The relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and telomere length: The 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
ABSTRACT: Socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods have been associated with poor health outcomes. Little is known about the biological mechanism by which deprived neighborhood conditions exert negative influences on health. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to assess the relationship between neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) and log-transformed leukocyte telomere length (LTL) via multilevel modeling to control for census tract level clustering. Models were constructed using tertiles of NDI (ref = low NDI). NDI was calculated using census tract level socioeconomic indicators from the 2000 U.S. Census. The sample (n = 5,106 adults) was 49.8% female and consisted of 82.9% non-Hispanic whites, 9.4% non-Hispanic blacks, and 7.6% Mexican Americans. Mean age was 45.8 years. Residents of neighborhoods with high NDI were younger, non-white, had lower educational attainment, and had a lower poverty to income ratio (all p < 0.0001). Neighborhood deprivation was inversely associated with LTL among individuals living in neighborhoods with medium NDI (? = -0.043, SE = 0.012, p = 0.0005) and high NDI (? = -0.039, SE = 0.013, p = 0.003). Among men, both medium (? = -0.042, SE = 0.015, p = 0.006) and high (? = -0.047, SE = 0.015, p = 0.001) NDI were associated with shorter LTL. Among women, only medium NDI (? = -0.020, SE = 0.016, p = 0.009) was associated with shorter LTL. After controlling for individual characteristics, including individual-level socioeconomic status, increasing neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with shorter LTL among a nationally representative sample of US adults. This suggests that telomere shortening may be a mechanism through which neighborhood deprivation results in poor health outcomes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Despite a proposed connection between neighborhood environment and obesity, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, as defined by moving between neighborhoods, and change in body weight. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor. METHODS:Weight (kilograms) was measured in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic cohort aged 18-65 years, at baseline (2000-2002) and 7-year follow-up (2007-2009, N=1,835). Data were analyzed in 2013-2014. Geocoded addresses were linked to Dallas County, TX, census block groups. A block group-level neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created. Multilevel difference-in-difference models with random effects and a Heckman correction factor (HCF) determined weight change relative to NDI change. RESULTS:Forty-nine percent of the DHS population moved (263 to higher NDI, 586 to lower NDI, 47 within same NDI), with blacks more likely to move than whites or Hispanics (p<0.01), but similar baseline BMI and waist circumference were observed in movers versus non-movers (p>0.05). Adjusting for HCF, sex, race, and time-varying covariates, those who moved to areas of higher NDI gained more weight compared to those remaining in the same or moving to a lower NDI (0.64 kg per 1-unit NDI increase, 95% CI=0.09, 1.19). Impact of NDI change on weight gain increased with time (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Moving to more-socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods was associated with weight gain among DHS participants.
Project description:Low neighborhood socioeconomic status has been linked to adverse health outcomes. However, it is unclear whether changing the neighborhood may influence health. We examined 10-year change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation in relation to mortality rate among 288,555 participants aged 51-70 years who enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study in 1995-1996 (baseline) and did not move during the study. Changes in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation between 1990 and 2000 were measured by US Census data at the census tract level. All-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer deaths were ascertained through annual linkage to the Social Security Administration Death Master File between 2000 and 2011. Overall, our results suggested that improvement in neighborhood socioeconomic status was associated with a lower mortality rate, while deterioration was associated with a higher mortality rate. More specially, a 30-percentile-point reduction in neighborhood deprivation among more deprived neighborhoods was associated with 11% and 19% reductions in the total mortality rate among men and women, respectively. On the other hand, a 30-point increase in neighborhood deprivation in less deprived neighborhoods was associated with an 11% increase in the mortality rate among men. Our findings support a longitudinal association between changing neighborhood conditions and mortality.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Most studies of the association between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual lifestyles leading to cardiovascular disease focused on a single cardiovascular risk factor. The concomitant assessment of more than one risk factor may provide clues to specific mechanisms linking neighborhood disadvantage to individual lifestyles. We investigated the association of neighborhood deprivation with fruits and vegetables consumption and leisure-time physical activity in adults living in an urban center in Portugal.<h4>Methods</h4>In 1999-2003, we assembled a random sample of 2081 adult residents in the city of Porto. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Fruits and vegetables consumption was estimated using a validated 82-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire covering the previous year and expressed in portions per day. Physical activity was evaluated using a questionnaire exploring leisure-time activities over the previous year and expressed in metabolic equivalents (MET).minute/day. Self-reported address was used to place individuals in neighborhoods. Neighborhoods' socioeconomic characterization was based on aggregated data at the census block level provided by the 2001 National Census. Latent class analysis models were used to identify three discrete socioeconomic classes of neighborhoods. Random effects models with random intercepts at the neighborhood level were used to explore clustering and contextual effects of neighborhood deprivation on each of the outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>We found evidence of neighborhood clustering of fruits and vegetables consumption and leisure-time physical activity that persisted after adjustment for neighborhood deprivation only among women. Women living in the most deprived neighborhoods presented a consumption increase of 0.43 (95% CI: -0.033 to 0.89) portions of fruits and vegetables per day and a decrease in leisure-time physical activity of 47.8 (95% CI: -91.8 to 1.41) MET.minute/day, when compared to those living in the most affluent neighborhoods. Among men, no contextual neighborhood deprivation effects were observed.