Comprehensive genetic diagnosis of Japanese patients with severe proteinuria.
ABSTRACT: Numerous disease-causing gene mutations have been identified in proteinuric diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and glomerulosclerosis. This report describes the results of comprehensive genetic diagnosis of Japanese patients with severe proteinuria. In addition, the report describes the clinical characteristics of patients with monogenic disease-causing mutations. We conducted comprehensive gene screening of patients who had either congenital nephrotic syndrome, infantile nephrotic syndrome, steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, or focal segmental glomerular sclerosis. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, 60 podocyte-related genes were screened in 230 unrelated patients with proteinuria. A retrospective review of clinical data was conducted for these patients. We detected monogenic disease-causing mutations in 30% (69 of 230) of patients among 19 of the screened genes. Common genes with disease-causing mutations were WT1 (25%), NPHS1 (12%), INF2 (12%), TRPC6 (10%), and LAMB2 (9%). With various immunosuppressive or renoprotective therapies, remission of proteinuria in patients with unknown causative mutations was observed in 26% of patients, whereas only 5% of patients with monogenic disease-causing mutations exhibited complete remission. We assessed the genetic backgrounds of Japanese patients with severe proteinuria. The proportion of patients with gene defects was similar to that of other reports, but the disease-causing gene mutation frequency was considerably different.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alport syndrome (AS) and atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS) are rare forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that can lead to a severe decline of renal function. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is more common than AS and aHUS and causes 10% of childhood-onset CKD. In recent years, multiple monogenic causes of AS, aHUS and SRNS have been identified, but their relative prevalence has yet to be studied together in a typical pediatric cohort of children with proteinuria and hematuria. We hypothesized that identification of causative mutations by whole exome sequencing (WES) in known monogenic nephritis and nephrosis genes would allow distinguishing nephritis from nephrosis in a typical pediatric group of patients with both proteinuria and hematuria at any level. METHODS:We therefore conducted an exon sequencing (WES) analysis for 11 AS, aHUS and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-causing genes in an international cohort of 371 patients from 362 families presenting with both proteinuria and hematuria before age 25 years. In parallel, we conducted either WES or high-throughput exon sequencing for 23 SRNS-causing genes in all patients. RESULTS:We detected pathogenic mutations in 18 of the 34 genes analyzed, leading to a molecular diagnosis in 14.1% of families (51 of 362). Disease-causing mutations were detected in 3 AS-causing genes (4.7%), 3 aHUS-causing genes (1.4%) and 12 NS-causing genes (8.0%). We observed a much higher mutation detection rate for monogenic forms of CKD in consanguineous families (35.7% versus 10.1%). CONCLUSIONS:We present the first estimate of relative frequency of inherited AS, aHUS and NS in a typical pediatric cohort with proteinuria and hematuria. Important therapeutic and preventative measures may result from mutational analysis in individuals with proteinuria and hematuria.
Project description:Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease almost inevitably progressing to end-stage renal disease. More than 58 monogenic causes of SRNS have been discovered and majority of known steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome causing genes are predominantly expressed in glomerular podocytes, placing them at the center of disease pathogenesis. Herein, we describe two unrelated families with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome with homozygous mutations in the KIRREL1 gene. One mutation showed high frequency in the European population (minor allele frequency 0.0011) and this patient achieved complete remission following treatment, but later progressed to chronic kidney disease. We found that mutant KIRREL1 proteins failed to localize to the podocyte cell membrane, indicating defective trafficking and impaired podocytes function. Thus, the KIRREL1 gene product has an important role in modulating the integrity of the slit diaphragm and maintaining glomerular filtration function.
