Functional Analysis of the Soybean GmCDPK3 Gene Responding to Drought and Salt Stresses.
ABSTRACT: Plants have a series of response mechanisms to adapt when they are subjected to external stress. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in plants function against a variety of abiotic stresses. We screened 17 CDPKs from drought- and salt-induced soybean transcriptome sequences. The phylogenetic tree divided CDPKs of rice, Arabidopsis and soybean into five groups (I-V). Cis-acting element analysis showed that the 17 CDPKs contained some elements associated with drought and salt stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the 17 CDPKs were responsive after different degrees of induction under drought and salt stresses. GmCDPK3 was selected as a further research target due to its high relative expression. The subcellular localization experiment showed that GmCDPK3 was located on the membrane of Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Overexpression of GmCDPK3 improved drought and salt resistance in Arabidopsis. In the soybean hairy roots experiment, the leaves of GmCDPK3 hairy roots with RNA interference (GmCDPK3-RNAi) soybean lines were more wilted than those of GmCDPK3 overexpression (GmCDPK3-OE) soybean lines after drought and salt stresses. The trypan blue staining experiment further confirmed that cell membrane damage of GmCDPK3-RNAi soybean leaves was more severe than in GmCDPK3-OE soybean lines. In addition, proline (Pro) and chlorophyll contents were increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was decreased in GmCDPK3-OE soybean lines. On the contrary, GmCDPK3-RNAi soybean lines had decreased Pro and chlorophyll content and increased MDA. The results indicate that GmCDPK3 is essential in resisting drought and salt stresses.
Project description:The TGA transcription factors, a subfamily of bZIP group D, play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the regulation of growth and development as well as responses to pathogens and abiotic stress. In this study, 27 TGA genes were identified in the soybean genome. The expression patterns of GmTGA genes showed that several GmTGA genes are differentially expressed under drought and salt stress conditions. Among them, GmTGA17 was strongly induced by both stress, which were verificated by the promoter-GUS fusion assay. GmTGA17 encodes a nuclear-localized protein with transcriptional activation activity. Heterologous and homologous overexpression of GmTGA17 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in both transgeinc Arabidopsis plants and soybean hairy roots. However, RNAi hairy roots silenced for GmTGA17 exhibited an increased sensitivity to drought and salt stress. In response to drought or salt stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants had an increased chlorophyll and proline contents, a higher ABA content, a decreased MDA content, a reduced water loss rate, and an altered expression of ABA- responsive marker genes compared with WT plants. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were more sensitive to ABA in stomatal closure. Similarly, measurement of physiological parameters showed an increase in chlorophyll and proline contents, with a decrease in MDA content in soybean seedlings with overexpression hairy roots after drought and salt stress treatments. The opposite results for each measurement were observed in RNAi lines. This study provides new insights for functional analysis of soybean TGA transcription factors in abiotic stress.
Project description:Fifteen transcription factors in the CAMTA (calmodulin binding transcription activator) family of soybean were reported to differentially regulate in multiple stresses; however, their functional analyses had not yet been attempted. To characterize their role in stresses, we first comprehensively analyzed the GmCAMTA family in silico and thereafter determined their expression pattern under drought. The bioinformatics analysis revealed multiple stress-related cis-regulatory elements including ABRE, SARE, G-box and W-box, 10 unique miRNA (microRNA) targets in GmCAMTA transcripts and 48 proteins in GmCAMTAs' interaction network. We then cloned the 2769 bp CDS (coding sequence) of GmCAMTA12 in an expression vector and overexpressed in soybean and Arabidopsis through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The T3 (Transgenic generation 3) stably transformed homozygous lines of Arabidopsis exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought in soil as well as on MS (Murashige and Skoog) media containing mannitol. In their drought assay, the average survival rate of transgenic Arabidopsis lines OE5 and OE12 (Overexpression Line 5 and Line 12) was 83.66% and 87.87%, respectively, which was ~30% higher than that of wild type. In addition, the germination and root length assays as well as physiological indexes such as proline and malondialdehyde contents, catalase activity and leakage of electrolytes affirmed the better performance of OE lines. Similarly, GmCAMTA12 overexpression in soybean promoted drought-efficient hairy roots in OE chimeric plants as compare to that of VC (Vector control). In parallel, the improved growth performance of OE in Hoagland-PEG (polyethylene glycol) and on MS-mannitol was revealed by their phenotypic, physiological and molecular measures. Furthermore, with the overexpression of GmCAMTA12, the downstream genes including AtAnnexin5, AtCaMHSP, At2G433110 and AtWRKY14 were upregulated in Arabidopsis. Likewise, in soybean hairy roots, GmELO, GmNAB and GmPLA1-IId were significantly upregulated as a result of GmCAMTA12 overexpression and majority of these upregulated genes in both plants possess CAMTA binding CGCG/CGTG motif in their promoters. Taken together, we report that GmCAMTA12 plays substantial role in tolerance of soybean against drought stress and could prove to be a novel candidate for engineering soybean and other plants against drought stress. Some research gaps were also identified for future studies to extend our comprehension of Ca-CaM-CAMTA-mediated stress regulatory mechanisms.
