Prospective Study of a Novel, Radiation-Free, Reduced-Intensity Bone Marrow Transplantation Platform for Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.
ABSTRACT: Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Safe and effective reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) approaches that are associated with low toxicity, use alternative donors, and afford good immune reconstitution are needed to advance the field. Twenty PID patients, ranging in age from 4 to 58 years, were treated on a prospective clinical trial of a novel, radiation-free and serotherapy-free RIC, T-cell-replete BMT approach using pentostatin, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and busulfan for conditioning with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This was a high-risk cohort with a median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index of 3. With median follow-up of survivors of 1.9 years, 1-year overall survival was 90% and grade III to IV acute GVHD-free, graft-failure-free survival was 80% at day +180. Graft failure incidence was 10%. Split chimerism was frequently observed at early post-BMT timepoints, with a lower percentage of donor T cells, which gradually increased by day +60. The cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 15% and 5%, respectively. All aGVHD was steroid responsive. No patients developed chronic GVHD. Few significant organ toxicities were observed. Evidence of phenotype reversal was observed for all engrafted patients, even those with significantly mixed chimerism (n?=?2) or with unknown underlying genetic defect (n?=?3). All 6 patients with pre-BMT malignancies or lymphoproliferative disorders remain in remission. Most patients have discontinued immunoglobulin replacement. All survivors are off immunosuppression for GVHD prophylaxis or treatment. This novel RIC BMT approach for patients with PID has yielded promising results, even for high-risk patients.
Project description:Compared with standard graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis platforms, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) after T cell-replete HLA-haploidentical (haplo) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) reduces the risk of grades III to IV acute (a) and chronic (c) GVHD, but maintains similar rates of grade II aGVHD. Given that mild GVHD has been associated with reduced treatment failure in HLA-matched BMT, we evaluated the risk factors for and effects of GVHD on survival in 340 adults with hematologic malignancies who engrafted after nonmyeloablative haplo-BMT with PTCy, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. The cumulative incidence at 100 days of grade II and grades III to IV aGVHD were 30% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25% to 35%) and 2% (95% CI, 1% to 4%), respectively. The 1-year cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 10% (95% CI, 7% to 13%). In landmark analyses at 100 days, the 4-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were, 48% (95% CI, 41% to 56%) and 39% (95% CI, 32% to 47%) for patients without grades II to IV aGVHD, compared with 63% (95% CI, 53% to 73%) and 59% (95% CI, 50% to 71%) for patients with grade II aGVHD (P?=?.05 and P?=?.009). In multivariable modeling, when compared with patients who never experienced GVHD, the hazard ratio (HR) for OS and PFS in patients with grade II aGVHD was .78 (95% CI, .54 to 1.13; P?=?.19) and .69 (95% CI, .48 to .98; P?=?.04). Higher nucleated cell graft dose was also associated with improved OS (HR, .88; 95% CI, .78 to 1.00; P = .05) and PFS (HR, .89; 95% CI, .79 to 1.0; P?=?.05) and decreased risk of grades III to IV aGVHD (subdistribution HR, .66; 95% CI, .46 to .96; P?=?.03). PTCy reduces grades III to IV aGVHD and cGVHD, but retains similar incidence of grade II aGVHD, the development of which improves PFS. Higher nucleated cell graft dose goals may also improve survival after nonmyeloablative haplo-BMT with PTCy.
Project description:PURPOSE:Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is the only cure for many primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDD), primary immune regulatory disorders (PIRD), and inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS). METHODS:We report the results of 25 patients who underwent alloBMT using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), alternative donors, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy). In an attempt to reduce regimen-related toxicities, we removed low-dose TBI from the prep and added mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for all donor types in the latter 14 patients. Donors were haploidentical related (n?=?14), matched unrelated (n?=?9), or mismatched unrelated (n?=?2). The median age was 9 years (range 5 months-21 years). RESULTS:With a median follow-up of 26 months (range 7 months-9 years), the 2-year overall survival is 92%. There were two deaths, one from infection, and one from complications after a second myeloablative BMT. Three patients developed secondary graft failure, one at 2 years and two at >3 years, successfully treated with CD34 cell boost in one or second BMT in two. The remaining 20 patients have full or stable mixed donor chimerism and are disease-free. The incidence of mixed chimerism is increased since removing TBI from the prep. The 6-month cumulative incidence of grade II acute GVHD is 17%, with no grade III-IV. The 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD is 14%, with severe of 5%. CONCLUSION:This alloBMT platform using alternative donors, RIC, and PTCy is associated with excellent rates of engraftment and low rates of GVHD and non-relapse mortality, and offers a curative option for patients with PIDD, PIRD, and IBMFS. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04232085.
