Opioid-related treatment, interventions, and outcomes among incarcerated persons: A systematic review.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Worldwide opioid-related overdose has become a major public health crisis. People with opioid use disorder (OUD) are overrepresented in the criminal justice system and at higher risk for opioid-related mortality. However, correctional facilities frequently adopt an abstinence-only approach, seldom offering the gold standard opioid agonist treatment (OAT) to incarcerated persons with OUD. In an attempt to inform adequate management of OUD among incarcerated persons, we conducted a systematic review of opioid-related interventions delivered before, during, and after incarceration. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We systematically reviewed 8 electronic databases for original, peer-reviewed literature published between January 2008 and October 2019. Our review included studies conducted among adult participants with OUD who were incarcerated or recently released into the community (?90 days post-incarceration). The search identified 2,356 articles, 46 of which met the inclusion criteria based on assessments by 2 independent reviewers. Thirty studies were conducted in North America, 9 in Europe, and 7 in Asia/Oceania. The systematic review included 22 randomized control trials (RCTs), 3 non-randomized clinical trials, and 21 observational studies. Eight observational studies utilized administrative data and included large sample sizes (median of 10,419 [range 2273-131,472] participants), and 13 observational studies utilized primary data, with a median of 140 (range 27-960) participants. RCTs and non-randomized clinical trials included a median of 198 (range 15-1,557) and 44 (range 27-382) participants, respectively. Twelve studies included only men, 1 study included only women, and in the remaining 33 studies, the percentage of women was below 30%. The majority of study participants were middle-aged adults (36-55 years). Participants treated at a correctional facility with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine (BPN)/naloxone (NLX) had lower rates of illicit opioid use, had higher adherence to OUD treatment, were less likely to be re-incarcerated, and were more likely to be working 1 year post-incarceration. Participants who received MMT or BPN/NLX while incarcerated had fewer nonfatal overdoses and lower mortality. The main limitation of our systematic review is the high heterogeneity of studies (different designs, settings, populations, treatments, and outcomes), precluding a meta-analysis. Other study limitations include the insufficient data about incarcerated women with OUD, and the lack of information about incarcerated populations with OUD who are not included in published research. CONCLUSIONS:In this carefully conducted systematic review, we found that correctional facilities should scale up OAT among incarcerated persons with OUD. The strategy is likely to decrease opioid-related overdose and mortality, reduce opioid use and other risky behaviors during and after incarceration, and improve retention in addiction treatment after prison release. Immediate OAT after prison release and additional preventive strategies such as the distribution of NLX kits to at-risk individuals upon release greatly decrease the occurrence of opioid-related overdose and mortality. In an effort to mitigate the impact of the opioid-related overdose crisis, it is crucial to scale up OAT and opioid-related overdose prevention strategies (e.g., NLX) within a continuum of treatment before, during, and after incarceration.
Project description:Incarceration poses significant health risks for people involved in the criminal justice system. As the world's leader in incarceration, the United States incarcerated population is at higher risk for infectious diseases, mental illness, and substance use disorder. Previous studies indicate that the mortality rate for people coming out of prison is almost 13 times higher than that of the general population; opioids contribute to nearly 1 in 8 post-release fatalities overall, and almost half of all overdose deaths. Given the hazardous intersection of incarceration, opioid use disorder, and social determinants of health, we systematically reviewed recent evidence on interventions for opioid use disorder (OUD) implemented as part of United States criminal justice system involvement, with an emphasis on social determinants of health (SDOH). We searched academic literature to identify eligible studies of an intervention for OUD that was implemented in the context of criminal justice system involvement (e.g., incarceration or parole/probation) for adults ages 19 and older. From 6,604 citations, 13 publications were included in final synthesis. Most interventions were implemented in prisons (n = 6 interventions), used medication interventions (n = 10), and did not include SDOH as part of the study design (n = 8). Interventions that initiated medication treatment early and throughout incarceration had significant, positive effects on opioid use outcomes. Evidence supports medication treatment administered throughout the period of criminal justice involvement as an effective method of improving post-release outcomes in individuals with criminal justice involvement. While few studies included SDOH components, many investigators recognized SDOH needs as competing priorities among justice-involved individuals. This review suggests an evidence gap; evidence-based interventions that address OUD and SDOH in the context of criminal justice involvement are urgently needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A cascade of care framework has been proposed to identify and address implementation gaps in addiction medicine. Using this framework, we characterized temporal trends in engagement in care for opioid use disorder (OUD) in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS:Using data from two cohorts of people who use drugs, we assessed the yearly proportion of daily opioid users achieving four sequential stages of the OUD cascade of care [linkage to addiction care; linkage to opioid agonist treatment (OAT); retention in OAT; and stability] between 2006 and 2016. We evaluated temporal trends of cascade indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, HIV/HCV status, substance use patterns, and social-structural exposures. RESULTS:We included 1615 daily opioid users. Between 2006 and 2016, we observed improvements in linkage to care (from 73.2% to 78.9%, p?=?<0.001), linkage to (from 69.2% to 70.6%, p?=?0.011) and retention in OAT (from 29.1% to 35.5%, p?=?<0.001), and stability (from 10.4% to 17.1%, p?=?<0.001). In adjusted analyses, later calendar year of observation was associated with increased odds of linkage to care (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]?=?1.02, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.01-1.04), retention in OAT (AOR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04) and stability (AOR?=?1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), but not with linkage to OAT (AOR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.98-1.01). CONCLUSIONS:Temporal improvements in OUD cascade of care indicators were observed. However, only a third of participants were retained in OAT in 2016. These findings suggest the need for novel approaches to improve engagement in care for OUD to address the escalating opioid-related overdose crisis.