Project description:Vascular plant one-zinc-finger (VOZ) transcription factor, a plant specific one-zinc-finger-type transcriptional activator, is involved in regulating numerous biological processes such as floral induction and development, defense against pathogens, and response to multiple types of abiotic stress. Six VOZ transcription factor-encoding genes (GmVOZs) have been reported to exist in the soybean (Glycine max) genome. In spite of this, little information is currently available regarding GmVOZs. In this study, GmVOZs were cloned and characterized. GmVOZ genes encode proteins possessing transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. GmVOZ1E, GmVOZ2B, and GmVOZ2D gene products were widely dispersed in the cytosol, while GmVOZ1G was primarily located in the nucleus. GmVOZs displayed a differential expression profile under dehydration, salt, and salicylic acid (SA) stress conditions. Among them, GmVOZ1G showed a significantly induced expression in response to all stress treatments. Overexpression of GmVOZ1G in soybean hairy roots resulted in a greater tolerance to drought and salt stress. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) soybean hairy roots suppressing GmVOZ1G were more sensitive to both of these stresses. Under drought treatment, soybean composite plants with an overexpression of hairy roots had higher relative water content (RWC). In response to drought and salt stress, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were observed in soybean composite seedlings with an overexpression of hairy roots. The opposite results for each physiological parameter were obtained in RNAi lines. In conclusion, GmVOZ1G positively regulates drought and salt stress tolerance in soybean hairy roots. Our results will be valuable for the functional characterization of soybean VOZ transcription factors under abiotic stress.
Project description:Stress associated proteins (SAPs) containing A20/AN1 zinc finger domains have emerged as novel regulators of stress responses. In this study, 27 SAP genes were identified in soybean. The phylogenetic relationships, exon-intron structure, domain structure, chromosomal localization, putative cis-acting elements, and expression patterns of SAPs in various tissues under abiotic stresses were analyzed. Among the soybean SAP genes, GmSAP16 was significantly induced by water deficit stress, salt, and abscisic acid (ABA) and selected for further analysis. GmSAP16 was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The overexpression of GmSAP16 in Arabidopsis improved drought and salt tolerance at different developmental stages and increased ABA sensitivity, as indicated by delayed seed germination and stomatal closure. The GmSAP16 transgenic Arabidopsis plants had a higher proline content and a lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) content than wild type (WT) plants in response to stresses. The overexpression of GmSAP16 in soybean hairy roots enhanced drought and salt tolerance of soybean seedlings, with higher proline and chlorophyll contents and a lower MDA content than WT. RNA inference (RNAi) of GmSAP16 increased stress sensitivity. Stress-related genes, including GmDREB1B;1, GmNCED3, GmRD22, GmDREB2, GmNHX1, and GmSOS1, showed significant expression alterations in GmSAP16-overexpressing and RNAi plants under stress treatments. These results indicate that soybean SAP genes play important roles in abiotic stress responses.
