Bioconversion of Xylose to Ethylene Glycol and Glycolate in Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.
ABSTRACT: The biological production of two-carbon compounds (ethylene glycol (EG) and glycolate) has been studied for the sustainable supply of the compounds to the polymer, cosmetic, textile, and medical industries. Here, we demonstrated the bioconversion of xylose to either ethylene glycol (EG) or glycolate using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum, a well-known industrial amino acid producer. A synthetic ribulose 1-phosphate (Ru1P) pathway involving heterologous d-tagatose 3-epimerase and l-fuculose kinase/aldolase reactions was introduced in C. glutamicum. Subsequently, heterologous expression of Escherichia coli YqhD reductase with the synthetic Ru1P pathway led to ethylene glycol production from xylose. Additional pathway engineering in C. glutamicum by mutating ald, which encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, abolished the by-product formation of glycolate during xylose conversion to EG at a yield of 0.75 mol per mol. In addition, the bioconversion of xylose to glycolate was achieved, and the almost maximum molar yield was 0.99 mol per mol xylose in C. glutamicum via the Ru1P pathway. Thus, the synthetic Ru1P pathway in C. glutamicum led bioconversion of xylose to either ethylene glycol or glycolate with high molar yields.
Project description:Poly(lactate-co-glycolate), PLGA, is a representative synthetic biopolymer widely used in medical applications. Recently, we reported one-step direct fermentative production of PLGA and its copolymers by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli from xylose and glucose. In this study, we report development of metabolically engineered E. coli strains for the production of PLGA and poly(d-lactate-co-glycolate-co-d-2-hydroxybutyrate) having various monomer compositions from xylose as a sole carbon source. To achieve this, the metabolic flux towards Dahms pathway was modulated using five different synthetic promoters for the expression of Caulobacter crescentus XylBC. Further metabolic engineering to concentrate the metabolic flux towards d-lactate and glycolate resulted in production of PLGA and poly(d-lactate-co-glycolate-co-d-2-hydroxybutyrate) with various monomer fractions from xylose. The engineered E. coli strains produced polymers containing 8.8-60.9 mol% of glycolate up to 6.93 g l-1 by fed-batch cultivation in a chemically defined medium containing xylose. Finally, the biocompatibility of poly(d-lactate-co-glycolate-co-d-2-hydroxybutyrate) was confirmed by live/dead assay using human mesenchymal stem cells.
Project description:In bacterial system, direct conversion of xylose to xylonic acid is mediated through NAD-dependent xylose dehydrogenase (xylB) and xylonolactonase (xylC) genes. Heterologous expression of these genes from Caulobacter crescentus into recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 and C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 (with an innate pentose transporter, araE) resulted in an efficient bioconversion process to produce xylonic acid from xylose. Process parameters including the design of production medium was optimized using a statistical tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Maximum xylonic acid of 56.32 g/L from 60 g/L xylose, i.e. about 76.67% of the maximum theoretical yield was obtained after 120 h fermentation from pure xylose with recombinant C. glutamicum ATCC 31831 containing the plasmid pVWEx1 xylB. Under the same condition, the production with recombinant C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (with pVWEx1 xylB) was 50.66 g/L, i.e. 69% of the theoretical yield. There was no significant improvement in production with the simultaneous expression of xylB and xylC genes together indicating xylose dehydrogenase activity as one of the rate limiting factor in the bioconversion. Finally, proof of concept experiment in utilizing biomass derived pentose sugar, xylose, for xylonic acid production was also carried out and obtained 42.94 g/L xylonic acid from 60 g/L xylose. These results promise a significant value addition for the future bio refinery programs.
Project description:A synthetic pathway for (D)-xylose assimilation was stoichiometrically evaluated regarding its potential to produce selected value-added compounds and implemented in Escherichia coli strains. The pathway proceeds via the isomerization of (D)-xylose to (D)-xylulose, the phosphorylation of (D)-xylulose to obtain (D)-xylulose-1-phosphate (Xyl1P), and the aldolase cleavage of the latter to yield glycolaldehyde and DHAP. Both compounds can be further processed via the annotated natural metabolic network. Stoichiometric analyses showed that the synthetic pathway provides an efficient access to the value-added two-carbon (C2) compounds ethylene glycol and glycolic acid, which are either inaccessible via the annotated metabolic network of E. coli or produced at 20 % lower theoretical yield, respectively. The simultaneous expression of xylulose-1 kinase and Xyl1P aldolase activities, which were provided by human ketohexokinase-C and human aldolase-B, respectively, was necessary and sufficient to restore growth of a (D)-xylulose-5-kinase (ΔxylB) mutant on xylose. In this strain, ethylene glycol was the major metabolic end-product and produced at a molar yield of 0.47. Further metabolic engineering provided strains that assimilated the entire C2 fraction back into the central metabolism, or that produced 4.3 g/l glycolic acid at a molar yield of 0.9 in shake flasks. Overall design: The wild-type (WT) culture and synthetic strain (PEN205) were used for the microarray analysis. PEN205 is a ΔxylB deleted strain that express the synthetic pathway. WT and PEN205 were grown to the logarithmic phase of growth in M9 minimal medium supplemented with xylose. PEN205 culture RNA was extracted when their OD was around 1. WT culture were split into two equal aliquots at the OD of ~1 and further cultivated in the presence or absence of 10 mM glycolaldehyde. After 30 min of incubation, cells were used for RNA extraction as well.
