Red blood cell membrane-enveloped O2 self-supplementing biomimetic nanoparticles for tumor imaging-guided enhanced sonodynamic therapy.
ABSTRACT: Non-invasive sonodynamic therapy (SDT) was developed because of its advantages of high penetration depth and low side effects; however, tumor hypoxia greatly restricts its therapeutic effect. In this study, we aimed to develop ideal O2 self-supplementing nanoparticles for imaging-guided enhanced sonodynamic therapy of tumors with the adept coalescence of biology with nanotechnology. Methods: Based on the natural enzyme system of red blood cells (RBC), biomimetic nanoparticles (QD@P)Rs were fabricated by encapsulating Ag2S quantum dots (QD) in RBC vesicle membranes. The anti-tumor drug PEITC was employed to increase the intracellular H2O2 concentration in tumor cells. Results: In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and prolonged blood circulation of (QD@P)Rs. Following oral administration of PEITC in mice to improve the H2O2 concentration, the enzyme in the nanoprobe catalyzed endogenous H2O2 to increase O2 content and effectively alleviate tumor hypoxia. Triggered by ultrasound under the guidance of fluorescence imaging, (QD@P)Rs generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce tumor cell death, and the increased content of O2 significantly enhanced the effect of SDT. Conclusion: Ag2S QDs were used, for the first time, as a sonosensitizer in the SDT field. In this study, we integrated the advantages of the natural enzyme system and SDT to develop a novel approach for effective non-invasive treatment of cancer.
Project description:Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has become a new modality for cancer therapy through activating certain chemical sensitizers by ultrasound (US). Discovery and development of novel sonosensitizers are attracting extensive attentions. Here, we introduce IR-780 iodide, a lipophilic heptamethine dye with a peak optical absorption of 780?nm wavelength, which can function as SDT agents for breast cancer treatment. The in vitro cellular uptake, cell viability, and the generation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by using 4T1 breast cancer cells incubated with various concentrations of IR-780 followed by US irradiation. Our results showed a dose- and time-dependent cellular uptake of IR-780 iodide in 4T1 cancer cells. Significant lower viabilities and more necrotic/apoptotic cells were found when these cancer cells were treated with IR-780 iodide with US irradiation. Further analyzing the generation of ROS demonstrated significant increase of (1)O2 level and H2O2, but not ?OH in the SDT-treated cells. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of SDT with IR-780 revealed significant tumor growth inhibition of xenografts of 4T1 cancer cells; it was further confirmed by histological analysis and TUNEL staining. Our results strongly suggest that SDT combined with IR-780 may provide a promising strategy for tumor treatment with minimal side effects.
Project description:Sonodynamic therapy has attracted widespread attention for cancer treatment because of its noninvasiveness and high tissue-penetration ability. Generally, ultrasound irradiation of sonosensitizers produces separated electrons (e−) and holes (h+), which inhibits cancer by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the separated electrons (e−) and holes (h+) could easily recombine, lowering the yield of ROS and hindering the application of sonodynamic therapy (SDT). Herein, we present a highly efficient sonosensitizer system for enhanced sonodynamic therapy built on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets, bridged ZnO and Au nanoparticles, coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The ultrasound irradiation activates ZnO nanoparticles to generate separated electron-hole (e−−h+) pairs, and the rGO nanosheets facilitate electron transfer from ZnO to Au nanoparticles because of the narrow band gap of rGO, which could efficiently restrain the recombination of the e−−h+ pairs, thereby significantly augmenting the production of ROS to kill cancer cells, such as U373MG, HeLa, and CT26 cells. Moreover, rGO nanosheets integrated with Au nanoparticles could catalyze the endogenous decomposition of H2O2 into O2, which can alleviate hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME). Therefore, the rational design of Au−rGO−ZnO@PVP nanomaterials can not only improve the efficiency of sonodynamic therapy, but also mitigate the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, which would provide a new perspective in the development of efficient sonosensitizers. <h4>Electronic Supplementary Material</h4> Supplementary material (the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra of the DPBF and the RhB, biological effect assessment of the Au−rGO−ZnO@PVP, and the inhibition rate of tumor under different treatments during the animal study) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-022-4599-5.