Project description:Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurodevelopmental defects combined with renal-glomerular disease, manifesting with proteinuria. To identify additional monogenic disease causes, we here performed whole exome sequencing (WES), linkage analysis, and homozygosity mapping in three affected siblings of an Indian family with GAMOS. Applying established criteria for variant filtering, we identify a novel homozygous splice site mutation in the gene WDR4 as the likely disease-causing mutation in this family. In line with previous reports, we observe growth deficiency, microcephaly, developmental delay, and intellectual disability as phenotypic features resulting from WDR4 mutations. However, the newly identified allele additionally gives rise to proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome, a phenotype that was never reported in patients with WDR4 mutations. Our data thus expand the phenotypic spectrum of WDR4 mutations by demonstrating that, depending on the specific mutated allele, a renal phenotype may be present. This finding suggests that GAMOS may occupy a phenotypic spectrum with other microcephalic diseases. Furthermore, WDR4 is an additional example of a gene that encodes a tRNA modifying enzyme and gives rise to GAMOS, if mutated. Our findings thereby support the recent observation that, like neurons, podocytes of the renal glomerulus are particularly vulnerable to cellular defects resulting from altered tRNA modifications.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nephrotic syndrome represents a condition in pediatric nephrology typified by a relapsing and remitting course, proteinuria and the presence of edema. The PROMIS measures have previously been studied and validated in cross-sectional studies of children with nephrotic syndrome. This study was designed to longitudinally validate the PROMIS measures in pediatric nephrotic syndrome.<h4>Methods</h4>One hundred twenty seven children with nephrotic syndrome between the ages of 8 and 17 years participated in this prospective cohort study. Patients completed a baseline assessment while their nephrotic syndrome was active, a follow-up assessment at the time of their first complete proteinuria remission or study month 3 if no remission occurred, and a final assessment at study month 12. Participants completed six PROMIS measures (Mobility, Fatigue, Pain Interference, Depressive Symptoms, Anxiety, and Peer Relationships), the PedsQL version 4.0, and two global assessment of change items.<h4>Results</h4>Disease status was classified at each assessment: nephrotic syndrome active in 100% at baseline, 33% at month 3, and 46% at month 12. The PROMIS domains of Mobility, Fatigue, Pain Interference, Depressive Symptoms, and Anxiety each showed a significant overall improvement over time (p < 0.001). When the PROMIS measures were compared to the patients' global assessment of change, the domains of Mobility, Fatigue, Pain Interference, and Anxiety consistently changed in an expected fashion. With the exception of Pain Interference, change in PROMIS domain scores did not correlate with changes in disease activity. PROMIS domain scores were moderately correlated with analogous PedsQL domain scores.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrates that the PROMIS Mobility, Fatigue, Pain Interference, and Anxiety domains are sensitive to self-reported changes in disease and overall health status over time in children with nephrotic syndrome. The lack of significant anchoring to clinically defined nephrotic syndrome disease active and remission status may highlight an opportunity to improve the measurement of HRQOL in children with nephrotic syndrome through the development of a nephrotic syndrome disease-specific HRQOL measure.
Project description:To maximize clinical benefits of genetic screening of patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) to diagnose monogenic causes, reliably distinguishing NS-causing variants from the background of rare, noncausal variants prevalent in all genomes is vital. To determine the prevalence of monogenic NS in a North American case cohort while accounting for background prevalence of genetic variation, we sequenced 21 implicated monogenic NS genes in 312 participants from the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network and 61 putative controls from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G). These analyses were extended to available sequence data from approximately 2500 subjects from the 1000G. A typical pathogenicity filter identified causal variants for NS in 4.2% of patients and 5.8% of subjects from the 1000G. We devised a more stringent pathogenicity filtering strategy, reducing background prevalence of causal variants to 1.5%. When applying this stringent filter to patients, prevalence of monogenic NS was 2.9%; of these patients, 67% were pediatric, and 44% had FSGS on biopsy. The rate of complete remission did not associate with monogenic classification. Thus, we identified factors contributing to inaccurate monogenic classification of NS and developed a more accurate variant filtering strategy. The prevalence and clinical correlates of monogenic NS in this sporadically affected cohort differ substantially from those reported for patients referred for genetic analysis. Particularly in unselected, population-based cases, considering putative causal variants in known NS genes from a probabilistic rather than a deterministic perspective may be more precise. We also introduce GeneVetter, a web tool for monogenic assessment of rare disease.
Project description:The aim of this study was to elucidate whether genetic screening test results of pediatric patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) vary with ethnicity.Using high-throughput DNA sequencing, 28 nephrotic syndrome-related genes were analyzed in 110 chil-dren affected by SRNS and 10 children with isolated proteinuria enrolled by 5 centers in China (67 boys, 53 girls). Their age at disease onset ranged from 1 day to 208 months (median, 48.8 months). Patients were excluded if their age at onset of disease was over 18 years or if they were diagnosed as having Alport syndrome.A genetic etiology was identified in 28.3% of our cohort and the likelihood of establishing a genetic diagnosis decreased as the age at onset of nephrotic syndrome increased. The most common mutated genes were ADCK4 (6.67%), NPHS1 (5.83%), WT1 (5.83%), and NPHS2 (3.33%), and the difference in the frequencies of ADCK4 and NPHS2 mutations between this study and a study on monogenic causes of SRNS in the largest international cohort of 1,783 different families was significant. A case of congenital nephrotic syndrome was attributed to a homozygous missense mutation in ADCK4, and a de novo missense mutation in TRPC6 was detected in a case of infantile nephrotic syndrome.Our results showed that, in the first and the largest multicenter cohort of Chinese pediatric SRNS reported to date, ADCK4 is the most common causative gene, whereas there is a low prevalence of NPHS2 mutations. Our data indicated that the genetic testing results for pediatric SRNS patients vary with different ethnicities, and this information will help to improve management of the disease in clinical practice.
