Venous thromboembolic events in the tofacitinib ulcerative colitis clinical development programme.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule JAK inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM:To report incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in the tofacitinib UC programme. METHODS:DVT and PE were evaluated from one phase 2 and two phase 3 induction studies, one phase 3 maintenance study and an ongoing, open-label, long-term extension (OLE) study (September 2018 datacut). Data were analysed in induction, maintenance and overall (patients receiving ? 1 dose of tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg b.d. in any phase 2, 3 or OLE study) cohorts. RESULTS:1157 patients (2404 patient-years' exposure; ? 6.1 years' tofacitinib treatment) were evaluated in the overall cohort. In induction, one placebo-treated patient had DVT and one had PE; no tofacitinib-treated patients had DVT/PE. In maintenance, one placebo-treated patient had DVT and one had PE; no tofacitinib-treated patients had DVT/PE. In the overall cohort, one patient had DVT (incidence rate [patients with events/100 patient-years; 95% CI]: 0.04 [0.00-0.23]); four had PE (0.16 [0.04-0.41]); all received predominant dose tofacitinib 10 mg b.d.; all had venous thromboembolism risk factors alongside UC. CONCLUSIONS:In this post hoc analysis of patients with UC, during tofacitinib exposure, one patient had DVT and four had PE, all during the OLE study, on predominant dose 10 mg b.d. (83% of overall cohort patients received predominant dose 10 mg b.d.) with venous thromboembolism risk factors. This analysis is limited by small sample size and limited drug exposure; further studies are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00787202, NCT01465763, NCT01458951, NCT01458574, NCT01470612.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ulcerative colitis, and has been investigated in psoriasis (PsO). Routine pharmacovigilance of an ongoing, open-label, blinded-endpoint, tofacitinib RA trial (Study A3921133; NCT02092467) in patients aged ?50 years and with ?1 cardiovascular risk factor identified a higher frequency of pulmonary embolism (PE) and all-cause mortality for patients receiving tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily versus those receiving tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and resulted in identification of a safety signal for tofacitinib. Here, we report the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), PE, venous thromboembolism (VTE; DVT or PE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE) from the tofacitinib RA (excluding Study A3921133), PsA and PsO development programmes and observational studies. Data from an ad hoc safety analysis of Study A3921133 are reported separately within. METHODS:This post-hoc analysis used data from separate tofacitinib RA, PsO and PsA programmes. Incidence rates (IRs; patients with events per 100 patient-years' exposure) were calculated for DVT, PE, VTE and ATE, including for populations stratified by defined baseline cardiovascular or VTE risk factors. Observational data from the US Corrona registries (including cardiovascular risk factor stratification), IBM MarketScan research database and the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database were analysed. RESULTS:12 410 tofacitinib-treated patients from the development programmes (RA: n=7964; PsO: n=3663; PsA: n=783) were included. IRs (95% CI) of thromboembolic events among the all tofacitinib cohorts' average tofacitinib 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily treated patients for RA, respectively, were: DVT (0.17 (0.09-0.27) and 0.15 (0.09-0.22)); PE (0.12 (0.06-0.22) and 0.13 (0.08-0.21)); ATE (0.32 (0.22-0.46) and 0.38 (0.28-0.49)). Among PsO patients, IRs were: DVT (0.06 (0.00-0.36) and 0.06 (0.02-0.15)); PE (0.13 (0.02-0.47) and 0.09 (0.04-0.19)); ATE (0.52 (0.22-1.02) and 0.22 (0.13-0.35)). Among PsA patients, IRs were: DVT (0.00 (0.00-0.28) and 0.13 (0.00-0.70)); PE (0.08 (0.00-0.43) and 0.00 (0.00-0.46)); ATE (0.31 (0.08-0.79) and 0.38 (0.08-1.11)). IRs were similar between tofacitinib doses and generally higher in patients with baseline cardiovascular or VTE risk factors. IRs from the overall Corrona populations and in Corrona RA patients (including tofacitinib-naïve/biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-treated and tofacitinib-treated) with baseline cardiovascular risk factors were similar to IRs observed among the corresponding patients in the tofacitinib development programme. No signals of disproportionate reporting of DVT, PE or ATE with tofacitinib were identified in the FAERS database. CONCLUSIONS:DVT, PE and ATE IRs in the tofacitinib RA, PsO and PsA programmes were similar across tofacitinib doses, and generally consistent with observational data and published IRs of other treatments. As expected, IRs of thromboembolic events were elevated in patients with versus without baseline cardiovascular or VTE risk factors, and were broadly consistent with those observed in the Study A3921133 ad hoc safety analysis data, although the IR (95% CI) for PE was greater in patients treated with tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily in Study A3921133 (0.54 (0.32-0.87)), versus patients with baseline cardiovascular risk factors treated with tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily in the RA programme (0.24 (0.13-0.41)).
