The novel testicular enrichment protein Cfap58 is required for Notch-associated ciliogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Cilia and flagella are critical organelles with conserved internal structures and diverse developmental and physiological processes according to cell type. Although the core components of structures are shared with thousands of associated proteins involved in cilia or flagella formation, we hypothesized that some unknown proteins, such as outer dense fiber 2 (Odf2/Cenexin) perform distinct functions in these organelles. In the present study, we identified several uncharacterized proteins through mass spectrometry interactome analysis of Odf2/Cenexin proteins. We further examined the expression patterns and functions of a protein named cilia and flagella associated protein 58 (Cfap58) in cultured astrocytes and sperm flagella. The results of a combination of biochemical analyses and drug administration studies reveal that Cfap58 is a testis-enrichment protein that exhibits similar localization to Odf2/Cenexin proteins and is required for the elongation of the primary cilium and sperm midpiece via modulation of the Notch signaling pathway. However, the cell cycle-related functions and localization of Odf2/Cenexin in the mother centriole were not altered in Cfap58 knockdown cells. These findings indicate that Cfap58 may be partially recruited by Odf2/Cenexin proteins and is indispensable for the cilia and flagellar assembly. These data provide us with a better understanding of ciliogenesis and flagellar elongation and may aid in identifying new targets for diseases caused by Notch-mediated ciliopathies and flagellar abnormalities.
Project description:Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are vital sensory and motile organelles. The calcium channel PKD2 mediates sensory perception on cilia and flagella, and defects in this can contribute to ciliopathic diseases. Signaling from Pkd2-dependent Ca²+ rise in the cilium to downstream effectors may require intermediary proteins that are largely unknown. To identify these proteins, we carried out genetic screens for mutations affecting Drosophila melanogaster sperm storage, a process mediated by Drosophila Pkd2. Here we show that a new mutation lost boys (lobo) encodes a conserved flagellar protein CG34110, which corresponds to vertebrate Ccdc135 (E = 6e-78) highly expressed in ciliated respiratory epithelia and sperm, and to FAP50 (E = 1e-28) in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagellar proteome. CG34110 localizes along the fly sperm flagellum. FAP50 is tightly associated with the outer doublet microtubules of the axoneme and appears not to be a component of the central pair, radial spokes, dynein arms, or structures defined by the mbo waveform mutants. Phenotypic analyses indicate that both Pkd2 and lobo specifically affect sperm movement into the female storage receptacle. We hypothesize that the CG34110/Ccdc135/FAP50 family of conserved flagellar proteins functions within the axoneme to mediate Pkd2-dependent processes in the sperm flagellum and other motile cilia.
Project description:Eukaryotic cilia and flagella have highly conserved 9 + 2 structures. They are functionally diverged to play cell-type-specific roles even in a multicellular organism. Although their structural components are therefore believed to be common, few studies have investigated the molecular diversity of the protein components of the cilia and flagella in a single organism. Here we carried out a proteomic analysis and compared protein components between branchial cilia and sperm flagella in a marine invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis. Distinct feature of protein recruitment in branchial cilia and sperm flagella has been clarified; (1) Isoforms of ?- and ?-tubulins as well as those of actins are distinctly used in branchial cilia or sperm flagella. (2) Structural components, such as dynein docking complex, tektins and an outer dense fiber protein, are used differently by the cilia and flagella. (3) Sperm flagella are specialized for the cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent regulation of outer arm dynein and for energy metabolism by glycolytic enzymes. Our present study clearly demonstrates that flagellar or ciliary proteins are properly recruited according to their function and stability, despite their apparent structural resemblance and conservation.
Project description:Cilia and flagella are cell organelles that are highly conserved throughout evolution. For many years, the green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has served as a model for examination of the structure and function of its flagella, which are similar to certain mammalian cilia. Proteome analysis revealed the presence of several kinases and protein phosphatases in these organelles. Reversible protein phosphorylation can control ciliary beating, motility, signaling, length, and assembly. Despite the importance of this posttranslational modification, the identities of many ciliary phosphoproteins and knowledge about their in vivo phosphorylation sites are still missing. Here we used immobilized metal affinity chromatography to enrich phosphopeptides from purified flagella and analyzed them by mass spectrometry. One hundred forty-one phosphorylated peptides were identified, belonging to 32 flagellar proteins. Thereby, 126 in vivo phosphorylation sites were determined. The flagellar phosphoproteome includes different structural and motor proteins, kinases, proteins with protein interaction domains, and many proteins whose functions are still unknown. In several cases, a dynamic phosphorylation pattern and clustering of phosphorylation sites were found, indicating a complex physiological status and specific control by reversible protein phosphorylation in the flagellum.
