BackgroundSub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is experiencing an epidemic of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as a result of a rapid epidemiological transition. Little is known about the admission for CVD and outcome in rural and semi-urban settings in Cameroon in this era of epidemiological transition. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the pattern of CVD admissions in the South West region of Cameroon.
MethodsThis retrospective descriptive study included all adult patients admitted for CVD in the medical unit of the Buea Regional Hospital between Jan 2016 and December 2017.
ResultsOut of the 3140 patients admitted, 499(15.9%) had CVD. There were 304(60.9%) females. The mean age was 58.7±16.2 years. There was no age difference between men and women (59.7 years vs 58.1years, p = 0.29). The most commonly affected age group was those aged 50-59 years (22%). Heart failure (38.5%), stroke (33.3%) and uncontrolled hypertension (22.4%) were the most prevalent CVDs. The length of hospital stay ranged from 1 to 37 days with a median length of hospital stay of 7 days. In-hospital case fatality was 78(15.8%). Mortality was higher in women compared to men (9% vs 7%, p = 0.43). The case fatality for stroke was higher compared to case fatality for heart failure (21.7% vs 16.7%, p = 0.23).
ConclusionCVDs are a common cause of hospital admission in this semi-urban setting, dominated by heart failure. Women were disproportionately affected and it was associated with high mortality. Prevention, early detection and management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease are imperative given the growing burden of CVD in SSA to reduce CVD morbidity and mortality.