Ara h 7 isoforms share many linear epitopes: Are 3D epitopes crucial to elucidate divergent abilities?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The peanut allergens Ara h 2, h 6, and h 7 are potent allergens and can trigger severe reactions. Ara h 7 consists of three isoforms differing in their ability to induce basophil degranulation, whereas the ability of Ara h 7.0201 is comparable to Ara h 2 and 6 as shown in previous literature. OBJECTIVE:To identify linear epitopes of Ara h 7.0101, Ara h 7.0201 and Ara h 7.0301 recognized by IgE and IgG4 from patients sensitized to Ara h 7 and to investigate their potential to elucidate divergent abilities of the Ara h 7 isoforms in inducing basophil activation. METHODS:Linear epitopes recognized by IgE and IgG4 were mapped by peptide microarray analysis containing 15-mer peptides of Ara h 2.0201, 6, 7.0101, 7.0201 and 7.0301 and 39 peanut allergic patients sensitized to Ara h 7 (discovery). For validation, 20-mer peptides containing the minimal epitope and surrounding amino acids were incubated with 25 sensitized patients and 10 controls (validation). RESULTS:Three out of 14 linear epitopes were unique for each isoform (Ara h 7.0101: aa 97-109; Ara h 7.0201: aa 122-133; Ara h 7.0301: aa 65-74) but scarcely recognized by IgE. The main linear IgE epitope (aa 51-57) located in the long flexible loop of all Ara h 7 isoforms was bound by antibodies from 31% of the patients (discovery and validation cohort). Regarding IgG4, 55% of the patients recognized an epitope present on all isoforms (aa 55-65), whereas epitope aa 129-137, only present on Ara h 7.0101/0.0301, was recognized by 38% of the patients. Recognition was highly individual, although 20% of the patients recognized any linear epitope neither by IgE nor by IgG4 despite a low mean z-score of ? 1.7. Remarkably, only 50% of the patients recognized one or more epitopes by IgE. CONCLUSION & CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Ara h 7 isoforms share many linear epitopes being easily accessible for antibody binding. Unique epitopes, essential to elucidate divergent potencies, were scarcely recognized, suggesting a crucial involvement of conformational epitopes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The frequencies, cellular phenotypes, epitope specificity, and clonal diversity of allergen-specific B cells in patients with food allergy are not fully understood but are of major pathogenic and therapeutic significance. OBJECTIVE:We sought to characterize peanut allergen-specific B-cell populations and the sequences and binding activities of their antibodies before and during immunotherapy. METHODS:B cells binding fluorescently labeled Ara h 1 or Ara h 2 were phenotyped and isolated by means of flow cytometric sorting from 18 patients at baseline and 13 patients during therapy. Fifty-seven mAbs derived from allergen-binding single B cells were evaluated by using ELISA, Western blotting, and peptide epitope mapping. Deep sequencing of the B-cell repertoires identified additional members of the allergen-specific B-cell clones. RESULTS:Median allergen-binding B-cell frequencies were 0.0097% (Ara h 1) or 0.029% (Ara h 2) of B cells in baseline blood from allergic patients and approximately 3-fold higher during immunotherapy. Five of 57 allergen-specific cells belonged to clones containing IgE-expressing members. Almost all allergen-specific antibodies were mutated, and binding to both conformational and linear allergen epitopes was detected. Increasing somatic mutation of IgG4 members of a clone was seen in immunotherapy, whereas IgE mutation levels in the clone did not increase. CONCLUSION:Most peanut allergen-binding B cells isolated by means of antigen-specific flow sorting express mutated and isotype-switched antibodies. Immunotherapy increases their frequency in the blood, and even narrowly defined allergen epitopes are recognized by numerous distinct B-cell clones in a patient. The results also suggest that oral immunotherapy can stimulate somatic mutation of allergen-specific IgG4.
