LncTUG1/miR-144-3p affect the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by competitively regulating c-MET.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the progression of various cancers and affect the response to radiotherapy. This study focused on clarifying the underlying mechanism by which lncTUG1 affects the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS:lncTUG1, miR-144-3p and MET expression levels were detected in ESCC tissues and cells by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was used to examine the protein levels of MET, p-AKT and EGFR. The dual-luciferase reporter system and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were used to confirm the interaction between lncTUG1 and miR-144-3p or miR-144-3p and MET. MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry assays were applied to examine the behavioral changes in EC9706 and KYSE30 cells. RESULTS:lncTUG1 was upregulated in ESCC cells and tissues, and lncTUG1 expression was associated with an advanced pathological stage. The bioinformatics analysis revealed that lncTUG1 could specifically bind to miR-144-3p, which was downregulated in ESCC. There was a negative correlation between lncTUG1 and miR-144-3p. LncTUG1 inhibition retarded proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptosis in ESCC cells. Moreover, lncTUG1 knockdown dramatically improved the effect of radiotherapy on ESCC development both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, MET was revealed as a downstream target of miR-144-3p and is downregulated by it. LncTUG1 promoted the progression of ESCC and elevated radiotherapy resistance in ESCC cells, accompanied by a high level of MET expression. Moreover, we found that knockdown of lncTUG1 enhanced the radiosensitivity of ESCC cells via the p-AKT signaling pathway. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that lncTUG1 enhances the radiotherapy resistance of ESCC by lowering the miR-144-3p level and modulating the MET/EGFR/AKT axis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is suggested to predict the radiosensitivity and/or prognosis of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nimotuzumab (an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody) on ESCC radiotherapy (RT) and underlying mechanisms.<h4>Methods</h4>Nimotuzumab was administrated to 2 ESCC cell lines KYSE30 and TE-1 treated with RT. Cell growth, colony formation and apoptosis were used to measure anti-proliferation effects. The method of RNA interference was used to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in ESCC cells radiosensitivity treated with Nimotuzumab. In vivo effect of Nimotuzumab on ESCC radiotherapy was done using a mouse xenograft model.<h4>Results</h4>Nimotuzumab enhanced radiation response of KYSE30 cells (with high EGFR expression) in vitro, as evidenced by increased radiation-inhibited cell growth and colony formation and radiation-mediated apoptosis. Mechanism study revealed that Nimotuzumab inhibited phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR) induced by EGF in KYSE30 cells. In addition, knockdown of IGFBP-3 by short hairpin RNA significantly reduced KYSE30 cells radiosensitivity (P<0.05), and even after the administration of Nimotuzumab, the RT response of IGFBP-3 silenced KYSE30 cells was not enhanced (P>0.05). In KYSE30 cell xenografts, Nimotuzumab combined with radiation led to significant tumor growth delay, compared with that of radiation alone (P=0.029), and also with IGFBP-3 up-regulation in tumor tissue.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Nimotuzumab could enhance the RT effect of ESCC cells with a functional active EGFR pathway. In particular, the increased ESCC radiosensitivity by Nimotuzumab might be dependent on the up-regulation of IGFBP-3 through EGFR-dependent pathway.
