA fragmentation. An expression vector for p53 antisense abrogated the biological effect of both ligands, which implicates involvement of p53 in PPARgamma/RXR-dependent activity in all of the human breast malignant cell lines tested. Taken together, our results suggest that multidrug regimens including a combination of PPARgamma and RXR ligands may provide a therapeutic advantage in breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women. Despite the good prognosis when detected early, significant challenges remain in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. The recruitment of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-H+-ATPase) to the plasma membrane, where it mediates the acidification of the tumor microenvironment (TME), is a recognized feature involved in the acquisition of a metastatic phenotype in breast cancer. Therefore, inhibitors of this pump have emerged as promising anticancer drugs. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a natural pro-apoptotic iron-binding glycoprotein with strong anticancer activity whose mechanism of action is not fully understood. Here, we show that bovine Lf (bLf) preferentially induces apoptosis in the highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines Hs 578T and MDA-MB-231, which display a prominent localisation of V-H+-ATPase at the plasma membrane, but not in the lowly metastatic T-47D or in the non-tumorigenic MCF-10-2A cell lines. We also demonstrate that bLf decreases the extracellular acidification rate and causes intracellular acidification in metastatic breast cancer cells and, much like the well-known proton pump inhibitors concanamycin A and bafilomycin A1, inhibits V-H+-ATPase in sub-cellular fractions. These data further support that bLf targets V-H+-ATPase and explain the selectivity of bLf for cancer cells, especially for highly metastatic breast cancer cells. Altogether, our results pave the way for more rational in vivo studies aiming to explore this natural non-toxic compound for metastatic breast cancer therapy.
Project description:Breast cancer often metastasizes into bone and leads to osteolytic lesions. The underlying mechanisms, however, are complex and not fully understood. Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan that has various functions relevant for tumor progression including cell-cell communication and cell-matrix interactions. Moreover, its two glycosaminoglycan-binding sites suggest that it may interfere with glycoproteins such as osteoprotegerin, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, we hypothesize that tumor-derived syndecan-1 alters osteoclast biology by modulating osteoprotegerin.Syndecan-1 expression was down-regulated via siRNA and the cell fate of the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T-47D, and MDA-MB-231 was investigated. Furthermore, we determined the regulation of syndecan-1 by dexamethasone, a commonly used antiemetic in breast cancer therapy. Additionally, we analyzed the genesis and activity of osteoclasts in indirect co-culture experiments using supernatants from MCF-7 cells with deficient and sufficient levels of syndecan-1.Dexamethasone time- and dose-dependently increased syndecan-1 expression up to 4-fold but did not alter cell behavior. Syndecan-1 up-regulation did not affect the survival or migration of breast cancer cells. Depletion of syndecan-1 using siRNA led to decreased vitality of progesterone receptor-positive cell lines. In MCF-7 cells osteoprotegerin production was up-regulated 2.5-fold after syndecan-1 knock-down. The culture of osteoclast precursors with the supernatant of MCF-7 cells with reduced syndecan-1 levels suppressed osteoclast formation and activity by 21% and 23%, respectively. Adding neutralizing antibodies to osteoprotegerin to the breast cancer supernatants reversed osteoclastogenesis.Thus, we identified tumor-derived syndecan-1 as a novel positive regulator of osteoclastogenesis and new player in the tumor-bone dialog.
Project description:Two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and T 47D) possess calcitonin-responsive adenylate cyclase systems. Suspended cells of both lines specifically bound 125I-labelled salmon calcitonin with mean dissociation constants of 1.7 nM (MCF 7) and 1.4 nM (T 47D); mean receptor numbers were 5300 and 24400 per cell respectively. Measurement of specific binding to MCF 7 cells was obscured by rapid and substantial degradation of the labelled hormone. Degradation of 125I-labelled salmon calcitonin: (i) was of high capacity; (ii) lacked the specificity displayed by 125I-labelled salmon calcitonin binding to the same cells; and (iii) was not related to binding since cell incubation supernatants retained full degrading activity. The degrading activity was inhibited by corticotropin (1-24)-tetracosapeptide, insulin and bacitracin. Inclusion of bacitracin in the incubation resulted in apparently fewer numbers of lower affinity receptors on MCF 7 cells, whereas these parameters were identical to T 47D cells incubated in the presence or absence of bacitracin. Eel [2-aminosuberic acid 1,7]-calcitonin was resistant to proteolysis in the presence of either cell line. Analysis of hormone-receptor interactions with calcitonin-responsive cells should take account of potent calcitonin-degrading activities in some cell lines.