Project description:Ankyrin repeat (ANK) proteins are essential in cell growth, development, and response to hormones and environmental stresses. In the present study, 226 ANK genes were identified and classified into nine subfamilies according to conserved domains in the soybean genome (Glycine max L.). Among them, the GmANK114 was highly induced by drought, salt, and abscisic acid. The GmANK114 encodes a protein that belongs to the ANK-RF subfamily containing a RING finger (RF) domain in addition to the ankyrin repeats. Heterologous overexpression of GmANK114 in transgenic Arabidopsis improved the germination rate under drought and salt treatments compared to wild-type. Homologous overexpression of GmANK114 improved the survival rate under drought and salt stresses in transgenic soybean hairy roots. In response to drought or salt stress, GmANK114 overexpression in soybean hairy root showed higher proline and lower malondialdehyde contents, and lower H2O2 and O2- contents compared control plants. Besides, GmANK114 activated transcription of several abiotic stress-related genes, including WRKY13, NAC11, DREB2, MYB84, and bZIP44 under drought and salt stresses in soybean. These results provide new insights for functional analysis of soybean ANK proteins and will be helpful for further understanding how ANK proteins in plants adapt to abiotic stress.
Project description:Abiotic stresses, such as drought and salt, are major environmental stresses, affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Plant bZIP transcription factors (bZIPs) confer stress resistances in harsh environments and play important roles in each phase of plant growth processes. In this research, 15 soybean bZIP family members were identified from drought-induced de novo transcriptomic sequences of soybean, which were unevenly distributed across 12 soybean chromosomes. Promoter analysis showed that these 15 genes were rich in ABRE, MYB and MYC cis-acting elements which were reported to be involved in abiotic stress responses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that 15 GmbZIP genes could be induced by drought and salt stress. GmbZIP2 was significantly upregulated under stress conditions and thus was selected for further study. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the GmbZIP2 protein was located in the cell nucleus. qRT-PCR results show that GmbZIP2 can be induced by multiple stresses. The overexpression of GmbZIP2 in Arabidopsis and soybean hairy roots could improve plant resistance to drought and salt stresses. The result of differential expression gene analysis shows that the overexpression of GmbZIP2 in soybean hairy roots could enhance the expression of the stress responsive genes GmMYB48, GmWD40, GmDHN15, GmGST1 and GmLEA. These results indicate that soybean bZIPs played pivotal roles in plant resistance to abiotic stresses.
Project description:NF-YA transcription factors function in modulating tolerance to abiotic stresses that are serious threats to crop yields. In this study, GmNFYA13, an NF-YA gene in soybean, was strongly induced by salt, drought, ABA, and H2O2, and suppressed by tungstate, an ABA synthesis inhibitor. The GmNFYA13 transcripts were detected in different tissues in seedling and flowering stages, and the expression levels in roots were highest. GmNFYA13 is a nuclear localization protein with self-activating activity. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmNFYA13 with higher transcript levels of stress-related genes showed ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants. Moreover, overexpression of GmNFYA13 resulted in higher salt and drought tolerance in OE soybean plants, while suppressing it produced the opposite results. In addition, GmNFYA13 could bind to the promoters of GmSALT3, GmMYB84, GmNCED3, and GmRbohB to regulate their expression abundance in vivo. The data in this study suggested that GmNFYA13 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in soybean plants.