Project description:Peanut allergy is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the increased prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Following our characterization of the two peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a third peanut allergen, Ara h 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ara h 3 shows homology to 11S seed-storage proteins. The recombinant form of this protein was expressed in a bacterial system and was recognized by serum IgE from approximately 45% of our peanut-allergic patient population. Serum IgE from these patients and overlapping, synthetic peptides were used to map the linear, IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3. Four epitopes, between 10 and 15 amino acids in length, were found within the primary sequence, with no obvious sequence motif shared by the peptides. One epitope is recognized by all Ara h 3-allergic patients. Mutational analysis of the epitopes revealed that single amino acid changes within these peptides could lead to a reduction or loss of IgE binding. By determining which amino acids are critical for IgE binding, it might be possible to alter the Ara h 3 cDNA to encode a protein with a reduced IgE-binding capacity. These results will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for food-hypersensitivity reactions.
Project description:Cross-reactivity between peanuts and tree nuts implies that similar immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes are present in their proteins.To determine whether walnut sequences similar to known peanut IgE-binding sequences, according to the property distance (PD) scale implemented in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins, react with IgE from sera of patients with allergy to walnut and/or peanut.? Patient sera were characterized by western blotting for IgE binding to nut protein extracts and to peptides from walnut and peanut allergens, similar to known peanut epitopes as defined by low PD values, synthesized on membranes. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to show that peanut and predicted walnut epitope sequences compete with purified Ara h 2 for binding to IgE in serum from a cross-reactive patient.Sequences from the vicilin walnut allergen Jug r 2, which had low PD values to epitopes of the peanut allergen Ara h 2, a 2S albumin, bound to IgE in sera from five patients who reacted to either walnut or peanut or both. A walnut epitope recognized by sera from six patients mapped to a surface-exposed region on a model of the N-terminal pro-region of Jug r 2. This predicted walnut epitope competed for IgE binding to Ara h 2 in serum as well as the known IgE epitope from Ara h 2.Sequences with low PD value (< 8.5) to known IgE epitopes could contribute to cross-reactivity between allergens. This further validates the PD scoring method for predicting cross-reactive epitopes in allergens.
Project description:Cross-linking of IgE antibody by specific epitopes on the surface of mast cells is a prerequisite for triggering symptoms of peanut allergy. IgE epitopes are frequently categorized as linear or conformational epitopes. Although linear IgE-binding epitopes of peanut allergens have been defined, little is known about conformational IgE-binding epitopes.To identify clinically relevant conformational IgE epitopes of the two most important peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, using phage peptide library.A phage 12mer peptide library was screened with allergen-specific IgE from 4 peanut-allergic patients. Binding of the mimotopes to IgE from a total of 29 peanut-allergic subjects was measured by ELISA. The mimotope sequences were mapped on the surface areas of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 using EpiSearch.Forty-one individual mimotopes were identified that specifically bind anti- Ara h 2/Ara h 6 IgE as well as rabbit anti-Ara h 2 and anti-Ara h 6 IgG. Sequence alignment showed that none of the mimotope sequences match a linear segment of the Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 sequences. EpiSearch analysis showed that all the mimotopes mapped to surface patches of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. Eight of the mimotopes were recognized by more than 90% of the patients, suggesting immunodominance. Each patient had distinct IgE recognition patterns but the recognition frequency was not correlated to the concentration of peanut specific IgE or to clinical history.The mimotopes identified in this study represent conformational epitopes. Identification of similar surface patches on Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 further underscores the similarities between these two potent allergens.