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Overall, neighborhood deprivation had a small effect on the consumption of fruits and vegetables and leisure-time physical activity. Neighborhood factors other than socioeconomic deprivation may still impact on the studied outcomes among women. This study provides relevant information for the design of interventions directed to neighborhood characteristics in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular disease is a leading economic and medical burden in the United States (US). As an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, hypertension represents a critical point of intervention. Less is known about longitudinal effects of neighborhood deprivation on blood pressure outcomes, especially in light of new hypertension guidelines. METHODS:Longitudinal data from the Dallas Heart Study facilitated multilevel regression analysis of the relationship between neighborhood deprivation, blood pressure change, and incident hypertension over a 9-year period. Factor analysis explored neighborhood perception, which was controlled for in all analyses. Neighborhood deprivation was derived from US Census data and divided into tertiles for analysis. Hypertension status was compared using pre-2017 and 2017 hypertension guidelines. RESULTS:After adjusting for covariates, including moving status and residential self-selection, we observed significant associations between residing in the more deprived neighborhoods and 1) increasing blood pressure over time and 2) incident hypertension. In the fully adjusted model of continuous blood pressure change, significant relationships were seen for both medium (SBP: ??=?4.81, SE?=?1.39, P?=?.0005; DBP: ??=?2.61, SE?=?0.71, P?=?.0003) and high deprivation (SBP: ??=?7.64, SE?=?1.55, P?<?.0001; DBP: ??=?4.64, SE?=?0.78, P?<?.0001). In the fully adjusted model of incident hypertension, participants in areas of high deprivation had 1.69 higher odds of developing HTN (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.02, 2.82), as defined by 2017 hypertension guidelines. Results varied based on definition of hypertension used (pre-2017 vs. 2017 guidelines). CONCLUSION:These findings highlight the potential impact of adverse neighborhood conditions on cardiometabolic outcomes, such as hypertension.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent data suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic environment predicts heart failure (HF) hospital readmissions. We investigated whether neighborhood deprivation predicts risk of incident HF beyond individual socioeconomic status in a low-income population. METHODS AND RESULTS:Participants were 27 078 whites and blacks recruited during 2002 to 2009 in the SCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study), who had no history of HF and were using Centers for Medicare or Medicaid Services. Incident HF diagnoses through December 31, 2010, were ascertained using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes 428.x via linkage with Centers for Medicare or Medicaid Services research files. Participant residential information was geocoded and census tract determined by a spatial join to the US Census Bureau TIGER/Line Shapefiles. The neighborhood deprivation index was constructed using principal components analysis based on census tract-level socioeconomic variables. Cox models with Huber-White cluster sandwich estimator of variance were used to investigate the association between neighborhood deprivation index and HF risk. The study sample was predominantly middle aged (mean, 55.5 years), black (69%), female (63%), low income (70% earned <$15 000/y), and >50% of participants lived in the most deprived neighborhoods (third neighborhood deprivation index tertile). Over median follow-up of 5.2 years, 4300 participants were diagnosed with HF. After adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors, a 1 interquartile increase in neighborhood deprivation index was associated with a 12% increase in risk of HF (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.18), and 4.8% of the variance in HF risk (intraclass correlation coefficient, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.6-6.4) was explained by neighborhood deprivation. CONCLUSIONS:In this low-income population, scant neighborhood resources compound the risk of HF above and beyond individual socioeconomic status and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Improvements in community resources may be a significant axis for curbing the burden of HF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neighborhood characteristics play a critical role in health. Self-rated health (SRH) is an important indicator of quality of life and a strong predictor of premature death. Prospective study on neighborhood deprivation and SRH is limited. METHODS:We examined neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation with reporting fair/poor SRH at follow-up (2004-2006) in 249,265 men and women (age 50-71) who reported SRH as good or better at baseline (1995-1996) in the NIH-AARP Health and Diet Study. Baseline addresses were geocoded and linked to 2000 Census. Census tract level variables were used to generate a socioeconomic deprivation index by principle component analysis. RESULTS:Residents of more deprived neighborhoods had a higher risk of developing poor/fair SRH at follow-up, even after adjusting for individual-level factors (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) Q5 vs Q1: 1.26 (1.20, 1.32), p-trend: <0.0001). The results were largely consistent across subgroups with different demographics, health behaviors, and disease conditions and after excluding participants who moved away from their baseline address. CONCLUSION:Neighborhood disadvantage predicts SRH over 10 years.