Heating Efficiency of Triple Vortex State Cylindrical Magnetic Nanoparticles.
ABSTRACT: A well-established method for treating cancerous tumors is magnetic hyperthermia, which uses localized heat generated by the relaxation mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a high-frequency alternating magnetic field. In this work, we investigate the heating efficiency of cylindrical NiFe MNPs, fabricated by template-assisted pulsed electrodeposition combined with differential chemical etching. The cylindrical geometry of the MNP enables the formation of the triple vortex state, which increases the heat generation efficiency by four times. Using time-dependent calorimetric measurements, the specific absorption rate (SAR) of the MNPs was determined and compared with the numerical calculations from micromagnetic simulations and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The magnetization reversal of high aspect ratios MNPs showed higher remanent magnetization and low-field susceptibility leading to higher hysteresis losses, which was reflected in higher experimental and theoretical SAR values. The SAR dependence on magnetic field strength exhibited small SAR values at low magnetic fields and saturates at high magnetic fields, which is correlated to the coercive field of the MNPs and a characteristic feature of ferromagnetic MNPs. The optimization of cylindrical NiFe MNPs will play a pivotal role in producing high heating performance and biocompatible magnetic hyperthermia agents.
Project description:This work reports important advances in the study of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) related to their application in different research fields such as magnetic hyperthermia. Nanotherapy based on targeted nanoparticles could become an attractive alternative to conventional oncologic treatments as it allows a local heating in tumoral surroundings without damage to healthy tissue. RGD-peptide-conjugated MNPs have been designed to specifically target ?<sub>V</sub>?<sub>3</sub> receptor-expressing cancer cells, being bound the RGD peptides by "click chemistry" due to its selectivity and applicability. The thermal decomposition of iron metallo-organic precursors yield homogeneous Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanoparticles that have been properly functionalized with RGD peptides, and the preparation of magnetic fluids has been achieved. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectroscopy and magnetic hyperthermia. The nanoparticles present superparamagnetic behavior with very high magnetization values, which yield hyperthermia values above 500 W/g for magnetic fluids. These fluids have been administrated to rats, but instead of injecting MNP fluid directly into liver tumors, intravascular administration of MNPs in animals with induced colorectal tumors has been performed. Afterwards the animals were exposed to an alternating magnetic field in order to achieve hyperthermia. The evolution of an in vivo model has been described, resulting in a significant reduction in tumor viability.
Project description:Efficient use of magnetic hyperthermia in clinical cancer treatment requires biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), with improved heating capabilities. Small (~34 nm) and large (~270 nm) Fe?O?-MNPs were synthesized by means of a polyol method in polyethylene-glycol (PEG) and ethylene-glycol (EG), respectively. They were systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. Hyperthermia measurements showed that Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) dependence on the external alternating magnetic field amplitude (up to 65 kA/m, 355 kHz) presented a sigmoidal shape, with remarkable SAR saturation values of ~1400 W/gMNP for the small monocrystalline MNPs and only 400 W/gMNP for the large polycrystalline MNPs, in water. SAR values were slightly reduced in cell culture media, but decreased one order of magnitude in highly viscous PEG1000. Toxicity assays performed on four cell lines revealed almost no toxicity for the small MNPs and a very small level of toxicity for the large MNPs, up to a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. Cellular uptake experiments revealed that both MNPs penetrated the cells through endocytosis, in a time dependent manner and escaped the endosomes with a faster kinetics for large MNPs. Biodegradation of large MNPs inside cells involved an all-or-nothing mechanism.
