ABSTRACT: The mineral dust-induced gene (mdig) is overexpressed in a number of human cancers, suggesting critical roles of this gene played on the pathogenesis of cancers. Unlike several other JmjC-domain containing proteins that exhibit histone demethylase activity, it remains enigmatic whether mdig is involved in the demethylation processes of the histone proteins. Methods: To provide direct evidence suggesting contribution of mdig to the demethylation of histone proteins, we recently examined the histone methylation profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells as well as two cancer cell lines with mdig knockout through CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. Results: Global histone methylation analysis revealed a pronounced increase of the repressive histone trimethylation in three different cell types with mdig depletion, including trimethylation of lysines 9 and 27 on histone H3 (H3K9me3, H3K27me3) and trimethylation of lysine 20 of histone H4 (H4K20me3). Importantly, data from both ChIP-seq and RNA-seq suggested that genetic disruption of mdig enriches repressive histone trimethylation and inhibits expression of target genes in the oncogenic pathways of cell growth, stemness of the cells, tissue fibrosis, and cell motility. Conclusion: Taken together, our study provides the first insight into the molecular effects of mdig as an antagonist for repressive histone methylation markers and suggests that targeting mdig may represent a new area to explore in cancer therapy.
Project description:The mineral dust-induced gene (mdig) is overexpressed in a number of human cancers, suggesting critical roles of this gene played on the pathogenesis of cancers. Unlike several other JmjC-domain containing proteins that exhibit histone demethylase activity, it remains enigmatic whether mdig is involved in the demethylation processes of the histone proteins. To provide direct evidence suggesting contribution of mdig to the demethylation of histone proteins, we report the global histone methylation profile of H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K9me3, and H3R8me2a in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells with mina53/mdig knockout. ChIP-seq revealed a pronounced increase of the repressive histone trimethylation with mdig depletion, including H3K9me3 and H3K27me3. Data from both ChIP-seq and RNA-seq suggested that genetic disruption of mdig enriches repressive histone trimethylation and inhibits expression of target genes in the oncogenic pathways of cell growth, stemness of the cells, tissue fibrosis, and cell motility. Our study provides the first insight into the molecular effects of mdig as an antagonist for repressive histone methylation markers and suggests that targeting mdig may represent a new area to explore in cancer therapy. Overall design: Examination of 4 different histone modifications in WT and mdig KO cells.
Project description:Mineral dust-induced gene (mdig) encodes a member of the evolutionarily conserved JmjC family proteins that play fundamental roles in regulating chromatin-based processes as well as transcription of the genes in eukaryotic cells. This gene is also named as myc-induced nuclear antigen 53 (MINA), nucleolar protein 52 (NO52) and ribosomal oxygenase 2 (RIOX2). Increased expression of mdig had been noted in a number of human cancers, esp. lung cancer. Emerging evidence suggests that the oncogenic activity of mdig is most likely achieved through its regulation on the demethylation of histone proteins, despite it lacks the structural identities of the demethylases. Here, we discuss the latest discoveries on the characteristics of the mdig protein and its roles in a wide variety of normal and carcinogenic processes. We will also provide perspectives on how mdig is involved in the maintenance and differentiation of the embryonic stem cells, somatic stem cells and cancer stem cells.
Project description:The novel β-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected more than 177 million people and resulted in 3.84 million death worldwide. Recent epidemiological studies suggested that some environmental factors, such as air pollution, might be the important contributors to the mortality of COVID-19. However, how environmental exposure enhances the severity of COVID-19 remains to be fully understood. In the present report, we provided evidence showing that <i>mdig</i>, a previously reported environmentally-induced oncogene that antagonizes repressive trimethylation of histone proteins, is an important regulator for SARS-CoV-2 receptors neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2, cathepsins, glycan metabolism and inflammation, key determinants for viral infection and cytokine storm of the patients. Depletion of <i>mdig</i> in bronchial epithelial cells by CRISPR-Cas-9 gene editing resulted in a decreased expression of NRP1, NRP2, cathepsins, and genes involved in protein glycosylation and inflammation, largely due to a substantial enrichment of lysine 9 and/or lysine 27 trimethylation of histone H3 (H3K9me3/H3K27me3) on these genes as determined by ChIP-seq. Meanwhile, we also validated that environmental factor arsenic is able to induce <i>mdig</i>, NRP1 and NRP2, and genetic disruption of <i>mdig</i> lowered expression of NRP1 and NRP2. Furthermore, <i>mdig</i> may coordinate with the Neanderthal variants linked to an elevated mortality of COVID-19. These data, thus, suggest that <i>mdig</i> is a key mediator for the severity of COVID-19 in response to environmental exposure and targeting <i>mdig</i> may be the one of the effective strategies in ameliorating the symptom and reducing the mortality of COVID-19.