Project description:Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) can be used as the sole immunosuppression after myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for HLA-matched bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, the effects of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) with this platform are undefined. We retrospectively analyzed 298 consecutive adult patients with hematologic malignancies who engrafted after MAC HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD; n?=?187) or HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD; n?=?111) T-cell-replete BMT with PTCy 50 mg/kg on days +3 and +4. After MSD and MUD BMT, 35% and 57% of patients, respectively, developed grade II acute GVHD (aGVHD) by 100 days, 11% and 14% grade III to IV aGVHD by 100 days, and 9% and 16% chronic GVHD (cGVHD) by 1 year. In landmark analyses at 100 days after HLA-matched BMT, 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], .49 to .67) and 40% (95% CI, .31 to .51) in patients without grades II to IV aGVHD, and 68% (95% CI, .59 to .78) and 54% (95% CI, .44 to .65) in patients with grade II aGVHD. In adjusted time-dependent multivariable analyses, grade II aGVHD was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio, .58; 95% CI, .37 to .89; P?=?.01) and PFS (hazard ratio, .50; 95% CI, .34 to .74; P < .001) after HLA-matched BMT with PTCy. The ability of PTCy to limit grades III to IV aGVHD and cGVHD while maintaining grade II aGVHD may contribute to its effectiveness, and further attempts to reduce aGVHD may be detrimental.
Project description:Outcomes of nonmyeloablative (NMA) haploidentical (haplo) blood or marrow transplant (BMT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) using non-first-degree relatives are unknown. We evaluated 33 consecutive adult patients (median age, 56 years) with hematologic malignancies who underwent NMA haplo T cell-replete BMT with PTCy at Johns Hopkins using second- or third-degree related donors. Donors consisted of 10 nieces (30%), 9 nephews (27%), 7 first cousins (21%), 5 grandchildren (15%), and 2 uncles (6%). Thirty-one patients (94%) reached full donor chimerism by day 60. The estimated cumulative incidence (CuI) of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) at day 180 was 24% (90% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 38%). Only 1 patient experienced grades III to IV aGVHD. At 1 year the CuI of chronic GVHD was 10% (90% CI, 0% to 21%). The CuI of nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 5% (90% CI, 0% to 14%). At 1 year the probability of relapse was 31% (90% CI, 12% to 49%), progression-free survival 64% (90% CI, 48% to 86%), and overall survival 95% (90% CI, 87% to 100%). The 1-year probability of GVHD-free, relapse-free survival was 57% (90% CI, 41% to 79%). NMA haplo BMT with PTCy from non-first-degree relatives is an acceptably safe and effective alternative donor platform, with results similar to those seen with first-degree relatives.
Project description:High-dose cyclophosphamide given after HLA-matched related and unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for patients with hematologic malignancies is effective single-agent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in adults. Data describing outcomes for pediatric and young adult patients have not been reported. Between the years 2007 and 2013, 29 pediatric and young adult patients ages ?21 years of age treated at our institution for high-risk hematologic malignancies underwent myeloablative HLA-matched related T cell-replete BMT. Eleven patients received post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as single-agent GVHD prophylaxis and were followed prospectively. Eighteen patients received calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based standard GVHD prophylaxis and were studied retrospectively as a control group. No acute GVHD (aGVHD) developed in patients receiving PTCy, whereas patients receiving CNI-based GVHD prophylaxis had cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and grades III and IV aGVHD of 27% and 5%, respectively. No patients receiving PTCy developed chronic GHVD, compared to 1 in the control group. Two-year overall survival was similar between the 2 groups (54% PTCy versus 58% CNI-based prophylaxis), as was event-free survival (42% PTCy versus 47% CNI-based). The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 58% for PTCy and 42% for CNI-based GVHD prophylaxis (P = .45). These results suggest that PTCy is a safe and efficacious method of GVHD prophylaxis after an HLA-matched related BMT in the pediatric and young adult population that affords patients to be off all post-transplantation immunosuppression on day +5.
Project description:A hematopoietic cell transplantation regimen was adapted from a preclinical model that used reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and protected against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by skewing residual host T-cell subsets to favor regulatory natural killer T cells. One hundred eleven patients with lymphoid (64) and myeloid (47) malignancies received RIC using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by the infusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized grafts. Included were 34 patients at least 60 years of age, 32 patients at high risk of lymphoma relapse after disease recurrence following prior autologous transplantation, and 51 patients at high risk of developing GVHD due to lack of a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor. Durable chimerism was achieved in 97% of patients. Cumulative probabilities of acute GVHD (grades II-IV) were 2 and 10% of patients receiving related and unrelated donor grafts. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year was less than 4%. Cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 27%. The 36-month probability of overall and event-free survival was 60% and 40%, respectively. Disease status at start of conditioning and the level of chimerism achieved after transplantation significantly impacted clinical outcome. The high incidence of sustained remission among patients with active disease at time of transplantation suggests retained graft-versus-tumor reactions. Active trial registration currently at clinicaltrials.gov under IDs of NCT00185640 and NCT00186615.
