A Comparison of Methods to Measure the Coupling Coefficient of Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesters.
ABSTRACT: Vibration energy harvesters transform environmental vibration energy into usable electrical energy. The transformation is only possible because of a coupling between the mechanical part of the energy harvester and the electric circuit. This paper compares several measurement methods to determine the electromagnetic coupling coefficient. These methods are applied to various implementations of an energy harvester and the results are compared with one another and with simulation data by analyzing the magnetic flux. The average deviation between the measurement methods and the simulation data in our study was 5%. This good agreement validates the methods. Based on this, we recommend determination of the coupling coefficient and the optimum load resistance for maximum power harvesting on the basis of simulations and the open circuit method, because this procedure leads to the shortest measurement times.
Project description:A technology platform based on commercial printed circuit boards (PCB) technology is developed and presented. It integrates rigid flame retardant (FR)-4 boards, flexible polyimide (PI) structures, and embedded cavities for micro- and meso-scale applications. The cavities or channels can be filled with fluids for microfluidic and lab-on-chip systems. In this study, an electromagnetic energy harvester with enhanced output was designed and implemented in the platform. To enhance harvester output, the embedded cavities were filled with ferrofluid (FF) to improve the overall magnetic circuit design and electromechanical coupling of the device. The fabricated PCB-based harvester had a dimension of 20 mm × 20 mm × 4 mm. Vibration tests of the harvesters were conducted with different magnet sizes and different FF. Test results showed up to a 70% enhancement of output voltage and a 195% enhancement of output power when the cavities were filled with oil-based FF as compared with harvesters without FF. When the cavities were filled with water-based FF, the enhancement of voltage and power increased to 25% and 50%, respectively. The maximum output power delivered to a matched load at a 196-Hz resonance frequency and 1 grms vibration was estimated to be 2.3 µW, corresponding to an area power density of 0.58 µW/cm² and a volume power density of 1.4 µW/cm³, respectively.
Project description:Condition monitoring of high voltage power lines through self-powered sensor systems has become a priority for utilities with the aim of detecting potential problems, enhancing reliability of the power transmission and distribution networks and mitigating the adverse impact of faults. Energy harvesting from the magnetic field generated by the alternating current flowing through high voltage lines can supply the monitoring systems with the required power to operate without relying on hard-wiring or battery-based approaches. However, developing an energy harvester, which scavenges the power from such a limited source of energy, requires detailed design considerations, which may not result in a technically and economically optimal solution. This paper presents an innovative simulation-based strategy to characterize an inductive electromagnetic energy harvester and the power conditioning system. Performance requirements in terms of the harvested power and output voltage range, or level of magnetic core saturation can be imposed. Different harvester configurations, which satisfy the requirements, have been produced by the simulation models. The accuracy and efficiency of this approach is verified with an experimental setup based on an energy harvester, which consists of a Si-steel magnetic core and a power conditioning unit. For the worst-case scenario with a primary current of 5 A, the maximum power extracted by the harvester can be as close as 165 mW, resulting in a power density of 2.79 mW/cm3.
Project description:As a piezoelectric material, (Bi,Sc)O3-(Pb,Ti)O3 ceramics have been tested and analyzed for sensors and energy harvester applications owing to their relatively high Curie temperature and high piezoelectric coefficient. In this work, we prepared optimized (Bi,Sc)O3-(Pb,Ti)O3 piezoelectric materials through the conventional ceramic process. To increase the output energy, a multilayered structure was proposed and designed, and to obtain the maximum output energy, impedance matching techniques were considered and tested. By varying and measuring the energy harvesting system, we confirmed that the output energies were optimized by varying the load resistance. As the load resistance increased, the output voltage became saturated. Then, we calculated the optimized output power using the electric energy formula. Consequently, we identified the highest output energy of 5.93 µW/cm2 at 3 M? for the quadruple-layer harvester and load resistor using the impedance matching system. We characterized and improved the electrical properties of the piezoelectric energy harvesters by introducing impedance matching and performing the modeling of the energy harvesting component. Modeling was conducted for the piezoelectric generator component by introducing the mechanical force dependent voltage sources and load resistors and piezoelectric capacitor connected in parallel. Moreover, the generated output voltages were simulated by introducing an impedance matching technique. This work is designed to explain the modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters. In this model, the relationship between applied mechanical force and output energy was discussed by employing experimental results and simulation.