Project description:Substance use and substance use disorders are common in people who experience detention or incarceration in Canada, and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) may reduce the harms associated with substance use disorders. We aimed to define current physician practice in provincial correctional facilities in Ontario with respect to prescribing OAT and to identify potential barriers and facilitators to prescribing OAT.We invited all physicians practicing in the 26 provincial correctional facilities for adults in Ontario to participate in an online survey.Twenty-seven physicians participated, with representation from most correctional facilities in Ontario. Of participating physicians, 52% reported prescribing methadone and 48% reported prescribing buprenorphine/naloxone to patients in provincial correctional facilities. Nineteen percent of participants reported initiating methadone treatment and 11% reported initiating buprenorphine/naloxone for patients in custody. Participants identified multiple barriers to initiating OAT in provincial correctional facilities including concerns about medication diversion and safety, concerns about initiating treatment in patients who are not currently using opioids, lack of linkage with community-based providers and the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services policy. Identified facilitators to initiating OAT were support from institutional health care staff and administrative staff, adequate resources for program delivery and access to linkage with community-based OAT providers.This study identifies opportunities to improve OAT programs and to improve access to OAT for persons in provincial correctional facilities in Ontario.
Project description:Among the nearly 750,000 inmates in U.S. jails, 12% report using opioids regularly, 8% report use in the month prior to their offense, and 4% report use at the time of their offense. Although ample evidence exists that medications effectively treat Opiate Use Disorder (OUD) in the community, strong evidence is lacking in jail settings. The general lack of medications for OUD in jail settings may place persons suffering from OUD at high risk for relapse to drug use and overdose following release from jail.The three study sites in this collaborative are pooling data for secondary analyses from three open-label randomized effectiveness trials comparing: (1) the initiation of extended-release naltrexone [XR-NTX] in Sites 1 and 2 and interim methadone in Site 3 with enhanced treatment-as usual (ETAU); (2) the additional benefit of patient navigation plus medications at Sites 2 and 3 vs. medication alone vs. ETAU. Participants are adults with OUD incarcerated in jail and transitioning to the community.We describe the rationale, specific aims, and designs of three separate studies harmonized to enhance their scientific yield to investigate how to best prevent jail inmates from relapsing to opioid use and associated problems as they transition back to the community.Conducting drug abuse research during incarceration is challenging and study designs with data harmonization across different sites can increase the potential value of research to develop effective treatments for individuals in jail with OUD.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in the criminal justice setting is an effective way to address opioid use disorder and prevent associated deaths in the community. The Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) is the first statewide correctional system in the United States to offer comprehensive MOUD services to incarcerated individuals.However, due to stigma, eligible individuals may be reluctant to engage with MOUD. This study aims to 1) evaluate the efficacy of an educational video intervention about MOUD and 2) characterize MOUD-related attitudes in a general incarcerated population. METHODS:Participants were recruited from eight elective classes offered to soon-to-be-released incarcerated individuals at RIDOC. Participants viewed an eight-minute video featuring incarcerated individuals speaking about their experiences using MOUD, designed to reduce MOUD-related stigma. Participants were administered surveys prior to and after watching the video to assess changes in MOUD knowledge (MOUD-K) and MOUD attitudes (MOUD-A). RESULTS:This evaluation of the intervention included 80 incarcerated participants (median age?=?35, 93% male, 36% non-Hispanic White, and 26% non-Hispanic Black). Forty percent indicated non-medical opioid use within six months prior to incarceration; 13% had previously used MOUD. Significant improvements in MOUD-K scores (t(65)?=?-7.0, p?<?0.0001) and MOUD-A scores (t(69)?=?-5.8, p?