Project description:Mineral dust-induced gene (mdig) had been linked to the development of human lung cancers associated with environmental exposure to mineral dust, tobacco smoke or other carcinogens. In the present studies, we demonstrated that the overexpression of mdig in A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar type II epithelial cells decreases the heterochromatin conformation of the cells and de-represses the transcription of genes in the tandemly repeated DNA regions. Although mdig can only cause a marginal decrease of the total histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3), a significant reduction of H3K9me3 in the promoter region of H19, the paternally imprinted but maternally expressed gene transcribing a large intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA), was observed in the cells with mdig overexpression. Silencing mdig by either shRNA or siRNA not only increased the level of H3K9me3 in the promoter region of H19 but also attenuated the transcription of H19 long non-coding RNA. Demethylation assays using immunoprecipitated mdig and histone H3 peptide substrate suggested that mdig is able to remove the methyl groups from H3K9me3. Clinically, we found that higher levels of mdig and H19 expression correlate with poorer survival of the lung cancer patients. Taken together, our results imply that mdig is involved in the regulation of H3K9me3 to influence the heterochromatin structure of the genome and the expression of genes important for cell growth or transformation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bivalent chromatin domains consisting of the activating histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and repressive histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) histone modifications are enriched at developmental genes that are repressed in embryonic stem cells but active during differentiation. However, it is unknown whether another repressive histone modification, histone 4 lysine 20 trimethylation (H4K20me3), co-localizes with activating histone marks in ES cells. RESULTS:Here, we describe the previously uncharacterized coupling of the repressive H4K20me3 heterochromatin mark with the activating histone modifications H3K4me3 and histone 3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3), and transcriptional machinery (RNA polymerase II; RNAPII), in ES cells. These newly described bivalent domains consisting of H3K4me3/H4K20me3 are predominantly located in intergenic regions and near transcriptional start sites of active genes, while H3K36me3/H4K20me3 are located in intergenic regions and within gene body regions of active genes. Global sequential ChIP, also termed reChIP-Seq, confirmed the simultaneous presence of H3K4me3 and H4K20me3 at the same genomic regions in ES cells. Genes containing H3K4me3/H4K20me3 exhibit decreased RNAPII pausing and are poised for deactivation of RNAPII binding during differentiation relative to H3K4me3 marked genes. An evaluation of transcription factor (TF) binding motif enrichment revealed that DNA sequence may play a role in shaping the landscape of these novel bivalent domains. Moreover, H3K4me3/H4K20me3 and H3K36me3/H4K20me3 bound regions are enriched with repetitive LINE and LTR elements. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, these findings highlight a previously undescribed subnetwork of ES cell transcriptional circuitry that utilizes dual marking of the repressive H4K20me3 mark with activating histone modifications.
Project description:Substantial proportions of mammalian genomes comprise repetitive elements including endogenous retrotransposons. Although these play diverse roles during development, their appropriate silencing is critically important in maintaining genomic integrity in the host cells. The major mechanism for retrotransposon silencing is DNA methylation, but the wave of global DNA demethylation that occurs after fertilization renders preimplantation embryos exceptionally hypomethylated. Here, we show that hypomethylated preimplantation mouse embryos are protected from retrotransposons by repressive histone modifications mediated by the histone chaperone chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1). We found that knockdown of CAF-1 with specific siRNA injections resulted in significant up-regulation of the retrotransposons long interspersed nuclear element 1, short interspersed nuclear element B2, and intracisternal A particle at the morula stage. Concomitantly, increased histone H2AX phosphorylation and developmental arrest of the majority (>95%) of embryos were observed. The latter was caused at least in part by derepression of retrotransposons, as treatment with reverse transcriptase inhibitors rescued some embryos. Importantly, ChIP analysis revealed that CAF-1 mediated the replacement of H3.3 with H3.1/3.2 at the retrotransposon regions. This replacement was associated with deposition of repressive histone marks, including trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me3), H3K9me2, H3K27me3, and H4K20me3. Among them, H4K20me3 and H3K9me3 seemed to play predominant roles in retrotransposon silencing, as assessed by knockdown of specific histone methyltransferases and forced expression of unmethylatable mutants of H3.1K9 and H4K20. Our data thus indicate that CAF-1 is an essential guardian of the genome in preimplantation mouse embryos by deposition of repressive histone modifications via histone variant replacement.