Project description:A wearable energy harvester technology is developed for generating electricity from the movement of human joints. A micro-electroplated ferromagnetic nickel cantilever is integrated with a piezoelectric element and bonded on a flexible substrate. Based on the magnetic interaction between the magnetized cantilever and a magnet on the substrate, a novel vertical-vibration frequency-up-conversion (FUC) structure is formed to generate stable amounts of electric energy per cycle from the horizontal substrate stretching/rebounding. The two ends of the flexible substrate are attached on both sides of a limb joint to transform joint rotation into substrate stretching. During limb movement, the flexible substrate is horizontally stretched and rebounded, causing the cantilever to vertically release from and return to the magnet, thereby exciting the piezoelectric cantilever into resonant generation. Since the horizontal low-frequency limb movement is perpendicular to the vertical high-frequency resonance, the stretch has little influence on the resonance of the cantilever. Thus the generated energy is always stable within a wide frequency range of limb movements. The performance of the novel harvester is experimentally verified using a stretching/rebounding movement cycle, where the cycle corresponds to the frequency range of 0.5-5.0 Hz. Within one stretching/rebounding movement cycle, the generated electric energy is stable in the approximate range of 0.56-0.69 μJ for the whole frequency range. Two flexible harvesters are worn on the human elbow and knee for a body kinetic energy harvesting test. Considerable power can always be generated under typical low-frequency limb movements, such as squatting, walking, jogging, and fast running, where the peak-to-peak generated voltages are always approximately 4.0 V. Additionally, energy harvesting under two-directional area stretching is also realized by adjusting the FUC structure layout. The flexible-substrate harvester is promising for various wearable applications.
Project description:In this study, we investigated an energy harvesting effect of tensile stress using piezoelectric polymers and flexible electrodes. A chemical-vapor-deposition grown graphene film was transferred onto both sides of the PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) films simultaneously by means of a conventional wet chemical method. Output voltage induced by sound waves was measured and analyzed when a mechanical tension was applied to the device. Another energy harvester was made with a metallic electrode, where Al and Ag were deposited by using an electron-beam evaporator. When acoustic vibrations (105?dB) were applied to the graphene/PVDF/graphene device, an induced voltage of 7.6 Vpp was measured with a tensile stress of 1.75?MPa, and this was increased up to 9.1 Vpp with a stress of 2.18?MPa for the metal/P(VDF-TrFE)/metal device. The 9 metal/PVDF/metal layers were stacked as an energy harvester, and tension was applied by using springs. Also, we fabricated a full-wave rectifying circuit to store the electrical energy in a 100??F capacitor, and external vibration generated the electrical charges. As a result, the stored voltage at the capacitor, obtained from the harvester via a bridge diode rectifier, was saturated to ~7.04?V after 180?s charging time.
Project description:Improvement of energy harvesting performance from flexible thin film-based energy harvesters is essential to accomplish future self-powered electronics and sensor systems. In particular, the integration of harvesting signals should be established as a single device configuration without complicated device connections or expensive methodologies. In this research, we study the dual-film structures of the flexible PZT film energy harvester experimentally and theoretically to propose an effective principle for integrating energy harvesting signals. Laser lift-off (LLO) processes are used for fabrication because this is known as the most efficient technology for flexible high-performance energy harvesters. We develop two different device structures using the multistep LLO: a stacked structure and a double-faced (bimorph) structure. Although both structures are well demonstrated without serious material degradation, the stacked structure is not efficient for energy harvesting due to the ineffectively applied strain to the piezoelectric film in bending. This phenomenon stems from differences in position of mechanical neutral planes, which is investigated by finite element analysis and calculation. Finally, effectively integrated performance is achieved by a bimorph dual-film-structured flexible energy harvester. Our study will foster the development of various structures in flexible energy harvesters towards self-powered sensor applications with high efficiency.