Project description:Patients with primary membranous nephropathy (MN) who experience spontaneous remission of proteinuria generally have an excellent outcome without need of immunosuppressive therapy. It is, however, unclear whether non-nephrotic proteinuria at the time of diagnosis is also associated with good prognosis since a reasonable number of these patients develop nephrotic syndrome despite blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. No clinical or laboratory parameters are available, which allow the assessment of risk for development of nephrotic proteinuria. Phospholipase A2 Receptor antibodies (PLA2R-Ab) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of primary MN and are associated with persistence of nephrotic proteinuria. In this study we analysed whether PLA2R-Ab levels might predict development of nephrotic syndrome and the clinical outcome in 33 patients with biopsy-proven primary MN and non-nephrotic proteinuria under treatment with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. PLA2R-Ab levels, proteinuria and serum creatinine were measured every three months. Nephrotic-range proteinuria developed in 18 (55%) patients. At study start (1.2±1.5 months after renal biopsy and time of diagnosis), 16 (48%) patients were positive for PLA2R-Ab. A multivariate analysis showed that PLA2R-Ab levels were associated with an increased risk for development of nephrotic proteinuria (HR?=?3.66; 95%CI: 1.39-9.64; p?=?0.009). Immunosuppressive therapy was initiated more frequently in PLA2R-Ab positive patients (13 of 16 patients, 81%) compared to PLA2R-Ab negative patients (2 of 17 patients, 12%). PLA2R-Ab levels are associated with higher risk for development of nephrotic-range proteinuria in this cohort of non-nephrotic patients at the time of diagnosis and should be closely monitored in the clinical management.
Project description:Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome resistant to standard treatments remains a therapeutic dilemma in pediatric nephrology. To test whether the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab may benefit these patients, we conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled trial in 31 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome unresponsive to the combination of calcineurin inhibitors and prednisone. All children continued prednisone and calcineurin inhibitors at the doses prescribed before enrollment, and one treatment group received two doses of rituximab (375 mg/m(2) intravenously) as add-on therapy. The mean age was 8 years (range, 2-16 years). Rituximab did not reduce proteinuria at 3 months (change, -12% [95% confidence interval, -73% to 110%]; P=0.77 in analysis of covariance model adjusted for baseline proteinuria). Additional adjustment for previous remission and interaction terms (treatment by baseline proteinuria and treatment by previous remission) did not change the results. In conclusion, these data do not support the addition of rituximab to prednisone and calcineurin inhibitors in children with resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anti-low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2) nephropathy/anti-brush border antibody (ABBA) disease is a disorder characterized by acute tubulointerstitial injury associated with circulating antibodies to kidney proximal tubular brush border protein LRP2/megalin. Patients are typically elderly and present with acute kidney injury and subnephrotic proteinuria. They progress to end-stage renal disease with poor response to immunosuppressive therapies. CASE PRESENTATION:We report a case of a 29-year-old Chinese woman, who presented with nephrotic syndrome with normal kidney function. Kidney biopsy showed no obvious tubular injury or interstitial inflammation. Positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) staining was revealed along the brush border of proximal tubular cells. Anti-LRP2 antibody was identified in serum, consistent with a diagnosis of anti-LRP2 nephropathy. The patient achieved complete remission after receiving prednisone and cyclophosphamide. CONCLUSIONS:Anti-LRP2 nephropathy can also present as nephrotic syndrome in young patients and complete remission from nephrotic syndrome may be achieved after immunosuppressive therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome overwhelmingly progresses to ESRD. More than 30 monogenic genes have been identified to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. We previously detected causative mutations using targeted panel sequencing in 30% of patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Panel sequencing has a number of limitations when compared with whole exome sequencing. We employed whole exome sequencing to detect monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in an international cohort of 300 families. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:Three hundred thirty-five individuals with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome from 300 families were recruited from April of 1998 to June of 2016. Age of onset was restricted to <25 years of age. Exome data were evaluated for 33 known monogenic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes. RESULTS:In 74 of 300 families (25%), we identified a causative mutation in one of 20 genes known to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. In 11 families (3.7%), we detected a mutation in a gene that causes a phenocopy of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. This is consistent with our previously published identification of mutations using a panel approach. We detected a causative mutation in a known steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome gene in 38% of consanguineous families and in 13% of nonconsanguineous families, and 48% of children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. A total of 68 different mutations were detected in 20 of 33 steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes. Fifteen of these mutations were novel. NPHS1, PLCE1, NPHS2, and SMARCAL1 were the most common genes in which we detected a mutation. In another 28% of families, we detected mutations in one or more candidate genes for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS:Whole exome sequencing is a sensitive approach toward diagnosis of monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. A molecular genetic diagnosis of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome may have important consequences for the management of treatment and kidney transplantation in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.