Project description:Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a regulator of cell survival, can enhance the resistance of cancer cells to radiotherapy. As microRNA-541-3p (miR-541-3p) was recently predicted to be a putative upstream modulator of HSP27, the present study was designed to investigate the function and mechanism underlying how miR-541-3p modulates the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa) cells by regulating HSP27. Through quantitative PCR, miR-541-3p was determined to be poorly expressed in PCa tissues relative to normal controls, whereas its expression was enhanced after radiotherapy. Consistently, miR-541-3p expression levels in PCa cells were elevated after radiation. Cell viability and proliferation and apoptosis under radiation were subsequently evaluated in response to loss-of-function of miR-541-3p. It was found that inhibition of miR-541-3p facilitated the viability and proliferation of PCa cells and promoted their apoptosis post radiation, hence reducing the radiosensitivity of LNCaP cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay identified that miR-541-3p negatively regulated the HSP27 mRNA expression by targeting its 3'-UTR. Meanwhile, miR-541-3p overexpression inhibited the ?-catenin expression by targeting HSP27. Furthermore, HSP27 or ?-catenin overexpression was noted to significantly reverse the miR-541-3p-mediated changes in the biological functions of PCa cells post radiation, suggesting that HSP27-dependent activation of ?-catenin might be the mechanism responsible for the promotive effect of miR-541-3p on radiosensitivity. Collectively, this study suggests that miR-541-3p specifically inhibits the HSP27 expression and downregulates ?-catenin, thereby enhancing the radiosensitivity of PCa cells. Our findings highlight the underlying mechanism of the miR-541-3p/HSP27/Wnt/?-catenin axis regarding radiotherapy for PCa.
Project description:Invasion and metastasis are major contributors to cancer-caused death in patients suffered from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). To explore the microRNAs involved in regulating invasion-metastasis cascade of ESCC, we established two pairs of sublines (30-U/D and 180-U/D) with distinct motility capacity from two ESCC cell lines (KYSE30 and KYSE180). Screening of the differentially expressed microRNAs identified that microRNA-92b-3p (miR-92b) could dramatically inhibit invasion and metastasis of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Subsequent studies showed that miR-92b exerted its inhibitory function through suppressing the expression of integrin ?V (ITGAV), which further reduced phosphrylated FAK and impaired Rac1 activation. Moreover, higher expression of miR-92b in ESCC tissues correlated inversely with lymph node metastasis and indicated better prognosis. Together, these results for the first time describe how miR-92b suppresses the motility of ESCC cells and provide a promise for diagnosis or therapy of ESCC invasion and metastasis.
Project description:Background: The aim of the present study was to identify the potential long non-coding (lnc.)-RNA and its associated molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) in order to assess whether it could be a biomarker for the prediction of the response to radiotherapy and prognosis in patients with ESCC. Methods: Microarrays and bioinformatics analysis were utilized to screen the potential lncRNAs associated with radiosensitivity in radiosensitive (n = 3) and radioresistant (n = 3) ESCC tumor tissues. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed in 35 ESCC tumor tissues (20 radiosensitive and 15 radioresistant tissues, respectively) to validate the lncRNA that contributed the most to the radiosensitivity of ESCC (named the candidate lncRNA). MTT, flow cytometry, and western blot assays were conducted to assess the effect of the candidate lncRNA on radiosensitivity in vitro in ECA109/ECA109R ESCC cells. A mouse xenograft model was established to confirm the function of the candidate lncRNA in the radiosensitivity of ESCC in vivo. The putative downstream target genes regulated by the candidate lncRNA were predicted using Starbase 2.0 software and the TargetScan database. The interactions between the candidate lncRNA and the putative downstream target genes were examined by Luciferase reporter assay, and were confirmed by PCR. Results: A total of 113 aberrantly expressed lncRNAs were identified by microarray analysis, of which family with sequence similarity 201-member A (FAM201A) was identified as the lncRNA that contributed the most to the radiosensitivity of ESCC. FAM201A was upregulated in radioresistant ESCC tumor tissues and had a poorer short-term response to radiotherapy resulting in inferior overall survival. FAM201A knockdown enhanced the radiosensitivity of ECA109/ECA109R cells by upregulating ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression via the negative regulation of miR-101 expression. The mouse xenograft model demonstrated that FAM201A knockdown improved the radiosensitivity of ESCC. Conclusion: The lncRNA FAM201A, which mediated the radiosensitivity of ESCC by regulating ATM and mTOR expression via miR-101 in the present study, may be a potential biomarker for predicting radiosensitivity and patient prognosis, and may be a therapeutic target for enhancing cancer radiosensitivity in ESCC.