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) as an emerging reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated antitumor strategy is challenged by the rapid depletion of oxygen, as well as the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Instead of the presently available coping strategies that amplify the endogenous O2 level, we have proposed a biodegradable O2 economizer to reduce expenditure for augmenting SDT efficacy in the present study. RESULTS:We successfully fabricated the O2 economizer (HMME@HMONs-3BP-PEG, HHBP) via conjugation of respiration inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) with hollow mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (HMONs), followed by the loading of organic sonosensitizers (hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether; HMME) and further surface modification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The engineered HHBP features controllable pH/GSH/US-sensitive drug release. The exposed 3BP could effectively inhibit cell respiration for restraining the oxygen consumption, which could alleviate the tumor hypoxia conditions. More interestingly, it could exorbitantly elevate the autophagy level, which in turn induced excessive activation of autophagy for promoting the therapeutic efficacy. As a result, when accompanied with suppressing O2-consumption and triggering pro-death autophagy strategy, the HHBP could achieve the remarkable antitumor activity, which was systematically validated both in vivo and in vitro assays. CONCLUSIONS:This work not only provides a reduce expenditure means for enduring SDT, but also represents an inquisitive strategy for tumor treatments by inducing pro-death autophagy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The combination of sonodynamic therapy and oxygenation strategy is widely used in cancer treatment. However, due to the complexity, heterogeneity and irreversible hypoxic environment produced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, oxygen-enhancing sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has failed to achieve the desired results. With the emergence of ferroptosis with reactive oxygen species (ROS) cytotoxicity, this novel cell death method has attracted widespread attention.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, nanobubbles (NBs) were connected with the sonosensitizer Indocyanine green (ICG) to construct a 2-in-1 nanoplatform loaded with RAS-selective lethal (RSL3, ferroptosis promoter) (RSL3@O2-ICG NBs), combined with oxygen-enhanced SDT and potent ferroptosis. In addition, nanobubbles (NBs) combined with low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS) are called ultrasound-targeted nanobubble destruction (UTND) to ensure specific drug release and improve safety.<h4>Results</h4>MDA/GSH and other related experimental results show that RSL3@O2-ICG NBs can enhance SDT and ferroptosis. Through RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), the differential expression of LncRNA and mRNA before and after synergistic treatment was identified, and then GO and KEGG pathways were used to enrich and analyze target genes and pathways related ferroptosis sensitivity. We found that they were significantly enriched in the ferroptosis-related pathway MAPK cascade and cell proliferation. Then, we searched for the expression of differentially expressed genes in the TCGA Hepatocellular carcinoma cohort. At the same time, we evaluated the proportion of immune cell infiltration and the identification of co-expression network modules and related prognostic analysis. We found that it was significantly related to the tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The prognostic risk genes "SLC37A2" and "ITGB7" may represent new hepatocellular carcinoma ferroptosis-inducing markers and have guiding significance for treating hepatocellular carcinoma.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The therapeutic effect of the in vitro synergistic treatment has been proven to be significant, revealing the prospect of 2-in-1 nanobubbles combined with SDT and ferroptosis in treating HCC.