Project description:The relationship between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in clinical allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients is not well established. We conducted a prospective analysis of peripheral blood Tregs as determined by the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(hi)FOXP3(+) lymphocytes in 215 BMT patients. Autologous BMT patients (N = 90) and allogeneic BMT patients without GVHD (N = 65) had similar Treg frequencies, whereas allogeneic patients with GVHD (N = 60) had Treg frequencies that were 40% less than those without GVHD. Treg frequencies decreased linearly with increasing grades of GVHD at onset, and correlated with eventual maximum grade of GVHD (P < .001). In addition, frequency of Tregs at onset of GVHD predicted the response to GVHD treatment (P = .003). Patients with Treg frequencies less than the median had higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM) than patients with Tregs greater than the median, but experienced equivalent relapse mortality, resulting in an inferior survival at 2 years (38% versus 63%, P = .03). Treg frequency may therefore have important prognostic value as a biomarker of aGVHD.
Project description:Children with many inherited nonmalignant disorders can be cured or their condition alleviated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Umbilical cord blood (UCB) units are a rapidly available stem cell source and offer great flexibility in HLA matching, allowing nearly uniform access to HSCT. Although reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens promise decreased treatment-related morbidity and mortality, graft failure and infections have limited their use in chemotherapy-naive patients. We prospectively evaluated a novel RIC regimen of alemtuzumab, hydroxyurea, fludarabine, melphalan, and thiotepa with a single-unit UCB graft in 44 consecutive patients with inborn errors of metabolism, immunity, or hematopoiesis. In addition, 5% of the UCB graft was re-cryopreserved and reserved for cord donor leukocyte infusion (cDLI) posttransplant. All patients engrafted at a median of 15 days posttransplant, and chimerism was >90% donor in the majority of patients at 1-year posttransplant with only 1 secondary graft failure. The incidence of grade II to IV graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17-43) with no extensive chronic GVHD. Overall survival was 95% (95% CI, 83-99) and 85% (95% CI, 64-93) at 1 and 5 years posttransplant, respectively. No significant end-organ toxicities were observed. The use of cDLI did not affect GVHD and showed signals of efficacy for infection control or donor chimerism. This RIC transplant regimen using single-unit UCB graft resulted in outstanding survival and remarkably low rates of graft failure. Implementation of the protocol not requiring pharmacokinetic monitoring would be feasible and applicable worldwide for children with inherited disorders of metabolism, immunity, or hematopoiesis. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01962415.
Project description:We compared outcomes of 1461 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a haploidentical (n = 487) or matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 974) between January 2005 and June 2018. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for haploidentical, and CNI with MMF or methotrexate with/without antithymoglobulin for MUDs. Haploidentical recipients were matched (1:2 ratio) with MUD controls for sex, conditioning intensity, disease stage, Philadelphia-chromosome status, and cytogenetic risk. In the myeloablative setting, day +28 neutrophil recovery was similar between haploidentical (87%) and MUD (88%) (P = .11). Corresponding rates after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) were 84% and 88% (P = .47). The 3-month incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) and 3-year chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was similar after haploidentical compared with MUD: myeloablative conditioning, 33% vs 34% (P = .46) for aGVHD and 29% vs 31% for cGVHD (P = .58); RIC, 31% vs 30% (P = .06) for aGVHD and 24% vs 29% for cGVHD (P = .86). Among patients receiving myeloablative regimens, 3-year probabilities of overall survival were 44% and 51% with haploidentical and MUD (P = .56). Corresponding rates after RIC were 43% and 42% (P = .6). In this large multicenter case-matched retrospective analysis, despite the limitations of a registry-based study (ie, unavailability of key elements such as minimal residual disease testing), our analysis indicated that outcomes of patients with ALL undergoing HCT from a haploidentical donor were comparable with 8 of 8 MUD transplantations.
Project description:Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) unresponsive to immunosuppressive therapy. To reduce chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which occurs more frequently after peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation compared to bone-marrow transplantation (BMT), and to prevent graft rejection, we developed a novel partial T-cell depleted transplant that infuses high numbers of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized CD34+ selected PBSCs combined with a BMT-equivalent dose of non-mobilized donor T-cells. Fifteen patients with refractory SAA received cyclophosphamide, anti-thymocyte globulin and fludarabine conditioning, and were transplanted with a median 8 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg and 2 × 107 non-mobilized CD3+ T-cells/kg from human leucocyte antigen-matched sibling donors. All achieved sustained engraftment with only two developing acute and two developing chronic GVHD. With a 3·5-year median follow-up, 86% of patients survived and were transfusion-independent. When compared to a retrospective cohort of 56 bone-marrow failure patients that received the identical transplant preparative regimen and GVHD prophylaxis with the exception that the allograft contained unmanipulated PBSCs, partial T-cell depleted transplant recipients had delayed donor T-cell chimerism and relative reduction of 75% in the incidence of acute grade II-IV GVHD (13% vs. 52%; P = 0·010) and of 82% in chronic GVHD (13% vs. 72%; P = 0·0004). In multivariate analysis, partial T-cell depleted transplants remained significantly associated with a reduced risk of GVHD. In conclusion, for patients with refractory SAA, this novel transplant strategy achieves excellent engraftment and survival when compared to unmanipulated PBSC transplants and dramatically reduces the incidence of both acute and chronic GVHD.