Project description:Radiotherapy is frequently applied for clinically localized prostate cancer while its efficacy could be significantly hindered by radioresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators in mediating cellular responses to ionizing radiation (IR), and strongly associate with radiosensitivity in many cancers. In this study, enhancement of radiosensitivity by miR-29b-3p was demonstrated in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP in vitro. Results showed that miR-29b-3p expression was significantly upregulated in response to IR from both X-rays and carbon ion irradiations. Knockdown of miR-29b-3p resulted in radioresistance while overexpression of miR-29b-3p led to increased radiosensitivity (showing reduced cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation and decreased colony formation). In addition, miR-29b-3p was found to directly target Wnt1-inducible-signaling protein 1 (WISP1). Inhibition of WISP1 facilitated the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway through suppressing Bcl-XL expression while activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The results indicated that miR-29b-3p was a radiosensitizing miRNAs and could enhance radiosensitivity of LNCaP cells by targeting WISP1. These findings suggested a novel treatment to overcome radioresistance in prostate cancer patients, especially those with higher levels of the WISP1 expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND: B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) has long been recognized as a tumor suppressor gene. Recent reports demonstrated that BTG1 plays an important role in progression of cell cycle and is involved in cellular response to stressors. However, the microRNAs mediated regulatory mechanism of BTG1 expression has not been reported so far. MicroRNAs can effectively influence tumor radiosensitivity by preventing cell cycle progression, resulting in enhancement of the cytotoxicity of radiotherapy efficacy. This study aimed to demonstrating the effects of microRNAs on the BTG1 expression and cellular radiosensitivity. METHODS: The human renal carcinoma 786-O cells were treated with 5 Gy of X-rays. Expressions of BTG1 gene and miR-454-3p, which was predicted to target BTG1 by software algorithm, were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein expressions were assessed by Western blot. Luciferase assays were used to quantify the interaction between BTG1 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) and miR-454-3p. The radiosensitivity was quantified by the assay of cell viability, colony formation and caspase-3 activity. RESULTS: The expression of the BTG1 gene in 786-O cells was significantly elevated after treatments with X-ray irradiation, DMSO, or serum starvation. The up-regulation of BTG1 after irradiation reduced cellular radiosensitivity as demonstrated by the enhanced cell viability and colony formation, as well as the repressed caspase-3 activity. In comparison, knock down of BTG1 by siRNA led to significantly enhanced cellular radiosensitivity. It was found that miR-454-3p can regulate the expression of BTG1 through a direct interaction with the 3'-UTR of BTG1 mRNA. Decreasing of its expression level correlates well with BTG1 up-regulation during X-ray irradiation. Particularly, we observed that over-expression of miR-454-3p by transfection inhibited the BTG1 expression and enhanced the radiosensitivity. In addition, cell cycle analysis showed that over-expression of miR-454-3p shifted the cell cycle arrest from G2/M phase to S phase. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that BTG1 is a direct target of miR-454-3p. Down-regulation of BTG1 by miR-454-3p renders tumor cells sensitive to radiation. These results may shed light on the potential application in tumor radiotherapy.
Project description:Resistance to radiotherapy is the main reason causing treatment failure in locally advanced rectal cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been well demonstrated to regulate cancer development and progression. However, how miRNAs regulate radiotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer remains unknown. Herein, we established two human colorectal cancer cell lines resistant to radiotherapy, named HCT116-R and RKO-R, using the strategy of fractionated irradiation. The radioresistant phenotypical changes of the two cell lines were validated by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and apoptosis assay. The miRNA expression profilings of HCT116-R and RKO-R were determined using RNA-seq analyses, and further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Multiple miRNAs, including miR-423-5p, miR-7-5p, miR-522-3p, miR-3184-3p, and miR-3529-3p, were identified with altered expression in both of the radiotherapy-resistant cells, compared to the parental cells. The downregulation of miR-423-5p was further validated in the rectal cancer tissues from radiotherapy-resistant patients. Silencing of miR-423-5p in parental HCT116 and RKO cells decreased the sensitivity to radiation treatment, and inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis. In consistence, overexpression of miR-423-5p in HCT116-R and RKO-R cells partially rescued their sensitivity to radiotherapy, and promoted the radiation-induced apoptosis. Bcl-xL (Bcl-2-like protein 1) was predicted to be a potential target gene for miR-423-5p, and miR-423-5p/Bcl-xL axis could be a critical mediator of radiosensitivity in colorectal cancer cells. The current finding not only revealed a novel role of miR-423-5p in regulating the radiosensitivity in colorectal cancer, but also suggested miR-423-5p as a molecular candidate for combination therapy with radiation to treat colorectal cancer.