Project description:Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) triggered by ultrasound (US) can overcome pivotal limitations of photo-therapy owing to its high depth-penetration and low phototoxicity. However, there is still a need to develop more efficient sonosensitizes to enhance the therapy efficiency. <b>Methods:</b> In this study, Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) are reduced on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) by <i>in situ</i> reduction to prepare Si-Pt nanocomposites (Si-Pt NCs). <b>Results:</b> Si-Pt NCs can produce reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) under ultrasound (US) irradiation, which have sonodynamic therapy (SDT) effect. Meanwhile, Si-Pt NCs can convert excess hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) into ROS in the tumor microenvironment, which endow strong chemodynamic therapy (CDT) effect. Taking the advantages of the mesoporous structure of SiNWs, the SDT and CDT effects of Si-Pt NCs are stronger than those of the pure Pt NPs and SiNWs. Besides, the mild photothermal effect of Si-Pt NCs further improves the SDT&CDT activity and realizes the combined cancer therapy. <b>Conclusion:</b> The developed Si-Pt NCs with the ability of photothermal enhanced SDT/CDT combined therapy play a momentous role in the novel cancer treatment.
Project description:The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in cancer cells would evoke oxidative stress-induced cell death, which has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating malignant tumors. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) adopts ultrasound (US) as the excitation source to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which emerges as a noninvasive therapeutic strategy with deep tissue penetration depth and high clinical safety. Herein, we construct novel sonoactivated oxidative stress amplification nanoplatforms by coating MnO2 on Au nanoparticle-anchored black phosphorus nanosheets and decorating soybean phospholipid subsequently (Au/BP@MS). The Au/BP@MS exhibit increased ROS generation efficiency under US irradiation in tumor tissues due to Au/BP nanosensitizer-induced improvement of electron-hole separation as well as MnO2-mediated O2 generation and GSH depletion, thus leading to notable inhibition effect on tumor growth. Moreover, tumor microenvironment-responsive biodegradability of Au/BP@MS endows them with enhanced magnetic resonance imaging guidance and clinical potential for cancer theranostics.
Project description:Ultrasound-triggered sonodynamic therapy (SDT) represents an emerging therapeutic modality for cancer treatment based on its specific feature of noninvasiveness, high tissue-penetrating depth and desirable therapeutic efficacy, but the SDT-induced pro-survival cancer-cell autophagy would significantly lower the SDT efficacy for cancer treatment. Here we propose an "all-in-one" combined tumor-therapeutic strategy by integrating nanosonosensitizers-augmented noninvasive SDT with autophagy inhibition based on the rationally constructed nanoliposomes that co-encapsulates clinically approved sonosensitizers protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and early-phase autophagy-blocking agent 3-methyladenine (3-MA). It has been systematically demonstrated that nanosonosensitizers-augmented SDT induced cytoprotective pro-survival autophagy through activation of MAPK signaling pathway and inhibition of AMPK signaling pathway, and this could be efficaciously inhibited by 3-MA in early-phase autophagy, which significantly decreased the cell resistance to intracellular oxidative stress and complied a remarkable synergistic effect on SDT medicated cancer-cell apoptosis both in vitro at cellular level and in vivo on tumor-bearing animal model. Therefore, our results provide a proof-of-concept combinatorial tumor therapeutics based on nanosonosensitizers for the treatment of ROS-resistant cancer by autophagy inhibition-augmented SDT.
Project description:The therapeutic outcomes of noninvasive sonodynamic therapy (SDT) are always compromised by tumor hypoxia, as well as inherent protective mechanisms of tumor. Herein, we report a simple cascade enzymatic approach of the concurrent glucose depletion and intratumoral oxygenation for starvation-sensitized and oxygenation-amplified sonodynamic therapy using a dual enzyme and sonosensitizer-loaded nanomedicine designated as GOD/CAT@ZPF-Lips. In particular, glucose oxidase- (GOD-) catalyzed glycolysis would cut off glucose supply within the tumor, resulting in the production of tumor hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) while causing tumor cells starvation. The generated H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> could subsequently be decomposed by catalase (CAT) to generate oxygen, which acts as reactants for the abundant singlet oxygen (<sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub>) production by loaded sonosensitizer hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) upon the US irradiation, performing largely elevated therapeutic outcomes of SDT. In the meantime, the severe energy deprivation enabled by GOD-catalyzed glucose depletion would prevent tumor cells from executing protective mechanisms to defend themselves and make the tumor cells sensitized and succumbed to the cytotoxicity of <sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub>. Eventually, GOD/CAT@ZPF-Lips demonstrate the excellent tumoral therapeutic effect of SDT in vivo without significant side effect through the cascade enzymatic starvation and oxygenation, and encouragingly, the tumor xenografts have been found completely eradicated in around 4 days by the intravenous injection of the nanomedicine without reoccurrence for as long as 20 days.