Project description:Sensitization to allergens and their peptides varies among patients due to geographical or ethnic differences. The present study aimed to investigate immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG4 responses to tropomyosin and its peptides in shrimp allergic patients from northern China. A total of 92 subjects were studied, including 35 shrimp allergic patients, 29 patients with house dust mite (HDM) and/or cockroach allergic patients and 28 healthy volunteers. Serum IgE and IgG4 antibodies to recombinant shrimp tropomyosin (rPen a 1) and its peptides were measured by means of a light?initiated chemiluminescent assay. A total of 9 major sequential epitopes of Pen a 1 reported in the literature were synthesized. Of 35 shrimp allergic patients, 25 (71.4%) had positive Pen 1?specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies and 22 (62.9%) contained measurable rPen a 1?specific IgG4 (sIgG4) antibodies. A strong IgG4 response accompanied the presence of IgE to Pen a 1. None of the patients with HDM and/or cockroach allergy demonstrated IgE reactivity to rPen a 1. The reaction frequency of IgE binding epitope was 20?48%, while that of IgG4 binding epitope was 63.6?90.9%. The IgE and IgG4 recognition patterns of the tropomyosin peptides demonstrated high interpatient heterogeneity. Diversity of IgE binding epitopes was positively correlated with Pen a 1 sIgE levels. In the study population, tropomyosin was a major allergen recognized by the majority of shrimp allergic patients, which is consistent with previous reports. However, none of the 9 epitopes are major (reaction frequency >50%) IgE?binding regions, indicating the epitopes profile may be different in other regions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Peanut allergy is a life-threatening condition; there is currently no cure. While whole allergen extracts are used for specific immunotherapy for many allergies, they can cause severe reactions and even fatalities in peanut allergy.<h4>Objective</h4>To identify short, HLA-degenerate CD4(+) T cell epitope-based peptides of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 that target allergen-specific T cells without causing IgE-mediated inflammatory cell activation, as candidates for safe peanut-specific immunotherapy.<h4>Methods</h4>Ara h 1-specific CD4(+) T cell lines (TCL) were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of peanut-allergic subjects using CFSE-based methodology. T cell epitopes were identified using CFSE and thymidine-based proliferation assays. Epitope HLA-restriction was investigated using blocking antibodies, HLA-genotyping and epitope prediction algorithms. Functional peanut-specific IgE reactivity to peptides was assessed by basophil activation assay.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 145 Ara h 1-specific TCL were generated from 18 HLA-diverse peanut-allergic subjects. The TCL recognized 20-mer peptides throughout Ara h 1. Nine 20-mers containing the most frequently recognized epitopes were selected and their recognition confirmed in 18 additional peanut-allergic subjects. Ten core epitopes were mapped within these 20-mers. These were HLA-DQ and/or HLA-DR restricted, with each presented on at least two different HLA-molecules. Seven short (? 20 aa) non-basophil-reactive peptides encompassing all core epitopes were designed and validated in peanut-allergic donor PBMC T cell assays.<h4>Conclusions and clinical relevance</h4>Short CD4(+) T cell epitope-based Ara h 1 peptides were identified as novel candidates for a safe, T cell targeted peanut-specific immunotherapy for HLA-diverse populations.
Project description:Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are moderately homologous and highly potent peanut allergens.To identify IgE-binding linear epitopes of Ara h 6, compare them to those of Ara h 2, and to stratify binding based on clinical histories.Thirty highly peanut-allergic subjects were stratified by clinical history. Sera were diluted to contain the same amount of anti-peanut IgE. IgE binding to overlapping 20-mer peptides of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 was assessed using microarrays.Each subject had a unique IgE-binding fingerprint to peptides; these data were coalesced into epitope binding. IgE from subjects with a history of more severe reactions (n = 19) had a smaller frequency of binding events (BEs) for both Ara h 2 (52 BEs of 152 (19X8epitopes) possible BEs and Ara h 6 (13 BEs of 133 (19X7 epitopes) possible BEs) compared to IgE from those with milder histories (n = 11) (Ara h 2: 47 BEs of 88 (11X8 epitopes) possible BEs, P < 0.01; Ara h 6: 25 BEs of 77 (11X7 epitopes) possible BEs, P < 0.001). Using an unsupervised hierarchal cluster analysis, subjects with similar histories tended to cluster. We have tentatively identified a high-risk pattern of binding to peptides of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, predominantly in subjects with a history of more severe reactions (OR = 12.6; 95% CI: 2.0-79.5; P < 0.01).IgE from patients with more severe clinical histories recognize fewer linear epitopes of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 than do subjects with milder reactions and bind these epitopes in characteristic patterns. Close examination of IgE binding to epitopes of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 may have prognostic value.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peanut allergy affects 1% of the population and causes the most fatal food-related anaphylactic reactions. The protein Ara h 2 is the most potent peanut allergen recognized by 80-90% of peanut allergic patients. METHODS:The crystal structure of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 was determined for the first time at 2.7 Å resolution using a customized maltose-binding protein (MBP)-fusion system. IgE antibody binding to the MBP fusion construct vs the natural allergen was compared by ELISA using sera from peanut allergic patients. RESULTS:The structure of Ara h 2 is a five-helix bundle held together by four disulfide bonds and related to the prolamin protein superfamily. The fold is most similar to other amylase and trypsin inhibitors. The MBP--Ara h 2 fusion construct was positively recognized by IgE from 76% of allergic patients (25/33). Two populations of patients could be identified. Subpopulation 1 (n = 14) showed an excellent correlation of IgE antibody binding to natural vs recombinant Ara h 2. Subpopulation 2 (n = 15) showed significantly reduced IgE binding to the MBP fusion protein. Interestingly, about 20% of the IgE binding in subpopulation 2 could be recovered by increasing the distance between MBP and Ara h 2 in a second construct. DISCUSSION:The reduced IgE binding to the MBP--Ara h 2 of subpopulation 2 indicates that the MBP molecule protects an immunodominant epitope region near the first helix of Ara h 2. Residues involved in the epitope(s) are suggested by the crystal structure. The MBP--Ara h 2 fusion constructs will be useful to further elucidate the relevance of certain epitopes to peanut allergy.