Project description:Motile cilia and flagella are essential, highly conserved organelles, and their motility is driven by the coordinated activities of multiple dynein isoforms. The prevailing "switch-point" hypothesis posits that dyneins are asymmetrically activated to drive flagellar bending. To test this model, we applied cryo-electron tomography to visualize activity states of individual dyneins relative to their locations along beating flagella of sea urchin sperm cells. As predicted, bending was generated by the asymmetric distribution of dynein activity on opposite sides of the flagellum. However, contrary to predictions, most dyneins were in their active state, and the smaller population of conformationally inactive dyneins switched flagellar sides relative to the bending direction. Thus, our data suggest a "switch-inhibition" mechanism in which force imbalance is generated by inhibiting, rather than activating, dyneins on alternating sides of the flagellum.
Project description:Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism thought to be essential for the assembly and maintenance of cilia and flagella. However, little is known about its role in mammalian sperm flagella formation. To fill this gap, we disrupted the Ift20 gene in male germ cells. Homozygous mutant mice were infertile with significantly reduced sperm counts and motility. In addition, abnormally shaped elongating spermatid heads and bulbous round spermatids were found in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Electron microscopy revealed increased cytoplasmic vesicles, fiber-like structures, abnormal accumulation of mitochondria and a decrease in mature lysosomes. The few developed sperm had disrupted axonemes and some retained cytoplasmic lobe components on the flagella. ODF2 and SPAG16L, two sperm flagella proteins failed to be incorporated into sperm tails of the mutant mice, and in the germ cells, both were assembled into complexes with lighter density in the absence of IFT20. Disrupting IFT20 did not significantly change expression levels of IFT88, a component of IFT-B complex, and IFT140, a component of IFT-A complex. Even though the expression level of an autophagy core protein that associates with IFT20, ATG16, was reduced in the testis of the Ift20 mutant mice, expression levels of other major autophagy markers, including LC3 and ubiquitin were not changed. Our studies suggest that IFT20 is essential for male fertility and spermiogenesis in mice, and its major function is to transport cargo proteins for sperm flagella formation. It also appears to be involved in removing excess cytoplasmic components.
Project description:Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. However, IFT25, a component of the IFT complex, is not required for the formation of cilia in somatic tissues. In mice, the gene is highly expressed in the testis, and its expression is upregulated during the final phase when sperm flagella are formed. To investigate the role of IFT25 in sperm flagella formation, the gene was specifically disrupted in male germ cells. All homozygous knockout mice survived to adulthood and did not show any gross abnormalities. However, all homozygous knockout males were completely infertile. Sperm numbers were reduced and these sperm were completely immotile. Multiple morphological abnormalities were observed in sperm, including round heads, short and bent tails, with some tails showing branched flagella and others with frequent abnormal thicknesses, as well as swollen tips of the tail. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that flagellar accessory structures, including the fibrous sheath and outer dense fibers, were disorganized, and most sperm had also lost the "9+2" microtubule structure. In the testis, IFT25 forms a complex with other IFT proteins. In Ift25 knockout testes, IFT27, an IFT25 binding partner, was missing, and IFT20 and IFT81 levels were also reduced. Our findings suggest that IFT25, although not necessary for the formation of cilia in somatic cells, is indispensable for sperm flagellum formation and male fertility in mice.
Project description:Axonemal protein complexes, such as outer (ODA) and inner (IDA) dynein arms, are responsible for the generation and regulation of flagellar and ciliary beating. Studies in various ciliated model organisms have shown that axonemal dynein arms are first assembled in the cell cytoplasm and then delivered into axonemes during ciliogenesis. In humans, mutations in genes encoding for factors involved in this process cause structural and functional defects of motile cilia in various organs such as the airways and result in the hereditary disorder primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Despite extensive knowledge about the cytoplasmic assembly of axonemal dynein arms in respiratory cilia, this process is still poorly understood in sperm flagella. To better define its clinical relevance on sperm structure and function, and thus male fertility, further investigations are required. Here we report the fertility status in different axonemal dynein preassembly mutant males (DNAAF2/ KTU, DNAAF4/ DYX1C1, DNAAF6/ PIH1D3, DNAAF7/ZMYND10, CFAP300/C11orf70 and LRRC6). Besides andrological examinations, we functionally and structurally analyzed sperm flagella of affected individuals by high-speed video- and transmission electron microscopy as well as systematically compared the composition of dynein arms in sperm flagella and respiratory cilia by immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, we analyzed the flagellar length in dynein preassembly mutant sperm. We found that the process of axonemal dynein preassembly is also critical in sperm, by identifying defects of ODAs and IDAs in dysmotile sperm of these individuals. Interestingly, these mutant sperm consistently show a complete loss of ODAs, while some respiratory cilia from the same individual can retain ODAs in the proximal ciliary compartment. This agrees with reports of solely one distinct ODA type in sperm, compared to two different ODA types in proximal and distal respiratory ciliary axonemes. Consistent with observations in model organisms, we also determined a significant reduction of sperm flagellar length in these individuals. These findings are relevant to subsequent studies on the function and composition of sperm flagella in PCD patients and non-syndromic infertile males. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the fertility status in PCD-affected males and should help guide genetic and andrological counselling for affected males and their families.