Project description:Background:Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor that is being investigated for ulcerative colitis (UC). Tofacitinib is approved for rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, where it has been shown to increase herpes zoster (HZ) risk. We evaluated HZ risk among UC patients using tofacitinib. Methods:HZ cases were identified in tofacitinib phase II/III/ongoing, open-label, long-term extension (OLE) UC trials. We calculated HZ incidence rates (IRs) per 100 patient-years of tofacitinib exposure within phase III maintenance (Maintenance Cohort) and phase II/III/OLE (Overall Cohort) studies, stratified by baseline demographics and other factors. HZ risk factors were evaluated in the Overall Cohort using Cox proportional hazard models. Results:Overall, 65 (5.6%) patients developed HZ. Eleven patients had multidermatomal involvement (2 nonadjacent or 3-6 adjacent dermatomes), and 1 developed encephalitis (resolved upon standard treatment). Five (7.7%) events led to treatment discontinuation. HZ IR (95% confidence interval [CI]) in the Overall Cohort was 4.07 (3.14-5.19) over a mean (range) of 509.1 (1-1606) days, with no increased risk observed with increasing tofacitinib exposure. IRs (95% CI) were highest in patients age ?65 years, 9.55 (4.77-17.08); Asian patients, 6.49 (3.55-10.89); patients with prior tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) failure, 5.38 (3.86-7.29); and patients using tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily, 4.25 (3.18-5.56). Multivariate analysis identified older age and prior TNFi failure as independent risk factors. Conclusions:In tofacitinib-treated UC patients, there was an elevated risk of HZ, although complicated HZ was infrequent. Increased HZ rates occurred in patients who were older, Asian, or had prior TNFi failure (NCT00787202, NCT01465763, NCT01458951, NCT01458574, NCT01470612).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor that is being investigated for inflammatory bowel disease. AIMS:This 48-week open-label extension study primarily investigated long-term safety of tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg b.d. and secondarily investigated efficacy as maintenance therapy in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS:Patients who had completed the phase 2b maintenance study, or withdrawn due to treatment failure, were enrolled. Patients in remission (Crohn's disease activity index <150) at baseline received tofacitinib 5 mg b.d.; all others received 10 mg b.d. A single dose adjustment was allowed after 8 weeks' fixed, open-label treatment. RESULTS:Sixty-two patients received tofacitinib 5 mg b.d.; 88 received 10 mg b.d. Both groups had similar rates of adverse events and serious infections. Crohn's disease worsening was the most frequent adverse event for tofacitinib 5 (33.9%) and 10 mg b.d. (19.3%). Patients not in remission at baseline, receiving 10 mg b.d., had higher rates of serious adverse events (19.3%) and discontinuation attributed to insufficient clinical response (30.7%) vs 5 mg b.d. (8.1% and 9.7%, respectively). At week 48, of patients with baseline remission receiving 5 mg b.d., 87.9% maintained remission and 75.0% sustained remission as observed (46.8% and 38.7%, respectively, by non-responder imputation). Study design prevented between-dose efficacy comparisons. CONCLUSIONS:No new safety signals emerged. Although both doses showed generally similar safety outcomes for overall adverse events, serious adverse events were more frequent for tofacitinib 10 than 5 mg b.d. Discontinuation due to insufficient clinical response was lower among patients in remission at baseline. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01470599.