Project description:Vibration energy harvesters scavenge energy from mechanical vibrations to energise low power electronic devices. In this work, we report on vibration energy harvesting scheme based on the charging phenomenon occurring naturally between two bodies with different work functions. Such work function energy harvester (WFEH) is similar to electrostatic energy harvester with the fundamental distinction that neither external power supplies nor electrets are needed. A theoretical model and description of different operation modes of WFEHs are presented. The WFEH concept is tested with macroscopic experiments, which agree well with the model. The feasibility of miniaturizing WFEHs is shown by simulating a realistic MEMS device. The WFEH can be operated as a charge pump that pushes charge and energy into an energy storage element. We show that such an operation mode is highly desirable for applications and that it can be realised with either a charge shuttle or with switches. The WFEH is shown to give equal or better output power in comparison to traditional electrostatic harvesters. Our findings indicate that WFEH has great potential in energy harvesting applications.
Project description:This paper presents an autonomous energy harvester based on a textile-based enzymatic biofuel cell, enabling an efficient power management and on-demand usage. The proposed biofuel cell works by an enzymatic reaction with glucose in sweat absorbed by the specially designed textile for sustainable and efficient energy harvesting. The output power of the textile-based biofuel cell has been optimized by changing electrode size and stacking electrodes and corresponding fluidic channels suitable for following power management circuit. The output power level of single electrode is estimated less than 0.5 ?W and thus a two-staged power management circuit using intermediate supercapacitor has been presented. As a solution to produce a higher power level, multiple stacks of biofuel cell electrodes have been proposed and thus the textile-based biofuel cell employing serially connected 5 stacks produces a maximal power of 13 ?W with an output voltage of 0.88 V when load resistance is 40 k?. A buck-boost converter employing a crystal oscillator directly triggered by DC output voltage of the biofuel cell makes it possible to obtain output voltage of the DC-DC converter is 6.75 V. The efficiency of the DC-DC converter is estimated as approximately 50% when the output power of the biofuel cell is tens microwatts. In addition, LT-spice modeling and simulation has been presented to estimate power consumption of each element of the proposed DC-DC converter circuit and the predicted output voltage has good agreement with measurement result.
Project description:The simulation results for electromagnetic energy harvesters (EMEHs) under broad band stationary Gaussian random excitations indicate the importance of both a high transformation factor and a high mechanical quality factor to achieve favourable mean power, mean square load voltage, and output spectral density. The optimum load is different for random vibrations and for sinusoidal vibration. Reducing the total damping ratio under band-limited random excitation yields a higher mean square load voltage. Reduced bandwidth resulting from decreased mechanical damping can be compensated by increasing the electrical damping (transformation factor) leading to a higher mean square load voltage and power. Nonlinear EMEHs with a Duffing spring and with linear plus cubic damping are modeled using the method of statistical linearization. These nonlinear EMEHs exhibit approximately linear behaviour under low levels of broadband stationary Gaussian random vibration; however, at higher levels of such excitation the central (resonant) frequency of the spectral density of the output voltage shifts due to the increased nonlinear stiffness and the bandwidth broadens slightly. Nonlinear EMEHs exhibit lower maximum output voltage and central frequency of the spectral density with nonlinear damping compared to linear damping. Stronger nonlinear damping yields broader bandwidths at stable resonant frequency.
Project description:An energy harvesting device combined with a giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor is presented to analyze low frequency vibrating systems. An electromagnetic harvester based on magnetic levitation is proposed for the electric power generation. The device is composed of two fixed permanent magnets at both ends of a cylindrical frame, a levitating magnet acting as inertial mass and a pick-up coil to collect the induced electromotive force. At the resonance frequency (10 Hz) a maximum electrical power of 1.4 mW at 0.5 <i>g</i> is generated. Moreover, an amorphous wire was employed as sensor nucleus for the design of a linear accelerometer prototype. The sensor is based on the GMI effect where the impedance changes occur as a consequence of the variations of the effective magnetic field due to an oscillating magnetic element. As a result of the magnet's periodic motion, an amplitude modulated signal (AM) was obtained, its amplitude being proportional to mechanical vibration amplitude (or acceleration). The sensor's response was examined for a simple ferrite magnet under vibration and compared with that obtained for the vibrational energy harvester. As a result of the small amplitudes of vibration, a linear sensor response was obtained that could be employed in the design of low cost and simple accelerometers.