<?0.0001) were detected after participants viewed the video. The intervention yielded greater ?MOUD-A scores among those identifying as non-Hispanic Black, compared to non-Hispanic Whites (??=?2.6, CI?=?0.4, 4.8). CONCLUSION:The educational video improved both knowledge and positive attitudes towards MOUD, with changes in MOUD attitudes being influenced by race. These findings may inform future MOUD educational programs, thereby helping to reduce opioid use disorder-related morbidity and mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drug overdose is the leading cause of death after release from prison, and this risk is significantly higher among women compared to men. Within the first 2 weeks after release, the risk of death from drug overdose is 12.7 times higher than the general population, with risk of death further elevated among females. Although female inmates have higher rates of opioid use disorder and post-release overdose fatality, justice-involved women are under-represented in studies of medications for opioid use disorder. The Reducing Overdose After Release from Incarceration (ROAR) pilot intervention and evaluation (recruitment June 2019 through December 2020) aims to reduce opioid overdose among women released to the community following incarceration in state prison. The evaluation further assesses induction, acceptance and effectiveness of extended release naltrexone in a female post-prison population. METHODS/DESIGN:In the week prior to their release, female adults in custody with moderate to severe opioid use disorder start treatment with extended release naltrexone, an injectable opioid antagonist that blocks the effects of opioids for up to 1 month. All ROAR participants receive training to use naloxone rescue kits and are provided nasal naloxone at release. Ongoing support from a certified recovery mentor to facilitate sustained engagement with treatment for substance use disorders begins in the month prior to release from prison and continues for 6 months in community. We evaluate the association between ROAR participation and the primary outcome of opioid overdose. Using administrative data provided by the Oregon Department of Corrections and the Oregon Health Authority, we compare the odds of overdose among ROAR participants versus a comparison group of females released from prison during the study period. Evaluation activities in community includes survey and qualitative interviews for 6 months post release, as well as a review of clinic records to assess retention on medication among the pilot cohort (N?=?100). DISCUSSION:ROAR is a collaboration between Oregon's public health, criminal justice, and medical communities. The ROAR intervention and evaluation provide critical information on improving interventions to prevent opioid overdose and improve retention on treatment in community in an overlooked, high-risk population: incarcerated women re-entering the community. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials.gov TRN: NCT03902821 .
Project description:The aim was to estimate transitions between periods in and out of treatment, incarceration, and legal supervision, for prescription opioid (PO) and heroin users.We captured all individuals admitted for the first time for publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in California (2006 to 2010) with linked mortality and criminal justice data. We used Cox proportional hazards and competing risks models to assess the effect of primary PO use (v. heroin) on the hazard of transitioning among 5 states: (1) opioid detoxification treatment; (2) opioid agonist treatment (OAT); (3) legal supervision (probation or parole); (4) incarceration (jail or prison); and (5) out-of-treatment. Transitions were conditional on survival, and death was modeled as an absorbing state.Both primary PO (n = 11,733) and heroin (n = 19,926) users spent most of their median 2.3 y of observation out of treatment. Primary PO users were significantly younger (median age 30 v. 34 y), and a higher percentage were female (43.1% v. 31.5%; P < 0.001), white (74.6% v. 63.1%; P < 0.001), and had completed high school (31.8% v. 18.9%; P < 0.001). When compared to primary heroin users, PO users had a higher hazard of transitioning from detoxification to OAT (Hazard Ratio (HR), 1.65; 95% CI, 1.54 to 1.77), and had a lower hazard of transitioning from out-of-treatment to either detoxification (0.75 [0.70, 0.81]) or OAT (0.90 [0.85, 0.96]).Our findings can be applied directly in state transition modeling to improve the validity of health economic evaluations. Although PO users tended to remain in treatment for longer durations than heroin users, they also tended to remain out of treatment for longer after transitioning to an out-of-treatment state. Despite the proven effectiveness of time-unlimited treatment, individuals with OUD spend most of their time out of treatment.