Project description:A synthetic pathway for (D)-xylose assimilation was stoichiometrically evaluated regarding its potential to produce selected value-added compounds and implemented in Escherichia coli strains. The pathway proceeds via the isomerization of (D)-xylose to (D)-xylulose, the phosphorylation of (D)-xylulose to obtain (D)-xylulose-1-phosphate (Xyl1P), and the aldolase cleavage of the latter to yield glycolaldehyde and DHAP. Both compounds can be further processed via the annotated natural metabolic network. Stoichiometric analyses showed that the synthetic pathway provides an efficient access to the value-added two-carbon (C2) compounds ethylene glycol and glycolic acid, which are either inaccessible via the annotated metabolic network of E. coli or produced at 20 % lower theoretical yield, respectively. The simultaneous expression of xylulose-1 kinase and Xyl1P aldolase activities, which were provided by human ketohexokinase-C and human aldolase-B, respectively, was necessary and sufficient to restore growth of a (D)-xylulose-5-kinase (ΔxylB) mutant on xylose. In this strain, ethylene glycol was the major metabolic end-product and produced at a molar yield of 0.47. Further metabolic engineering provided strains that assimilated the entire C2 fraction back into the central metabolism, or that produced 4.3 g/l glycolic acid at a molar yield of 0.9 in shake flasks. The wild-type (WT) culture and synthetic strain (PEN205) were used for the microarray analysis. PEN205 is a ΔxylB deleted strain that express the synthetic pathway. WT and PEN205 were grown to the logarithmic phase of growth in M9 minimal medium supplemented with xylose. PEN205 culture RNA was extracted when their OD was around 1. WT culture were split into two equal aliquots at the OD of ~1 and further cultivated in the presence or absence of 10 mM glycolaldehyde. After 30 min of incubation, cells were used for RNA extraction as well.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Biological routes for ethylene glycol production have been developed in recent years by constructing the synthesis pathways in different microorganisms. However, no microorganisms have been reported yet to produce ethylene glycol naturally. RESULTS:Xylonic acid utilizing microorganisms were screened from natural environments, and an Enterobacter cloacae strain was isolated. The major metabolites of this strain were ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. However, the metabolites were switched to 2,3-butanediol, acetoin or acetic acid when this strain was cultured with other carbon sources. The metabolic pathway of ethylene glycol synthesis from xylonic acid in this bacterium was identified. Xylonic acid was converted to 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate catalyzed by D-xylonic acid dehydratase. 2-Dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate was converted to form pyruvate and glycolaldehyde, and this reaction was catalyzed by an aldolase. D-Xylonic acid dehydratase and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate aldolase were encoded by yjhG and yjhH, respectively. The two genes are part of the same operon and are located adjacent on the chromosome. Besides yjhG and yjhH, this operon contains four other genes. However, individually inactivation of these four genes had no effect on either ethylene glycol or glycolic acid production; both formed from glycolaldehyde. YqhD exhibits ethylene glycol dehydrogenase activity in vitro. However, a low level of ethylene glycol was still synthesized by E. cloacae ?yqhD. Fermentation parameters for ethylene glycol and glycolic acid production by the E. cloacae strain were optimized, and aerobic cultivation at neutral pH were found to be optimal. In fed batch culture, 34 g/L of ethylene glycol and 13 g/L of glycolic acid were produced in 46 h, with a total conversion ratio of 0.99 mol/mol xylonic acid. CONCLUSIONS:A novel route of xylose biorefinery via xylonic acid as an intermediate has been established.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol.
Project description:The efficient use of hemicellulose in the plant cell wall is critical for the economic conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels and chemicals. Previously, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered to convert the hemicellulose-derived pentose sugars xylose and arabinose to d-xylulose-5-phosphate for conversion via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, efficient pentose utilization requires PPP optimization and may interfere with its roles in NADPH and pentose production. Here, we developed an alternative xylose utilization pathway that largely bypasses the PPP. In the new pathway, d-xylulose is converted to d-xylulose-1-phosphate, a novel metabolite to S. cerevisiae, which is then cleaved to glycolaldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This synthetic pathway served as a platform for the biosynthesis of ethanol and ethylene glycol. The use of d-xylulose-1-phosphate as an entry point for xylose metabolism opens the way for optimizing chemical conversion of pentose sugars in S. cerevisiae in a modular fashion.
