Direct comparison of Arabidopsis gene expression reveals different responses to melatonin versus auxin.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in plants, regulates shoot and root growth and alleviates environmental stresses. Melatonin and the phyto-hormone auxin are tryptophan-derived compounds. However, it largely remains controversial as to whether melatonin and auxin act through similar or overlapping signalling and regulatory pathways. RESULTS:Here, we have used a promoter-activation study to demonstrate that, unlike auxin (1-naphthalene acetic acid, NAA), melatonin neither induces Direct repeat 5 DR5 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana roots under normal growth conditions nor suppresses the induction of Alternative oxidase 1a AOX1a in leaves upon Antimycin A treatment, both of which are the hallmarks of auxin action. Additionally, comparative global transcriptome analysis conducted on Arabidopsis treated with melatonin or NAA revealed differences in the number and types of differentially expressed genes. Auxin (4.5??M) altered the expression of a diverse and large number of genes whereas melatonin at 5??M had no significant effect but melatonin at 100??M had a modest effect on transcriptome compared to solvent-treated control. Interestingly, the prominent category of genes differentially expressed upon exposure to melatonin trended towards biotic stress defence pathways while downregulation of key genes related to photosynthesis was observed. CONCLUSION:Together these findings indicate that though they are both indolic compounds, melatonin and auxin act through different pathways to alter gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it appears that effects of melatonin enable Arabidopsis thaliana to prioritize biotic stress defence signalling rather than growth. These findings clear the current confusion in the literature regarding the relationship of melatonin and auxin and also have greater implications of utilizing melatonin for improved plant protection.
Project description:Objective: Melatonin and auxin are both tryptophan-derived indole molecules. Much attention has been given to proposed auxin-like activities of melatonin (regulating growth concentration-dependently). However, it still largely remains unclear whether melatonin and auxin regulate signalling pathways in a similar fashion. The purpose of this study is to directly compare the transcriptome response of Arabidopsis with melatonin or auxin. Method: mRNA profiles of 12-day old rosettes treated for a further of 3 days with +/- melatonin (5µM, 1005µM) or NAA(4.5µM) were generated by RNA-sequencing in triplicates (three independent biological experiments), using Illumina NextSeq 550 technology. Results: Comparative global transcriptome analysis conducted on Arabidopsis rosette treated with melatonin or NAA under exact same set of experimental conditions revealed differential number of genes and type of pathways. While auxin (4.5µM) regulated a large number of genes and elicited a diverse response, melatonin (100µM) showed a modest effect on transcriptome with only few genes significantly regulated whereas none regulated at approximately equimolar concentration with NAA (5µM) as compared to untreated solvent control (0.1% EtOH). Interestingly, the most prominent category of genes regulated by melatonin trended towards biotic stress defense pathways. Conclusions: These findings indicate that melatonin and auxin act quite differently toward signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. Melatonin has its own set of mechanisms to exert its functions, with strong inclination toward biotic defense pathways. Overall design: mRNA profiles of +/- melatonin (5µM or 100µM) or NAA(4.5 µM)-treated Arabidopsis rosettes were generated by RNA-sequencing in triplicates (three independent biological experiments), using Illumina NextSeq 550.
Project description:Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays important roles in regulating both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, biological rhythms, plant growth and development. Sharing the same substrate (tryptophan) for the biosynthesis, melatonin and auxin also have similar effects in plant development. However, the specific function of melatonin in modulating plant root growth and the relationship between melatonin and auxin as well as underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we found high concentration of melatonin remarkably inhibited root growth in Arabidopsis by reducing root meristem size. Further studies showed that melatonin negatively regulated auxin biosynthesis, the expression of PINFORMED (PIN) proteins as well as auxin response in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the root growth of the triple mutant pin1pin3pin7 was more tolerant than that of wild-type in response to melatonin treatment, suggesting the essential role of PIN1/3/7 in melatonin-mediated root growth. Combination treatment of melatonin and 5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) did not enhance melatonin-mediated reduction of root meristem size, indicating that polar auxin transport (PAT) may be necessary for the regulation of root meristem size by melatonin treatment. Taken together, this study indicates that melatonin regulates root growth in Arabidopsis, through auxin synthesis and polar auxin transport, at least partially.
Project description:To adapt to the diverse array of biotic and abiotic cues, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense changes in environmental conditions and modulate their growth. Growth-promoting hormones and defence signalling fine tune plant development antagonistically. During host-pathogen interactions, this defence-growth trade-off is mediated by the counteractive effects of the defence hormone salicylic acid (SA) and the growth hormone auxin. Here we revealed an underlying mechanism of SA regulating auxin signalling by constraining the plasma membrane dynamics of PIN2 auxin efflux transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. The lateral diffusion of PIN2 proteins is constrained by SA signalling, during which PIN2 proteins are condensed into hyperclusters depending on REM1.2-mediated nanodomain compartmentalisation. Furthermore, membrane nanodomain compartmentalisation by SA or Remorin (REM) assembly significantly suppressed clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Consequently, SA-induced heterogeneous surface condensation disrupted asymmetric auxin distribution and the resultant gravitropic response. Our results demonstrated a defence-growth trade-off mechanism by which SA signalling crosstalked with auxin transport by concentrating membrane-resident PIN2 into heterogeneous compartments.