Project description:Importance:Restrictive housing, otherwise known as solitary confinement, during incarceration is associated with poor health outcomes. Objective:To characterize the association of restrictive housing with reincarceration and mortality after release. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study included 229 274 individuals who were incarcerated and released from the North Carolina prison system from January 2000 to December 2015. Incarceration data were matched with death records from January 2000 to December 2016. Covariates included age, number of prior incarcerations, type of conviction, mental health treatment recommended or received, number of days served in the most recent sentence, sex, and race. Data analysis was conducted from August 2018 to May 2019. Exposures:Restrictive housing during incarceration. Main Outcomes and Measures:Mortality (all-cause, opioid overdose, homicide, and suicide) and reincarceration. Results:From 2000 to 2015, 229 274 people (197 656 [86.2%] men; 92 677 [40.4%] white individuals; median [interquartile range (IQR)] age, 32 years [26-42]), were released 398 158 times from the state prison system in North Carolina. Those who spent time in restrictive housing had a median (IQR) age of 30 (24-38) years and a median (IQR) sentence length of 382 (180-1010) days; 84 272 (90.3%) were men, and 59 482 (63.7%) were nonwhite individuals. During 130 551 of 387 913 incarcerations (33.7%) people were placed in restrictive housing. Compared with individuals who were incarcerated and not placed in restrictive housing, those who spent any time in restrictive housing were more likely to die in the first year after release (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI 1.12-1.38), especially from suicide (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.19-2.67) and homicide (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.24-1.91). They were also more likely to die of an opioid overdose in the first 2 weeks after release (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.16-4.43) and to become reincarcerated (HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.99-2.34). Conclusions and Relevance:This study suggests that exposure to restrictive housing is associated with an increased risk of death during community reentry. These findings are important in the context of ongoing debates about the harms of restrictive housing, indicating a need to find alternatives to its use and flagging restrictive housing as an important risk factor during community reentry.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Guidelines recommend that individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) receive pharmacological and psychosocial interventions; however, the most appropriate psychosocial intervention is not known. In collaboration with people with lived experience, clinicians, and policy makers, we sought to assess the relative benefits of psychosocial interventions as an adjunct to opioid agonist therapy (OAT) among persons with OUD.<h4>Methods</h4>A review protocol was registered a priori (CRD42018090761), and a comprehensive search for randomized controlled trials (RCT) was conducted from database inception to June 2020 in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Established methods for study selection and data extraction were used. Primary outcomes were treatment retention and opioid use (measured by urinalysis for opioid use and opioid abstinence outcomes). Odds ratios were estimated using network meta-analyses (NMA) as appropriate based on available evidence, and in remaining cases alternative approaches to synthesis were used.<h4>Results</h4>Seventy-two RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias evaluations commonly identified study limitations and poor reporting with regard to methods used for allocation concealment and selective outcome reporting. Due to inconsistency in reporting of outcome measures, only 48 RCTs (20 unique interventions, 5,404 participants) were included for NMA of treatment retention, where statistically significant differences were found when psychosocial interventions were used as an adjunct to OAT as compared to OAT-only. The addition of rewards-based interventions such as contingency management (alone or with community reinforcement approach) to OAT was superior to OAT-only. Few statistically significant differences between psychosocial interventions were identified among any other pairwise comparisons. Heterogeneity in reporting formats precluded an NMA for opioid use. A structured synthesis was undertaken for the remaining outcomes which included opioid use (n = 18 studies) and opioid abstinence (n = 35 studies), where the majority of studies found no significant difference between OAT plus psychosocial interventions as compared to OAT-only.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This systematic review offers a comprehensive synthesis of the available evidence and the limitations of current trials of psychosocial interventions applied as an adjunct to OAT for OUD. Clinicians and health services may wish to consider integrating contingency management in addition to OAT for OUD in their settings to improve treatment retention. Aside from treatment retention, few differences were consistently found between psychosocial interventions adjunctive to OAT and OAT-only. There is a need for high-quality RCTs to establish more definitive conclusions.<h4>Trial registration</h4>PROSPERO registration CRD42018090761.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients recovering from opioid use disorders (OUD) may be prone to relapse and opioid misuse in the postoperative period due to re-exposure to prescription opioids for pain control. This retrospective study analyzed the incidence of confirmed opioid misuse in the postoperative period in patients with OUDs enrolled in an opioid agonist treatment (OAT) program. METHODS:The study population was US veterans with a diagnosis of OUD who enrolled in the OAT program at VA Maryland Health Care System (Baltimore, Maryland, USA) between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2016. The patients were excluded if they were enrolled in OAT for less than a year, or if they had surgery within the first 180 days after OAT admission. The surgical group consisted of veterans who had surgery or an invasive procedure during their enrollment in the OAT program. The control (reference) group consisted of enrolled veterans who did not have any invasive procedure. The primary outcome was the first opioid misuse within 365?days after surgery date in the surgical group or a randomly assigned sham surgery date in controls. Opioid misuse was defined as either inappropriate use of opioids detected via urinalysis or admission with a diagnosis of an opioid overdose. RESULTS:From a total of 1352 patients enrolled in the OAT program, 413 were excluded because they were enrolled for less than a year, and 26 were excluded because they had surgery within the first 180?days after admission to the OAT program. Of the 923 eligible patients, 87 had surgery while enrolled and 836 did not. Using propensity scores, all 87 of the surgical cases were matched to 249 of the control cases. In the matched groups, surgery was positively associated with postoperative opioid misuse (odds ratio (OR) of 1.91, 95% CI 1.05-3.48, p?=?0.034) in logistic regression. CONCLUSION:Among patients with a history of opioid use disorders, the postoperative period was associated with an increased risk of opioid misuse. Moreover, opioid misuse among patients in an opioid agonist treatment program may well be considered a surgical hazard.