Project description:The global EINSTEIN DVT and PE studies compared rivaroxaban (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks followed by 20 mg once daily) with enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist therapy and demonstrated non-inferiority for efficacy and superiority for major bleeding. Owing to differences in targeted anticoagulant intensities in Japan, Japanese patients were not enrolled into the global studies. Instead, a separate study of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) in Japanese patients was conducted, which compared the Japanese standard of care with a reduced dose of rivaroxaban.We conducted an open-label, randomized trial that compared 3, 6, or 12 months of oral rivaroxaban alone (10 mg twice daily or 15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks followed by 15 mg once daily) with activated partial thromboplastin time-adjusted intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) followed by warfarin (target international normalized ratio 2.0; range 1.5-2.5) in patients with acute, objectively confirmed symptomatic DVT and/or PE. Patients were assessed for the occurrence of symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolic events or asymptomatic deterioration and bleeding.Eighty-one patients were assigned to rivaroxaban and 19 patients to UFH/warfarin. Three patients were excluded because of serious non-compliance issues. The composite of symptomatic venous thromboembolic events or asymptomatic deterioration occurred in 1 (1.4%) rivaroxaban patient and in 1 (5.3%) UFH/warfarin patient (absolute risk difference, 3.9% [95% confidence interval, -3.4-23.8]). No major bleeding occurred during study treatment. Clinically relevant non-major bleeding occurred in 6 (7.8%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 1 (5.3%) patient in the UFH/warfarin group.The findings of this study in Japanese patients with acute DVT and/or PE suggest a similar efficacy and safety profile with rivaroxaban and control treatment, consistent with that of the worldwide EINSTEIN DVT and PE program.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01516840 and NCT01516814.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the frequency of cardiovascular and venous thromboembolic events in clinical studies of baricitinib, an oral, selective JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor approved in more than 50 countries for the treatment of moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:Data were pooled from 9 RA studies. Placebo comparison up to 24 weeks included data from 6 studies. Randomized dose comparison between baricitinib doses of 2 mg and 4 mg used data from 4 studies and from the associated long-term extension study. The data analysis set designated "All-bari-RA" included all baricitinib exposures at any dose. RESULTS:Overall, 3,492 RA patients received baricitinib (7,860 patient-years of exposure). No imbalance compared to the placebo group was seen in the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (incidence rates [IRs] of 0.5 per 100 patient-years for placebo and 0.8 per 100 patient-years for 4 mg baricitinib), arterial thrombotic events (ATE) (IRs of 0.5 per 100 patient-years for placebo and 0.5 per 100 patient-years for 4 mg baricitinib), or congestive heart failure (CHF) broad term (IRs of 4.3 per 100 patient-years for placebo and 2.4 per 100 patient-years for 4 mg baricitinib). Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary embolism (PE) were reported in 0 of 1,070 patients treated with placebo and 6 of 997 patients treated with 4 mg baricitinib during the placebo-controlled period; these events were serious in 2 of 6 patients, while all 6 had risk factors and 1 patient developed DVT/PE after discontinuation of the study drug. In the 2 mg-4 mg-extended data analysis set, IRs of DVT/PE were comparable between the doses across event types (IRs of 0.5 per 100 patient-years in those receiving 2 mg baricitinib and 0.6 per 100 patient-years in those receiving 4 mg baricitinib). In the All-bari-RA data analysis set, the rates were stable over time, with an IR of DVT/PE of 0.5 per 100 patient-years. CONCLUSION:In RA clinical trials, no association was found between baricitinib treatment and the incidence of MACE, ATE, or CHF. With regard to incidence of DVT/PE, 6 events occurred in patients treated with 4 mg baricitinib, but no cases of DVT/PE were reported in the placebo group. During longer-term evaluation, the incidence of DVT/PE was similar between the baricitinib dose groups, with consistent IR values over time, and this was similar to the rates previously reported in patients with RA.