Project description:The ability of cancer cells to metastasize is dependent on the interactions between their cell-surface molecules and the microenvironment. However, the tumor microenvironment, especially the cancer-associated stroma, is poorly understood. To identify proteins present in the stroma, we focused on phyllodes tumors, rare breast tumors that contain breast stromal cells. We compared the expression of proteins between phyllodes tumor and normal tissues using an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach. Decorin was expressed at reduced levels in phyllodes tumor tissues, whereas periostin was upregulated; this result was validated by immunohistochemical analysis of phyllodes tumors from 35 patients. Additionally, by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we confirmed that decorin forms a complex with periostin in both phyllodes tumors and BT-20 breast cancer cells. Following siRNA-mediated knockdown of periostin in T-47D cells, secreted decorin in the culture medium could be detected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Furthermore, periostin knockdown in BT-20 cells and overexpression of decorin in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited cell motility and invasion. Our results reveal the molecular details of the periostin-decorin complex in both phyllodes tumor tissues and breast cancer cells; this interaction may represent a novel target for anti-cancer therapy.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. While a small fraction of breast cancers have a hereditary component, environmental and behavioral factors also impact the development of cancer. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family that is widespread in the general population and has been linked to several forms of cancer. While HCMV DNA has been found in some breast cancer tissue specimens, we wanted to investigate whether a secreted viral cytokine might have an effect on cancerous or even pre-cancerous cells. HCMV encodes an ortholog of the human cellular cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). The HCMV UL111A gene product is cmvIL-10, which has 27% sequence identity to IL-10 and binds the cellular IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) to induce downstream cell signaling. We found that MCF-7 human breast cancer cells express IL-10R and that exposure to cmvIL-10 results in enhanced proliferation and increased chemotaxis of MCF-7 cells. PCR arrays revealed that treatment with cmvIL-10 alters expression of cell adhesion molecules and increases MMP gene expression. In particular, MMP-10 gene expression was found to be significantly up-regulated and this correlated with an increase in cell-associated MMP-10 protein produced by MCF-7 cells exposed to cmvIL-10. These results suggest that the presence of cmvIL-10 in the tumor microenvironment could contribute to the development of more invasive tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) gene expression is tissue specific, with little to no expression in normal breast epithelia. Expression in breast tumors has been documented, but the transcriptional regulation of SULT1A1 in human breast tissue is poorly understood. We identified Nuclear Factor I (NFI) as a transcription factor family involved in the regulation of SULT1A1 expression. METHODS: Transcription Factor Activation Profiling Plate Array assay was used to identify the possible transcription factors that regulate the gene expression of SULT1A1in normal breast MCF-10A cells and breast cancer ZR-75-1 cells. Expression levels of NFI-C and SULT1A1 were determined by real-time RT-PCR using total RNA isolated from 84 human liver samples. Expression levels of SULT1A1, NFI-A, NFI-B, NFI-C, and NFI-X were also determined in different human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T-47D, ZR-75-1, and MDA-MB-231), in the transformed human epithelial cell line MCF-10A, and in ZR-75-1 cells that were transfected with siRNAs directed against NFI-A, NFI-B, NFI-C, or NFI-X for 48 h. The copy numbers of SULT1A1 in cell lines ZR-75-1, MCF-7, T-47D, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-10A were determined using a pre-designed Custom Plus TaqMan® Copy Number kit from Life Technologies. RESULTS: In normal human liver samples, SULT1A1 mRNA level was positively associated with NFI-C. In different human breast cancer and normal epithelial cell lines, SULT1A1 expression was positively correlated with NFI-B and NFI-C. SULT1A1 expression was decreased 41% and 61% in ZR-75-1 cells treated with siRNAs against NFI-A and NFI-C respectively. SULT1A1 gene expression was higher in cells containing more than one SULT1A1 copy numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that SULT1A1 expression is regulated by NFI, as well as SULT1A1 copy number variation in human breast cancer cell lines. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the differential expression of SULT1A1 in different tissues and different physiological states of disease.