Project description:Outer dense fibre 2 (Odf2 or ODF2) is a cytoskeletal protein required for flagella (tail)-beating and stability to transport sperm cells from testes to the eggs. There are infertile males, including human patients, who have a high percentage of decapitated and decaudated spermatozoa (DDS), whose semen contains abnormal spermatozoa with tailless heads and headless tails due to head-neck separation. DDS is untreatable in reproductive medicine. We report for the first time a new type of Odf2-DDS in heterozygous mutant Odf2+/- mice. Odf2+/- males were infertile due to haploinsufficiency caused by heterozygous deletion of the Odf2 gene, encoding the Odf2 proteins. Odf2 haploinsufficiency induced sperm neck-midpiece separation, a new type of head-tail separation, leading to the generation of headneck sperm cells or headnecks composed of heads with necks and neckless tails composed of only the main parts of tails. The headnecks were immotile but alive and capable of producing offspring by intracytoplasmic headneck sperm injection (ICSI). The neckless tails were motile and could induce capacitation but had no significant forward motility. Further studies are necessary to show that ICSI in humans, using headneck sperm cells, is viable and could be an alternative for infertile patients suffering from Odf2-DDS.
Project description:The haploid germ cell-specific Tektin-t protein is a member of the Tektin family of proteins that form filaments in flagellar, ciliary, and axonemal microtubules. To investigate the physiological role of Tektin-t, we generated mice with a mutation in the tektin-t gene. The homozygous mutant males were infertile, while the females were fully fertile. Sperm morphology and function were abnormal, with frequent bending of the sperm flagella and marked defects in motility. In vitro fertilization assays showed that the defective spermatozoa were able to fertilize eggs. Electron microscopic examination showed that the dynein inner arm structure was disrupted in the sperm flagella of tektin-t-deficient mice. Furthermore, homozygous mutant mice had functionally defective tracheal cilia, as evidenced by altered dynein arm morphology. These results indicate that Tektin-t participates in dynein inner arm formation or attachment and that the loss of Tektin-t results in impaired motility of both flagella and cilia. Therefore, the tektin-t gene is one of the causal genes for immotile-cilium syndrome/primary ciliary dyskinesia.
Project description:Primary cilia are microtubule-based solitary sensing structures on the cell surface that play crucial roles in cell signaling and development. Abnormal ciliary function leads to various human genetic disorders, collectively known as ciliopathies. Outer dense fiber protein 2 (Odf2) was initially isolated as a major component of sperm-tail fibers. Subsequent studies have demonstrated the existence of many splicing variants of Odf2, including Cenexin1 (Odf2 isoform 9), which bears an unusual C-terminal extension. Strikingly, Odf2 localizes along the axoneme of primary cilia, whereas Cenexin1 localizes to basal bodies in cultured mammalian cells. Whether Odf2 and Cenexin1 contribute to primary cilia assembly by carrying out either concerted or distinct functions is unknown. By taking advantage of odf2-/- cells lacking endogenous Odf2 and Cenexin1, but exogenously expressing one or both of these proteins, we showed that Cenexin1, but not Odf2, was necessary and sufficient to induce ciliogenesis. Furthermore, the Cenexin1-dependent primary cilia assembly pathway appeared to function independently of Odf2. Consistently, Cenexin1, but not Odf2, interacted with GTP-loaded Rab8a, localized to the distal/subdistal appendages of basal bodies, and facilitated the recruitment of Chibby, a centriolar component that is important for proper ciliogenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that Cenexin1 plays a critical role in ciliogenesis through its C-terminal extension that confers a unique ability to mediate primary cilia assembly. The presence of multiple splicing variants hints that the function of Odf2 is diversified in such a way that each variant has a distinct role in the complex cellular and developmental processes.