Project description:The mineral dust-induced gene (mdig, also called as MINA or RIOX2) is overexpressed in breast cancer and its high expression correlates with poor overall survival of the patients. Our studies suggested its role in cell motility, invasion and in the demethylation of DNA and histone proteins. Here we studied the global histone methylation profiles of human triple negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 that were knocked out for mdig via CRISPR-Cas 9 gene editing. Altered histone methylation profiles impacted the transcriptional status of key genes implicated in cell growth, motility, invasion and cancer. Overall design: Examination of 5 different histone modifications in WT and mdig KO MDA-MB 231 cells.
Project description:15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids to a rich spectrum of biologically active metabolites and is implicated in physiological membrane remodelling, inflammation and apoptosis. Its deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse cancer and immune diseases. Recent experimental evidence reveals that dynamic histone methylation/demethylation mediated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases plays a critical role in regulation of chromatin remodelling and gene expression. In the present study, we compared the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3-K4) methylation status of the 15-LOX-1 promoter region of the two Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell lines L1236 and L428 with abundant and undetectable 15-LOX-1 expression, respectively. We identified a potential role of H3-K4 methylation in positive regulation of 15-LOX-1 transcription. Furthermore, we found that histone methyltransferase SMYD3 inhibition reduced 15-LOX-1 expression by decreasing promoter activity in L1236 cells. SMYD3 knock down in these cells abolished di-/trimethylation of H3-K4, attenuated the occupancy by the transactivator STAT6, and led to diminished histone H3 acetylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter. In contrast, inhibition of SMCX, a JmjC-domain-containing H3-K4 tri-demethylase, upregulated 15-LOX-1 expression through induction of H3-K4 trimethylation, histone acetylation and STAT6 recruitment at the 15-LOX-1 promoter in L428 cells. In addition, we observed strong SMYD3 expression in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and its inhibition led to decreased 15-LOX-1 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that regulation of histone methylation/demethylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter is important in 15-LOX-1 expression.
Project description:Epigenetic modifications of histones have crucial roles in various types of cancers. The aberrant trimethylation of histone H4 at lysine 20 (H4K20) has been implicated in carcinogenesis. At present, the status of trimethylation at H4k20 (H4K20me3) in osteosarcoma (OS), the predominant bone cancer in humans, is unknown. In the present study, a genome-wide decrease was observed in H4K20me3 levels in OS tissues and cell lines. Reduced levels of lysine methyltransferase 5C (SUV420H2), the histone methyltranferase responsible for modification of H4K20me3, was also observed in OS cells with the associated loss of H4K20me3. Furthermore, a total of 507 SUV420H2-regulated genes were identified through RNA-seq and a number of candidate genes were further validated. Bioinformatic analysis revealed an association between SUV420H2 and multiple signaling pathway, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase, P53, transforming growth factor and the ErbB pathways. These results demonstrated that there are aberrant levels of H4K20me3 and SUV420H2 in OS, and highlighted H4K20me3 as a candidate biomarker for the early detection of OS.
Project description:Regulation of genes that initiate and amplify inflammatory programs of gene expression is achieved by signal-dependent exchange of coregulator complexes that function to read, write, and erase specific histone modifications linked to transcriptional activation or repression. Here, we provide evidence for the role of trimethylated histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me3) as a repression checkpoint that restricts expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) target genes in macrophages. H4K20me3 is deposited at the promoters of a subset of these genes by the SMYD5 histone methyltransferase through its association with NCoR corepressor complexes. Signal-dependent erasure of H4K20me3 is required for effective gene activation and is achieved by NF-?B-dependent delivery of the histone demethylase PHF2. Liver X receptors antagonize TLR4-dependent gene activation by maintaining NCoR/SMYD5-mediated repression. These findings reveal a histone H4K20 trimethylation/demethylation strategy that integrates positive and negative signaling inputs that control immunity and homeostasis.