Project description:Auxin has long been known as a critical phytohormone that regulates fruit development in plants. However, due to the lack of an enlarged ovary wall in the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of fruit division and enlargement remain unclear. In this study, we performed small RNA sequencing and degradome sequencing analyses to systematically explore post-transcriptional regulation in the mesocarp at the hard core stage following treatment of the peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit with the synthetic auxin ?-naphthylacetic acid (NAA). Our analyses identified 24 evolutionarily conserved miRNA genes as well as 16 predicted genes. Experimental verification showed that the expression levels of miR398 and miR408b were significantly upregulated after NAA treatment, whereas those of miR156, miR160, miR166, miR167, miR390, miR393, miR482, miR535 and miR2118 were significantly downregulated. Degradome sequencing coupled with miRNA target prediction analyses detected 119 significant cleavage sites on several mRNA targets, including SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL), ARF, (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) NAC, Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox protein (ATHB), the homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor revoluta(REV), (teosinte-like1, cycloidea and proliferating cell factor1) TCP and auxin signaling F-box protein (AFB) family genes. Our systematic profiling of miRNAs and the degradome in peach fruit suggests the existence of a post-transcriptional regulation network of miRNAs that target auxin pathway genes in fruit development.
Project description:N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (Melatonin), as a crucial messenger in plants, functions in adjusting biological rhythms, stress tolerance, plant growth and development. Several studies have shown the retardation effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on plant growth and development. However, the in vivo role of melatonin in regulating plant leaf growth and the underlying mechanism are still unclear. In this study, we found that high concentration of melatonin suppressed leaf growth in Arabidopsis by reducing both cell size and cell number. Further kinetic analysis of the fifth leaves showed that melatonin remarkably inhibited cell division rate. Additionally, flow cytometic analysis indicated that melatonin negatively regulated endoreduplication during leaf development. Consistently, the expression analysis revealed that melatonin regulated the transcriptional levels of key genes of cell cycle and ribosome. Taken together, this study suggests that high concentration of melatonin negatively regulated the leaf growth and development in Arabidopsis, through modulation of endoreduplication and the transcripts of cell cycle and ribosomal key genes.
Project description:The acquisition of water and nutrients by plant roots is a fundamental aspect of agriculture and strongly depends on root architecture. Root branching and expansion of the root system is achieved through the development of lateral roots and is to a large extent controlled by the plant hormone auxin. However, the pleiotropic effects of auxin or auxin-like molecules on root systems complicate the study of lateral root development. Here we describe a small-molecule screen in Arabidopsis thaliana that identified naxillin as what is to our knowledge the first non-auxin-like molecule that promotes root branching. By using naxillin as a chemical tool, we identified a new function for root cap-specific conversion of the auxin precursor indole-3-butyric acid into the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid and uncovered the involvement of the root cap in root branching. Delivery of an auxin precursor in peripheral tissues such as the root cap might represent an important mechanism shaping root architecture. To further explore the specificity of naxillin for lateral root development, we compared the early effects of naxillin at the transcriptome level with NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) in roots of 3-day-old seedlings after 2-h and 6-h treatment. Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Heynh., Col-0 seeds were germinated vertically on solid medium derived from standard MS medium supplemented with 10 μM NPA (1-N-Naphthylphthalamic acid). Three days after germination, plants were transferred to 10 μM NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) or 50 μM naxillin for 2 and 6 hours. Plants were sampled before (Roots at T0, NPA) or after treatment (Roots at T1 and T2). RNA isolation was performed on 500 root sections (only root without meristems) for each sample. All sampling points were performed in three independent experiments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Under the threat of global climatic change and food shortages, it is essential to take the initiative to obtain a comprehensive understanding of common and specific defence mechanisms existing in plant systems for protection against different types of biotic invaders. We have implemented an integrated approach to analyse the overall transcriptomic reprogramming and systems-level defence responses in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana henceforth) during insect Brevicoryne brassicae (B. brassicae henceforth) and bacterial Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (P. syringae henceforth) attacks. The main aim of this study was to identify the attacker-specific and general defence response signatures in A. thaliana when attacked by phloem-feeding aphids or pathogenic bacteria.<h4>Results</h4>The obtained annotated networks of differentially expressed transcripts indicated that members of transcription factor families, such as WRKY, MYB, ERF, BHLH and bZIP, could be crucial for stress-specific defence regulation in Arabidopsis during aphid and P. syringae attack. The defence response pathways, signalling pathways and metabolic processes associated with aphid attack and P. syringae infection partially overlapped. Components of several important biosynthesis and signalling pathways, such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and glucosinolates, were differentially affected during the two the treatments. Several stress-regulated transcription factors were known to be associated with stress-inducible microRNAs. The differentially regulated gene sets included many signature transcription factors, and our co-expression analysis showed that they were also strongly co-expressed during 69 other biotic stress experiments.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Defence responses and functional networks that were unique and specific to aphid or P. syringae stresses were identified. Furthermore, our analysis revealed a probable link between biotic stress and microRNAs in Arabidopsis and, thus gives indicates a new direction for conducting large-scale targeted experiments to explore the detailed regulatory links between them. The presented results provide a comparative understanding of Arabidopsis - B. brassicae and Arabidopsis - P. syringae interactions at the transcriptomic level.