Project description:The dynamics and balance of allergen-specific IgE, IgG4, and IgA binding might contribute to the development of tolerance in patients with cow's milk allergy (CMA). Profiling of antibody binding to cow's milk (CM) protein epitopes might help in predicting the natural history of allergy.We sought to investigate differences in IgE, IgG4, and IgA binding to CM epitopes over time between patients with early recovery or with persisting CMA.We studied serum samples at the time of diagnosis (mean age, 7 months), 1 year later, and at follow-up (mean age, 8.6 years) from 11 patients with persisting IgE-mediated CMA at age 8 to 9 years and 12 patients who recovered by age 3 years. We measured the binding of IgE, IgG4, and IgA antibodies to sequential epitopes derived from 5 major CM proteins with a peptide microarray-based immunoassay. We analyzed the data with a novel image-processing method together with machine learning prediction.IgE epitope-binding patterns were stable over time in patients with persisting CMA, whereas binding decreased in patients who recovered early. Binding patterns of IgE and IgG4 overlapped. Among patients who recovered early, the signal of IgG4 binding increased and that of IgE decreased over time. IgE and IgG4 binding to a panel of alpha(s1)-, alpha(s2)-, beta-, and kappa-casein regions predicted outcome with significant accuracy.Attaining tolerance to CM is associated with decreased epitope binding by IgE and a concurrent increase in corresponding epitope binding by IgG4.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Africa, peanuts are frequently consumed, but severe allergic reactions are rare. We investigated immunological patterns of clinical tolerance to peanut in peanut-sensitized but asymptomatic patients from central Africa compared to peanut-allergic and peanut-sensitized but asymptomatic patients from Sweden. METHODS:Sera from allergic patients (n = 54) from Zimbabwe sensitized to peanut but without allergic symptoms to peanut, and sera from peanut-allergic (n = 25) and peanut-sensitized but asymptomatic (n = 25) patients from Sweden were analyzed toward peanut allergen components (Ara h 1-3, 6, 8-9) and other allergen molecules from important allergen sources using microarray. IgE to Ara h 2 peptide epitopes was analyzed, and allergenic activity was assessed by basophil activation assay. RESULTS:Forty-six percent of the African and all peanut-allergic Swedish patients showed IgE toward one of the highly allergenic peanut allergens (Ara h 1-3, 6, 9). However, 48% of the African patients had IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) with low allergenic activity and 60% of the Swedish asymptomatic patients had IgE against the PR protein Ara h 8. IgG and IgG4 specificities and levels could not discriminate between the African asymptomatic and Swedish peanut-allergic patients. Asymptomatic patients almost lacked IgE to Ara h 2 peptides, which were recognized by peanut-allergic patients. Peanut IgE from peanut asymptomatic patients showed poor allergenic activity compared with IgE from peanut-allergic patients. CONCLUSIONS:Natural clinical tolerance to peanut in the African patients can be caused by IgE to low allergenic peanut components and by poor allergenic activity of peanut-specific IgE.