Project description:Manganese and zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were successfully synthesizedusing the polyol method in ethylene glycol and were found to have high saturation magnetizationvalues (90-95 emu/g at 4 K) when formed by ~30-nm crystallites assembled in an ~80-nm multicorestructure. Hyperthermia data revealed a sigmoidal dependence of the specific absorption rate (SAR)on the alternating magnetic field (AMF) amplitude, with remarkable saturation SAR values in waterof ~1200 W/gFe+Mn and ~800 W/gFe+Zn for the Mn and Zn ferrites, respectively. The immobilizationof the MNPs in a solid matrix reduced the maximum SAR values by ~300 W/gFe+Mn, Zn for bothferrites. The alignment of the MNPs in a uniform static magnetic field, before their immobilizationin a solid matrix, significantly increased their heating performance. Toxicity assays performed infour cell lines revealed a lower toxicity for the Mn ferrites, while in the case of the Zn ferrites, only~50% of cells were viable upon their incubation for 24 h with 0.2 mg/mL of MNPs. Cellular uptakeexperiments revealed that both MNPs entered the cells in a time-dependent manner, as they werefound initially in endosomes and later in the cytosol. All of the studied cell lines were more sensitiveto the ZnFe2O4 MNPs.
Project description:Magnetic hyperthermia (MH) based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is a promising adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment. Particle clustering leading to complex magnetic interactions affects the heat generated by MNPs during MH. The heat efficiencies, theoretically predicted, are still poorly understood because of a lack of control of the fabrication of such clusters with defined geometries and thus their functionality. This study aims to correlate the heating efficiency under MH of individually coated iron oxide nanocubes (IONCs) versus soft colloidal nanoclusters made of small groupings of nanocubes arranged in different geometries. The controlled clustering of alkyl-stabilized IONCs is achieved here during the water transfer procedure by tuning the fraction of the amphiphilic copolymer, poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) cumene-terminated, to the nanoparticle surface. It is found that increasing the polymer-to-nanoparticle surface ratio leads to the formation of increasingly large nanoclusters with defined geometries. When compared to the individual nanocubes, we show here that controlled grouping of nanoparticles-so-called "dimers" and "trimers" composed of two and three nanocubes, respectively-increases specific absorption rate (SAR) values, while conversely, forming centrosymmetric clusters having more than four nanocubes leads to lower SAR values. Magnetization measurements and Monte Carlo-based simulations support the observed SAR trend and reveal the importance of the dipolar interaction effect and its dependence on the details of the particle arrangements within the different clusters.
Project description:Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 doped by different amounts of Y3+ (0, 0.1, 1, and 10%) ions were designed to obtain maximum heating efficiency in magnetic hyperthermia for cancer treatment. Single-phase formation was evident by X-ray diffraction measurements. An improved magnetization value was obtained for the Fe3O4 sample with 1% Y3+ doping. The specific absorption rate (SAR) and intrinsic loss of power (ILP) values for prepared colloids were obtained in water. The best results were estimated for Fe3O4 with 0.1% Y3+ ions (SAR = 194 W/g and ILP = 1.85 nHm2/kg for a magnetic field of 16 kA/m with the frequency of 413 kHz). The excellent biocompatibility with low cell cytotoxicity of Fe3O4:Y nanoparticles was observed. Immediately after magnetic hyperthermia treatment with Fe3O4:0.1%Y, a decrease in 4T1 cells' viability was observed (77% for 35 ?g/mL and 68% for 100 ?g/mL). These results suggest that nanoparticles of Fe3O4 doped by Y3+ ions are suitable for biomedical applications, especially for hyperthermia treatment.
Project description:Monodispersed Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) having size of 7?nm have been prepared from iron oleate and made water dispersible by functionalization for biomedical applications. Three different reactions employing thioglycolic acid, aspartic acid and aminophosphonate were performed on oleic acid coated Fe3O4. In order to achieve a control on particle size, the pristine nanoparticles were heated in presence of ferric oleate which led to increase in size from 7 to 11?nm. Reaction parameters such as rate of heating, reaction temperature and duration of heating have been studied. Shape of particles was found to change from spherical to cuboid. The cuboid shape in turn enhances magneto-crystalline anisotropy (Ku). Heating efficacy of these nanoparticles for hyperthermia was also evaluated for different shapes and sizes. We demonstrate heat generation from these MNPs for hyperthermia application under alternating current (AC) magnetic field and optimized heating efficiency by controlling morphology of particles. We have also studied intra-cellular uptake and localization of nanoparticles and cytotoxicity under AC magnetic field in human breast carcinoma cell line.