Project description:Melatonin has recently been demonstrated to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, the possible involvement of melatonin in Fe deficiency responses and the underlying mechanisms remained elusive in <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>. In this study, Fe deficiency quickly induced melatonin synthesis in <i>Arabidopsis</i> plants. Exogenous melatonin significantly increased the soluble Fe content of shoots and roots, and decreased the levels of root cell wall Fe bound to pectin and hemicellulose, thus alleviating Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, melatonin treatments induced a significant increase of nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in roots of Fe-deficient plants, but not in those of polyamine-deficient (<i>adc2-1</i> and d-arginine-treated) plants. Moreover, the melatonin-alleviated leaf chlorosis was blocked in the polyamine- and NO-deficient (<i>nia1nia2noa1</i> and c-PTIO-treated) plants, and the melatonin-induced Fe remobilization was largely inhibited. In addition, the expression of some Fe acquisition-related genes, including <i>FIT1</i>, <i>FRO2</i>, and <i>IRT1</i> were significantly up-regulated by melatonin treatments, whereas the enhanced expression of these genes was obviously suppressed in the polyamine- and NO-deficient plants. Collectively, our results provide evidence to support the view that melatonin can increase the tolerance of plants to Fe deficiency in a process dependent on the polyamine-induced NO production under Fe-deficient conditions.
Project description:While in most higher plants, including the model system Arabidopsis thaliana, the formation of lateral root primordia is induced in the elongation zone of the parental root, in seven plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, an alternative root branching mechanism is established such that lateral roots are initiated directly in the apical meristem of the parental root. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor GATA23 and MEMBRANE-ASSOCIATED KINASE REGULATOR4 (MAKR4) are involved in the gene regulatory network of lateral root initiation. Among all marker genes examined, these are the earliest known marker genes up-regulated by auxin during lateral root initiation. In this study, putative functional orthologs of Arabidopsis GATA23 and MAKR4 were identified in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and squash (Cucurbita pepo). Both cucurbits contained 26 genes encoding GATA family transcription factors and only one MAKR4 gene. Phylogenetic and transcriptional analysis of up-regulation by auxin led to the identification of GATA23 putative functional orthologs in Cucurbitaceae - CpGATA24 and CsGATA24. In squash, CpMAKR4 was up-regulated by naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and, similar to MAKR4 in Arabidopsis, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). A detailed analysis of the expression pattern of CpGATA24 and CpMAKR4 in squash roots from founder cell specification until emergence of lateral root primordia was carried out using promoter-fluorescent reporter gene fusions and confocal microscopy. Their expression was induced in the protoxylem, and then expanded to founder cells in the pericycle. Thus, while the overall expression pattern of these genes was significantly different from that in Arabidopsis, in founder cells their expression was induced in the same order as in Arabidopsis. Altogether, these findings suggest that in Cucurbitaceae the putative functional orthologs of GATA23 and MAKR4 might play a role in founder cell specification and primordium positioning during lateral root initiation. The role of the protoxylem in auxin transport as a trigger of founder cells specification and lateral root initiation is discussed.
Project description:Recent reports have demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana has the ability to alter its growth differentially when grown in the presence of secretions from other A. thaliana plants that are kin or strangers, however, little knowledge has been gained as to the physiological processes involved in these plant-plant interactions. Therefore, we examined the root transcriptome of A. thaliana plants exposed to stranger versus kin secretions to determine genes involved in these processes. We conducted a whole transcriptome analysis on root tissues and categorized genes with significant changes in expression. Genes from four categories of interest based on significant changes in expression were identified as ATP/GST transporter, auxin/auxin related, secondary metabolite and pathogen response genes. Multiple genes in each category were tested and results indicated that pathogen response genes were involved in the kin recognition response. Plants were then infected with Pseudomonas syringe pv. Tomato DC3000 to further examine the role of these genes in plants exposed to own, kin and stranger secretions in pathogen resistance. This study concluded that multiple physiological pathways are involved in the kin recognition. The possible implication of this study opens up a new dialogue in terms of how plant-plant interactions change under a biotic stress.