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck. Although radiotherapy is used for OSCC treatment, the occurrence of radioresistant cancer cells limits its efficiency. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs with lengths of 18-25 base pairs and known to be involved in carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that by targeting B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1), miR-494-3p functions as a putative tumor suppressor miRNA in OSCC. In this study, we further discovered that miR-494-3p could enhance the radiosensitivity of SAS OSCC cells and induce cellular senescence. The overexpression of miR-494-3p in SAS cells increased the population of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase positive cells, the expression of p16(INK4a) and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), as well as downregulated Bmi1. The knockdown of Bmi1 by lentiviral-mediated delivery of specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) also enhanced the radiosensitivity of SAS cells and the activation of the senescence pathway. Furthermore, the inverse correlation between Bmi1 and miR-494-3p expression was observed among OSCC tissues. Results suggest that miR-494-3p could increase the radiosensitivity of OSCC cells through the induction of cellular senescence caused by the downregulation of Bmi1.
Project description:Radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients is limited by resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). However, the roles and mechanisms of microRNAs in radioresistance are obscure. Here, we investigated that microRNA-205 (miR-205) was upregulated in radioresistant (RR) ESCC cells compared with the parental cells. Overexpression of miR-205 promoted colony survival post-IR, whereas depletion of miR-205 sensitized ESCC cells to IR in vitro and in vivo. Further, we demonstrated that miR-205 promoted radioresistance by enhancing DNA repair, inhibiting apoptosis and activating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, miR-205, upregulated post-IR, was demonstrated to be activated by Sp1 in parallel with its host gene, miR-205HG, both of which showed a perfect correlation. We also identified and validated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), as a target of miR-205 that promoted radioresistance via PI3K/AKT pathway. Lastly, increased miR-205 expression was closely associated with decreased PTEN expression in ESCC tissues and miR-205 expression predicted poor prognosis in patients with ESCC. Taken together, these findings identify miR-205 as a critical determinant of radioresistance and a biomarker of prognosis. The Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation of miR-205 promotes radioresistance through PTEN via PI3K/AKT pathway in ESCC. Inhibition of miR-205 expression may be a new strategy for radiotherapy in ESCC.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has an important role in the progression of human cancer, including ESCC. However, the exact functions and mechanisms of miRNAs in ESCC remain largely unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and biological functions of miRNAs in ESCC and reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. miRNA microarray and reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed, which identified and confirmed that miR?206 was significantly downregulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Its low expression was associated with lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM stage and N classification, as well as poorer overall survival in patients with ESCC. CCK?8 and flow cytometry assays demonstrated that ectopic miR?206 expression inhibited ESCC cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. In addition, MET proto?oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (c?Met), a well?known oncogene, was a direct target of miR?206. An inverse correlation between the levels of miR?206 and c?Met mRNA in ESCC tissue samples was confirmed. Notably, c?Met overexpression inhibited the effects of miR?206 on the proliferation and apoptosis of ESCC cells. Additionally, it was confirmed that the tumor?suppressive functions of miR?206 may have contributed to the inactivation of the c?Met/protein kinase B (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggested that miR?206 exerts its anti?cancer functions via the c?Met/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, providing a novel candidate prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in ESCC.