Project description:Tofacitinib, a novel, oral Janus kinase inhibitor, demonstrated a dose-dependent efficacy for induction of clinical response and remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of tofacitinib on patient-reported outcomes (PROs).Eligible patients (≥18 years of age) with a diagnosis of active UC (total Mayo score of 6-12 points and moderately-to-severely active disease on sigmoidoscopy) were randomized in a 2:2:2:3:3 ratio to receive oral tofacitinib 0.5 mg, 3 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg, or placebo twice daily (BID) for 8 weeks. PROs were assessed by the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) and the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient-Reported Treatment Impact (IBD PRTI) survey.At Week 8, mean IBDQ total scores had improved relative to baseline across all five treatment groups (baseline range 123.2-134.5; Week 8 range 149.6-175.4). Improvement from baseline was significantly greater (P = 0.001) for tofacitinib 15 mg BID versus placebo. For tofacitinib 15 mg BID, most patients reported satisfaction or extreme satisfaction, definite preference for tofacitinib, and definite willingness to use tofacitinib again on the IBD PRTI at week 8. Patients achieving endoscopic remission (Mayo endoscopy score of 0) had significantly higher IBDQ scores and favorable PRTI scores than those not achieving endoscopic remission.Short-term treatment with tofacitinib BID was associated with dose-dependent improvement in health-related quality of life and patient preferences for tofacitinib. The results complement previously reported efficacy and safety data for the Phase II study. (NCT 00787202, November 6, 2008).
Project description:Tofacitinib is an oral, small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor being investigated for ulcerative colitis (UC). In OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2, patients with moderately to severely active UC received placebo or tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily (BID) for 8 weeks. Clinical responders in OCTAVE Induction were re-randomized to 52 weeks' therapy with placebo, tofacitinib 5 mg BID, or tofacitinib 10 mg BID.We conducted post-hoc efficacy and safety analyses of East Asian patients in OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2 and OCTAVE Sustain.A total of 121 East Asian (Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) patients were randomized in OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2 (placebo, n=26; tofacitinib 10 mg BID, n=95), and 63 in OCTAVE Sustain (placebo, n=20; tofacitinib 5 mg BID, n=22; tofacitinib 10 mg BID, n=21). At week 8 of OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2, 18.9% of patients (18/95) achieved remission with tofacitinib 10 mg BID versus 3.8% (1/26) with placebo. In OCTAVE Sustain, the week 52 remission rates were 45.5% (10/22), 47.6% (10/21), and 15.0% (3/20) with 5 mg BID, 10 mg BID, and placebo, respectively. Adverse event rates were similar between groups in OCTAVE Induction and numerically higher with tofacitinib in OCTAVE Sustain. Serious adverse event rates were similar across groups in all studies. Infections were numerically more frequent with tofacitinib than placebo. Increases in serum lipid levels were observed with tofacitinib.In East Asian patients with UC, tofacitinib demonstrated numerically greater efficacy versus placebo as induction and maintenance therapy, with a safety profile consistent with the global study population. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01465763; NCT01458951; NCT01458574.