Project description:NACs are plant-specific transcription factors that have crucial roles in plant development and biotic and/or abiotic stress responses. This study characterized the functions of the soybean NAC gene GmNAC109 using an overexpression construct in Arabidopsis lines. Sequence analysis revealed that GmNAC109 is highly homologous to ATAF1 (Arabidopsis Transcription Activation Factor 1), which regulates biotic and abiotic stress responses. GmNAC109 protein localized to the nucleus and its C-terminal domain exhibited transcriptional activation activity. Salt, dehydration, and cold stresses significantly increased expression of GmNAC109 in soybean. Similarly, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmNAC109 were more tolerant to drought and salt stress than wild-type Col-0 plants. Stress response-related genes, such as DREB1A (drought-responsive element-binding 1A), DREB2A, AREB1 (ABSCISIC ACID-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN 1), AREB2, RD29A (RESPONSIVE TO Desiccation 29A), and COR15A (COLD REGULATED 15A) were upregulated in GmNAC109-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis lines. The transgenic lines showed upregulation of the ABA-responsive genes ABI1 (ABA INSENSITIVE 1) and ABI5 and hypersensitivity to ABA. However, GmNAC109 did not increase expression of the ABA-biosynthetic gene NCED3 (NINE-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE 3) and endogenous ABA content in the transgenic lines. Overexpression of GmNAC109 significantly increased lateral root formation in transgenic Arabidopsis lines. Expression of AIR3 (AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES 3) and ARF2 (AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2) was increased and decreased in these transgenic lines, respectively, indicating that GmNAC109 is involved in the auxin signaling pathway and thereby helps to regulate hairy root formation. Our results provide a basis for development of soybean lines with improved tolerance to abiotic stresses via genetic manipulation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Abiotic stress severely influences plant growth and development. MYB transcription factors (TFs), which compose one of the largest TF families, play an important role in abiotic stress responses.<h4>Result</h4>We identified 139 soybean MYB-related genes; these genes were divided into six groups based on their conserved domain and were distributed among 20 chromosomes (Chrs). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that GmMYB118 highly responsive to drought, salt and high temperature stress; thus, this gene was selected for further analysis. Subcellular localization revealed that the GmMYB118 protein located in the nucleus. Ectopic expression (EX) of GmMYB118 increased tolerance to drought and salt stress and regulated the expression of several stress-associated genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Similarly, GmMYB118-overexpressing (OE) soybean plants generated via Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A. rhizogenes)-mediated transformation of the hairy roots showed improved drought and salt tolerance. Furthermore, compared with the control (CK) plants, the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-transformed plants exhibited reduced drought and salt tolerance. The contents of proline and chlorophyll in the OE plants were significantly greater than those in the CK plants, whose contents were greater than those in the CRISPR plants under drought and salt stress conditions. In contrast, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly lower in the OE plants than in the CK plants, whose contents were lower than those in the CRISPR plants under stress conditions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results indicated that GmMYB118 could improve tolerance to drought and salt stress by promoting expression of stress-associated genes and regulating osmotic and oxidizing substances to maintain cell homeostasis.
Project description:Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a class of cysteine-rich soluble proteins having small molecular weights. LTPs participate in flower and seed development, cuticular wax deposition, also play important roles in pathogen and abiotic stress responses. A non-specific LTP gene (SiLTP) was isolated from a foxtail millet (Setaria italica) suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for differentially expressed genes after abiotic stress treatments. A semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that SiLTP was expressed in all foxtail millet tissues. Additionally, the SiLTP promoter drove GUS expression in root tips, stems, leaves, flowers, and siliques of transgenic Arabidopsis. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the SiLTP expression was induced by NaCl, polyethylene glycol, and abscisic acid (ABA). SiLTP was localized in the cytoplasm of tobacco leaf epidermal cells and maize protoplasts. The ectopic expression of SiLTP in tobacco resulted in higher levels of salt and drought tolerance than in the wild type (WT). To further assess the function of SiLTP, SiLTP overexpression (OE) and RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic foxtail millet were obtained. SiLTP-OE lines performed better under salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants. In contrast, the RNAi lines were much more sensitive to salt and drought compared than WT. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrids indicated that the transcription factor ABA-responsive DRE-binding protein (SiARDP) could bind to the dehydration-responsive element of SiLTP promoter in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Moreover, the SiLTP expression levels were higher in SiARDP-OE plants compared than the WT. These results confirmed that SiLTP plays important roles in improving salt and drought stress tolerance of foxtail millet, and may partly be upregulated by SiARDP. SiLTP may provide an effective genetic resource for molecular breeding in crops to enhance salt and drought tolerance levels.