Project description:Background:Succinate has been recognized as one of the most important bio-based building block chemicals due to its numerous potential applications. However, efficient methods for the production of succinate from lignocellulosic feedstock were rarely reported. Nevertheless, Corynebacterium glutamicum was engineered to efficiently produce succinate from glucose in our previous study. Results:In this work, C. glutamicum was engineered for efficient succinate production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. First, xylose utilization of C. glutamicum was optimized by heterologous expression of xylA and xylB genes from different sources. Next, xylA and xylB from Xanthomonas campestris were selected among four candidates to accelerate xylose consumption and cell growth. Subsequently, the optimal xylA and xylB were co-expressed in C. glutamicum strain SAZ3 (?ldhA?pta?pqo?catPsod-ppcPsod-pyc) along with genes encoding pyruvate carboxylase, citrate synthase, and a succinate exporter to achieve succinate production from xylose in a two-stage fermentation process. Xylose utilization and succinate production were further improved by overexpressing the endogenous tkt and tal genes and introducing araE from Bacillus subtilis. The final strain C. glutamicum CGS5 showed an excellent ability to produce succinate in two-stage fermentations by co-utilizing a glucose-xylose mixture under anaerobic conditions. A succinate titer of 98.6 g L-1 was produced from corn stalk hydrolysate with a yield of 0.87 g/g total substrates and a productivity of 4.29 g L-1 h-1 during the anaerobic stage. Conclusion:This work introduces an efficient process for the bioconversion of biomass into succinate using a thoroughly engineered strain of C. glutamicum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest titer of succinate produced from non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, which highlights that the biosafety level 1 microorganism C. glutamicum is a promising platform for the envisioned lignocellulosic biorefinery.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A considerable challenge in the development of bioprocesses for producing chemicals and fuels has been the high cost of feedstocks relative to oil prices, making it difficult for these processes to compete with their conventional petrochemical counterparts. Hence, in the absence of high oil prices in the near future, there has been a shift in the industry to produce higher value compounds such as fragrances for cosmetics. Yet, there is still a need to address climate change and develop biotechnological approaches for producing large market, lower value chemicals and fuels.<h4>Results</h4>In this work, we study ethylene glycol (EG), a novel feedstock that we believe has promise to address this challenge. We engineer Escherichia coli (E. coli) to consume EG and examine glycolate production as a case study for chemical production. Using a combination of modeling and experimental studies, we identify oxygen concentration as an important metabolic valve in the assimilation and use of EG as a substrate. Two oxygen-based strategies are thus developed and tested in fed-batch bioreactors. Ultimately, the best glycolate production strategy employed a target respiratory quotient leading to the highest observed fermentation performance. With this strategy, a glycolate titer of 10.4 g/L was reached after 112 h of production time in a fed-batch bioreactor. Correspondingly, a yield of 0.8 g/g from EG and productivity of 0.1 g/L h were measured during the production stage. Our modeling and experimental results clearly suggest that oxygen concentration is an important factor in the assimilation and use of EG as a substrate. Finally, our use of metabolic modeling also sheds light on the intracellular distribution through central metabolism, implicating flux to 2-phosphoglycerate as the primary route for EG assimilation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Overall, our work suggests that EG could provide a renewable starting material for commercial biosynthesis of fuels and chemicals that may achieve economic parity with petrochemical feedstocks while sequestering carbon dioxide.
Project description:(R)-acetoin is a four-carbon platform compound used as the precursor for synthesizing novel optically active materials. Ethylene glycol (EG) is a large-volume two-carbon commodity chemical used as the anti-freezing agent and building-block molecule for various polymers. Currently established microbial fermentation processes for converting monosaccharides to either (R)-acetoin or EG are plagued by the formation of undesirable by-products. We show here that a cell-free bioreaction scheme can generate enantiomerically pure acetoin and EG as co-products from biomass-derived D-xylose. The seven-step, ATP-free system included in situ cofactor regeneration and recruited enzymes from Escherichia coli W3110, Bacillus subtilis shaijiu 32 and Caulobacter crescentus CB 2. Optimized in vitro biocatalytic conditions generated 3.2 mM (R)-acetoin with stereoisomeric purity of 99.5% from 10 mM D-xylose at 30 °C and pH 7.5 after 24 h, with an initial (R)-acetoin productivity of 1.0 mM/h. Concomitantly, EG was produced at 5.5 mM, with an initial productivity of 1.7 mM/h. This in vitro biocatalytic platform illustrates the potential for production of multiple value-added biomolecules from biomass-based sugars with no ATP requirement.