Project description:Despite decades of advances in magnetic imaging, obtaining direct, quantitative information with nanometer scale spatial resolution remains an outstanding challenge. Current approaches, for example, Hall micromagnetometer and nitrogen-vacancy magnetometer, are limited by highly complex experimental apparatus and a dedicated sample preparation process. Here we present a new AC field-modulated magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and report the local and quantitative measurements of the magnetic information of individual magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which is one of the most iconic objects of nanomagnetism. This technique provides simultaneously a direct visualization of the magnetization process of the individual MNPs, with spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity of about 4.8 nm and 1.85 × 10(-20) A m(2), respectively, enabling us to separately estimate the distributions of the dipolar fields and the local switching fields of individual MNPs. Moreover, we demonstrate that quantitative magnetization moment of individual MNPs can be routinely obtained using MFM signals. Therefore, it underscores the power of the AC field-modulated MFM for biological and biomedical applications of MNPs and opens up the possibility for directly and quantitatively probing the weak magnetic stray fields from nanoscale magnetic systems with superior spatial resolution.
Project description:Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is an attractive emerging cancer treatment, but the acting microscopic energy deposition mechanisms are not well understood and optimization suffers. We describe several approximate forms for the characteristic time of Néel rotations with varying properties and external influences. We then present stochastic simulations that show agreement between the approximate expressions and the micromagnetic model. The simulations show nonlinear imaginary responses and associated relaxational hysteresis due to the field and frequency dependencies of the magnetization. This suggests that efficient heating is possible by matching fields to particles instead of resorting to maximizing the power of the applied magnetic fields.
Project description:As the development of diagnostic/therapeutic (and combined: theranostic) nanomedicine grows, smart drug-delivery vehicles become ever more critical. Currently therapies consist of drugs tethered to, or encapsulated within nanoparticles or vesicles. There is growing interest in functionalising them with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to target the therapeutics by localising them using magnetic fields. An alternating magnetic field induces remote heating of the particles (hyperthermia) triggering drug release or cell death. Furthermore, MNPs are diagnostic MRI contrast agents. There is considerable interest in MNP embedded vehicles for nanomedicine, but their development is hindered by difficulties producing consistently monodisperse MNPs and their reliable loading into vesicles. Furthermore, it is highly advantageous to "trigger" MNP production and to tune the MNP's size and magnetic response. Here we present the first example of a tuneable, switchable magnetic delivery vehicle for nanomedical application. These are comprised of robust, tailored polymer vesicles (polymersomes) embedded with superparamagnetic magnetite MNPs (magnetopolymersomes) which show good MRI contrast (R2* = 148.8 s(-1)) and have a vacant core for loading of therapeutics. Critically, the magnetopolymersomes are produced by a pioneering nanoreactor method whereby electroporation triggers the in situ formation of MNPs within the vesicle membrane, offering a switchable, tuneable magnetic responsive theranostic delivery vehicle.
Project description:Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been extensively used in drug/gene delivery, hyperthermia therapy, magnetic particle imaging (MPI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic bioassays, and so forth. With proper surface chemical modifications, physicochemically stable and nontoxic MNPs are emerging contrast agents and tracers for in vivo MRI and MPI applications. Herein, we report the high magnetic moment, irregularly shaped ?'-Fe4N nanoparticles for enhanced hyperthermia therapy and T2 contrast agent for MRI application. The static and dynamic magnetic properties of ?'-Fe4N nanoparticles are characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) system, respectively. Compared to the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, ?'-Fe4N nanoparticles show at least three times higher saturation magnetization, which, as a result, gives rise to the stronger dynamic magnetic responses as proved in the MPS measurement results. In addition, ?'-Fe4N nanoparticles are functionalized with an oleic acid layer by a wet mechanical milling process. The morphologies of as-milled nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and nanoparticle tracking analyzer (NTA). We report that with proper surface chemical modification and tuning on morphologies, ?'-Fe4N nanoparticles could be used as tiny heating sources for hyperthermia and contrast agents for MRI applications with minimum dose.