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We examined whether the risk of premature mortality associated with living in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods varies according to the health status of individuals. METHODS:Community-dwelling adults (n = 566,402; age = 50-71 years) in 6 US states and 2 metropolitan areas participated in the ongoing prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, which began in 1995. We used baseline data for 565,679 participants on health behaviors, self-rated health status, and medical history, collected by mailed questionnaires. Participants were linked to 2000 census data for an index of census tract socioeconomic deprivation. The main outcome was all-cause mortality ascertained through 2006. RESULTS:In adjusted survival analyses of persons in good-to-excellent health at baseline, risk of mortality increased with increasing levels of census tract socioeconomic deprivation. Neighborhood socioeconomic mortality disparities among persons in fair-to-poor health were not statistically significant after adjustment for demographic characteristics, educational achievement, lifestyle, and medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Neighborhood socioeconomic inequalities lead to large disparities in risk of premature mortality among healthy US adults but not among those in poor health.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to examine the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype with causes of death [breast cancer (BC)-specific and non-BC-specific] among non-metastatic invasive BC patients. We identified 3,312 patients younger than 75 years (mean age 53.5 years; 621 [18.8 %] TNBC) with first primary BC treated at an academic medical center from 1999 to 2010. We constructed a census-tract-level socioeconomic deprivation index using the 2000 U.S. Census data and performed a multilevel competing-risk analysis to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of BC-specific and non-BC-specific mortality associated with neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and TNBC subtype. The adjusted models controlled for patient sociodemographics, health behaviors, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, and cancer treatment. With a median 62-month follow-up, 349 (10.5 %) patients died; 233 died from BC. In the multivariate models, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (the most- vs. the least-deprived quartile: HR = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.33-6.66); in contrast, its association with BC-specific mortality was explained by the aforementioned patient-level covariates, particularly sociodemographic factors (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.71-1.87). TNBC subtype was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (HR = 2.15; 95 % CI = 1.20-3.84), while the association between TNBC and BC-specific mortality approached significance (HR = 1.42; 95 % CI = 0.99-2.03, P = 0.057). Non-metastatic invasive BC patients who lived in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods were more likely to die as a result of causes other than BC compared with those living in the least socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. TNBC was associated with non-BC-specific mortality but not BC-specific mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:African-American adults experience the highest rates of elevated blood pressure (BP), and this disparity may be linked to socioeconomic and neighborhood-related disadvantage. Based on a bioecological stress-buffering framework, relations of poverty and neighborhood environmental perceptions with BP were assessed using multilevel regression in at-risk African-American adults. METHODS:This cross-sectional study used baseline data that were collected in 2008 as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial (N = 409), a community-based intervention to increase walking in low-income, high-crime neighborhoods. BP and perceived neighborhood crime and satisfaction were investigated as individual-level indicators of health and neighborhood environment. Census block groups (N = 22) served as geographic proxies for neighborhoods, and poverty was obtained using 2010 U.S. Census data, to characterize the neighborhood-level socioeconomic environment. RESULTS:There were no individual-level direct associations. Significant cross-product interactions demonstrated that with higher perceived crime, high satisfaction was associated with lower systolic (? = 3.34) and diastolic (? = -1.37) BP, but low satisfaction was associated with higher systolic (? = 15.12) and diastolic (? = 7.57) BP. Neighborhood-level poverty was associated with diastolic (? = 11.48, SE = 4.08, P = 0.008) and systolic BP (? = 12.79, SE = 6.33, P = 0.052). Variance in BP across block groups was low (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.002-0.014) and there were no significant random effects. CONCLUSIONS:Results supported hypotheses, with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to lower systolic and diastolic BP when perceived crime was high. Neighborhood poverty was also linked to higher systolic and diastolic BP. Prevention efforts should further investigate whether attending to issues of poverty and related neighborhood perceptions reduces high BP in at-risk African-American communities.
Project description:Neighborhood conditions may have an important impact on physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the older population. Most previous studies in this area are cross-sectional and report mixed findings regarding the effects of neighborhood environment on different types of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the prospective relationship between neighborhood environment and sedentary behaviors. Our analysis included 136,526 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (age 51-70). Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was measured with an index based on census variables and developed using principal component analysis. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured both at baseline (1995-1996) and follow-up (2004-2006). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the prospective relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exercise, non-exercise physical activity, and sedentary behaviors, adjusting for baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors as well as potential confounders. We found that more severe neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was prospectively associated with reduced time for exercise (? Q5 vs Q1 (95% confidence interval), hour, -0.85 (-0.95, -0.75)) but increased time spent in non-exercise physical activities (1.16 (0.97, 1.34)), such as household activities, outdoor chores, and walking for transportation. Moreover, people from more deprived neighborhoods were also more likely to engage in prolonged (?5?h/day) TV viewing (Odds ratio Q5 vs Q1 (95% confidence interval), 1.21 (1.15, 1.27)). In conclusion, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior in the older population. These associations may differ for different types of physical activities.