Project description:AIMS:Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule JAK inhibitor being investigated for ulcerative colitis (UC). In a phase 2 dose-ranging study, tofacitinib demonstrated efficacy vs. placebo as UC induction therapy. In this posthoc analysis, we aimed to compare tofacitinib dose and plasma concentration as predictors of efficacy and identify covariates that determined efficacy in patients with UC. METHODS:One- and two-compartment pharmacokinetic models, with first-order absorption and elimination, were evaluated to describe plasma tofacitinib concentration-time data at baseline and week 8. Relationships between tofacitinib exposure (dose, average plasma drug concentration during a dosing interval at steady state [Cav,ss ] and trough plasma concentration at steady state [Ctrough,ss ]) and week 8 efficacy endpoints were characterized using logistic regression analysis. Baseline disease, demographics, prior and concurrent UC treatment were evaluated as covariates. RESULTS:Plasma tofacitinib concentrations increased proportionately with dose and estimated oral clearance, and Cav,ss values were not significantly different between baseline and week 8. Dose, Cav,ss and Ctrough,ss performed similarly as predictors of efficacy based on statistical criteria for model fit and comparison of model predictions for each endpoint. Individual Cav,ss values were similar between clinical remitters and nonremitters at predicted efficacious doses (10 and 15 mg twice daily). Baseline Mayo score was a significant determinant of efficacy. Predicted differences from placebo in clinical remission at 10 mg twice daily for patients with baseline Mayo score >8 and ?8 were 39% (95% CI: 7-70) and 21% (-2-50), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure-response characterization demonstrated the potential of tofacitinib 10 and 15 mg twice daily as induction therapy for UC without monitoring of plasma drug concentrations for dose optimization.
Project description:Background:Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor approved in Japan for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Differences in the safety profile of tofacitinib in Japanese patients versus the global population, such as a higher risk of herpes zoster, have been reported. Objectives:We conducted post hoc analyses of tofacitinib treatment in Japanese patients with moderate-to-severe UC in two global phase III studies. Methods:In OCTAVE Induction 1 (NCT01465763), 62 patients were randomized to placebo or tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily (b.i.d.). In OCTAVE Sustain (NCT01458574), 39 patients with clinical response in OCTAVE Induction 1 were re-randomized to placebo, tofacitinib 5 mg, or 10 mg b.i.d. Efficacy endpoints included: remission (primary endpoint; total Mayo score ?2; no individual subscore >1; rectal bleeding subscore 0); mucosal healing (Mayo endoscopic subscore ?1); clinical response (?30% and ?3-point decrease from induction study baseline total Mayo score; decrease in rectal bleeding subscore ?1 or absolute subscore ?1). Adverse events (AEs) and clinical laboratory parameters were recorded. Results:At week 8 of OCTAVE Induction 1, 22.4% of patients achieved remission with tofacitinib (placebo, 7.7%). At week 52 of OCTAVE Sustain, 31.3% and 66.7% of patients receiving tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg b.i.d., respectively, achieved remission (placebo, 9.1%). The occurrence of AEs or serious AEs in Japanese patients was generally similar to that in the global study population, with no new or unexpected safety risks observed. Conclusions:Although patient numbers were small, tofacitinib demonstrated numerically greater efficacy versus placebo among Japanese patients in OCTAVE Induction 1 and OCTAVE Sustain, with a safety profile consistent with that of the global study population.
Project description:Background:Active inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). As a small molecule, tofacitinib is likely to cross the placental barrier; however, information on the effects of tofacitinib on pregnancy outcomes is limited. We report pregnancy and newborn outcomes among patients in UC clinical studies with prenatal (maternal/paternal) exposure to tofacitinib. Methods:Pregnancies with maternal/paternal exposure to tofacitinib were identified and outcomes reported in 5 tofacitinib UC interventional studies (up to March 2017). Outcomes from tofacitinib rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis interventional studies, and RA noninterventional postapproval safety studies, spontaneous adverse event reporting, and registry data are also reported. Results:Of 1157 patients enrolled in the UC interventional studies, 301 were women of childbearing age. Eleven cases of maternal exposure and 14 cases of paternal exposure to tofacitinib (doses of 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily) before/at the time of conception or during pregnancy were identified. Outcomes included 15 healthy newborns, no fetal deaths, no neonatal deaths, no congenital malformations, 2 spontaneous abortions, and 2 medical terminations. Outcomes across other tofacitinib studies and postmarketing cases were consistent, with a healthy newborn being the most common outcome and no fetal deaths. Conclusions:Based on the limited data available, pregnancy and newborn outcomes among patients with prenatal (maternal/paternal) exposure to tofacitinib in UC studies appear similar to those reported for other tofacitinib clinical study populations and the general population.