Project description:High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a representative non-invasive method of cancer therapy, but its low therapeutic efficacy and risk of damage to surrounding normal tissue hinder its further clinical development and application. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) kills tumor cells through reactive oxygen molecules produced by sonosensitizers during ultrasound treatment. SDT can enhance HIFU efficacy like microbubbles. In this work, we developed nanoscale N<sub>2</sub>O microbubbles (N<sub>2</sub>O-mbs) by an improved mechanical oscillation method. These microbubbles showed good biocompatibility and tumor cell binding. The sonosensitivity of the N<sub>2</sub>O-mbs was detected both extracellularly and intracellularly through the detection of reactive oxygen species generation. The toxic effects of these sonodynamic microbubbles on tumor cells and the synergistic effect on HIFU treatment were evaluated. Significant apoptosis was caused by reactive oxygen species produced by N<sub>2</sub>O-mbs under ultrasound irradiation. N<sub>2</sub>O-mbs combined with HIFU increased tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis in vitro and the coagulative necrotic volume and echo intensity in the bovine liver target area ex vivo. These sonodynamic microbubbles have been also demonstrated to efficiently inhibit tumor growth in vivo. N<sub>2</sub>O-mbs have a significant impact on the treatment and ablation effect of HIFU due to the advantages of microbubble and extraordinary sonosensitivity. This finding suggests that N<sub>2</sub>O-mbs may be a novel auxiliary agent for ultrasound that can be used to promote HIFU tumor thermal ablation.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Multifunctional nanoplatforms with diagnostic-imaging and targeted therapeutic functionality (theranostics) are of great interest in the field of precision nanomedicine. The emerging sonodynamic therapy (SDT) combined with sonosensitizers under the guidance of photoacoustic (PA) imaging is highly expected to accurately eliminate cancer cells/tissue. <b>Methods:</b> Unique core/shell-structured theranostic FA-HMME-MNPs-PLGA nanoparticles (FHMP NPs, FA: folate, HMME: hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether, MNPs: melanin nanoparticles, PLGA: poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid) were constructed by the integration of MNPs (for PA imaging) in the core and HMME in the shell for enhanced PA imaging-guided SDT, which were further functionalized with a tumor-targeting ligand, FA. The PA imaging-guided SDT was systematically and successfully demonstrated both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. The high biosafety of FHMP NPs was also systematically evaluated. <b>Results:</b> The synthesized FHMP NPs with a broad optical absorption not only possess high PA-imaging contrast enhancement capability but also exhibit significant SDT efficiency. Importantly, such a PLGA based nanoplatform improved light stability of HMME, enhancing sonodynamic performance and facilitated delivery of MNPs to the tumor region. Meanwhile, a combined effect between HMME and MNPs was discovered and verified. Furthermore, a sonosensitizer assisted by ultrasound irradiation engenders reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cytotoxicity toward tumor cells/tissue. Both <i>in vitro</i> cell-level and systematic <i>in vivo</i> xenograft evaluations on tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that the selective killing effect of ROS on tumor cells was assisted by FHMP NPs, which played an active role in the suppression of tumor growth with high biosafety. <b>Conclusion:</b> A theranostic nanoplatform was successfully constructed, achieving PA imaging-guided SDT against breast cancer cells/tissue. More importantly, MNPs and HMME in one platform with combined effect for enhancing PA imaging was demonstrated. This unique theranostic nanoplatform with multiple capabilities paves a new way toward personalized medicine by rational utilization.