Enhanced Intracellular Delivery of BCG Cell Wall Skeleton into Bladder Cancer Cells Using Liposomes Functionalized with Folic Acid and Pep-1 Peptide.
ABSTRACT: Although bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) might function as a potential substitute for live BCG, its use in the treatment of bladder cancer remains limited owing to issues such as insolubility and micrometer-size following exposure to an aqueous environment. Thus, to develop a novel nanoparticulate system for efficient BCG-CWS delivery, liposomal encapsulation was carried out using a modified emulsification-solvent evaporation method (targets: Size, <200 nm; encapsulation efficiency, ~60%). Further, the liposomal surface was functionalized with specific ligands, folic acid (FA), and Pep-1 peptide (Pep1), as targeting and cell-penetrating moieties, respectively. Functionalized liposomes greatly increased the intracellular uptake of BCG-CWS in the bladder cancer cell lines, 5637 and MBT2. The immunoactivity was verified through elevated cytokine production and a THP-1 migration assay. In vivo antitumor efficacy revealed that the BCG-CWS-loaded liposomes effectively inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing MBT2 tumors. Dual ligand-functionalized liposome was also superior to single ligand-functionalized liposomes. Immunohistochemistry supported the enhanced antitumor effect of BCG-CWS, with IL-6 production and CD4 infiltration. Thus, we conclude that FA- and Pep1-modified liposomes encapsulating BCG-CWS might be a good candidate for bladder cancer treatment with high target selectivity.
Project description:This study examines the antitumor potential of curcumin and C6 ceramide (C6) against osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines when both are encapsulated in the bilayer of liposomal nanoparticles. Three liposomal formulations were prepared: curcumin liposomes, C6 liposomes and C6-curcumin liposomes. Curcumin in combination with C6 showed 1.5 times enhanced cytotoxic effect in the case of MG-63 and KHOS OS cell lines, in comparison with curcumin liposomes alone. Importantly, C6-curcumin liposomes were found to be less toxic on untransformed primary human cells (human mesenchymal stem cells) in comparison to OS cell lines. In addition, cell cycle assays on a KHOS cell line after treatment revealed that curcumin only liposomes induced G2/M arrest by upregulation of cyclin B1, while C6 only liposomes induced G1 arrest by downregulation of cyclin D1. C6-curcumin liposomes induced G2/M arrest and showed a combined effect in the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. The efficiency of the preparations was tested in vivo using a human osteosarcoma xenograft assay. Using pegylated liposomes to increase the plasma half-life and tagging with folate (FA) for targeted delivery in vivo, a significant reduction in tumor size was observed with C6-curcumin-FA liposomes. The encapsulation of two water insoluble drugs, curcumin and C6, in the lipid bilayer of liposomes enhances the cytotoxic effect and validates the potential of combined drug therapy.
Project description:Taxanes including paclitaxel and docetaxel are effective anticancer agents preferably sufficient for liposomal drug delivery. However, the encapsulation of these drugs with effective amounts into conventional liposomes is difficult due to their high hydrophobicity. Therefore, an effective encapsulation strategy for liposomal taxanes has been eagerly anticipated. In this study, the mixture of polyethoxylated castor oil (Cremophor EL) and ethanol containing phosphate buffered saline termed as CEP was employed as a solvent of the inner hydrophilic core of liposomes where taxanes should be incorporated. Docetaxel-, paclitaxel-, or 7-oxacetylglycosylated paclitaxel-encapsulating liposomes were successfully prepared with almost 100% of encapsulation efficiency and 29.9, 15.4, or 29.1 mol% of loading efficiency, respectively. We then applied the docetaxel-encapsulating liposomes for targeted drug delivery. Docetaxel-encapsulating liposomes were successfully developed HER2-targeted drug delivery by coupling HER2-specific binding peptide on liposome surface. The HER2-targeting liposomes exhibited HER2-specific internalization and enhanced anticancer activity in vitro. Therefore, we propose the sophisticated preparation of liposomal taxanes using CEP as a promising formulation for effective cancer therapies.
Project description:Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited similar pharmacologic efficacy as nonencapsulated iloprost. Cationic liposomes can encapsulate iloprost with high efficacy and can serve as potential iloprost carriers to improve its therapeutic efficacy.
Project description:A safe and effective adjuvant is necessary to induce reliable protective efficacy of the protein-based vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterial components, such as synthetic cord factor and arabinogalactan, have been used as one of the adjuvant components. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette- Guérin cell-wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) has been used as an effective immune-stimulator. However, it is not proven whether BCG-CWS can be an effective adjuvant for the subunit protein vaccine of TB. In this study, we demonstrated that the BCG-CWS effectively coupled with Ag85B and enhanced the conjugated Ag85B activity on the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). Ag85B-BCG-CWS-matured DCs induced significant Th1 and Th17 responses when compared to BCG-CWS or Ag85B alone. In addition, significant Ag85B-specific Th1 and Th17 responses were induced in Ag85B-BCG-CWS-immunized mice before infection with M. tuberculosis and maintained after infection. Moreover, Ag85B-BCG-CWS showed significant protective effect comparable to live BCG at 6 weeks after infection and maintained its protective efficacy at 32 weeks post-challenge, whereas live BCG did not. These results suggest that the BCG-CWS may be an effective adjuvant candidate for a protein-based vaccine against TB.
Project description:Bladder drug delivery via catheter instillation is a widely used treatment for recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Intravesical instillation of liposomal botulinum toxin has recently shown promise in the treatment of overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and studies of liposomal tacrolimus instillations show promise in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis. Liposomes are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug molecules to be delivered to cells via endocytosis. This review will present new developments on instillations of liposomes and liposome-encapsulated drugs into the urinary bladder for treating lower urinary tract dysfunction.
Project description:We have analyzed the gene expression profile of monocytes in response to a highly purified cell wall fraction of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, a clinically approved adjuvant known as BCG cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS). It is composed of mycolic acid, arabinogalactan, and peptidoglycan and confers Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-dependent signaling that induces monocytes to differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Here we report differential gene expression analysis with BCG-CWS-stimulated versus nonstimulated monocytes. BCG-CWS exerted massive induction of genes regulated by TLR signaling. Marked gene regulatory characteristics in BCG-CWS-stimulated cells compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells follow. (i) Spliced mRNAs encoding soluble forms of TREM-1 and TREM-2 (recently discovered inflammatory-signal-amplifying receptors) were regulated by BCG-CWS, resulting in their differential expression. (ii) The genes for zinc-iron transporter protein (ZIP)-like family proteins HKE-1 and LIV-1 were induced exclusively by BCG-CWS. (iii) Interleukin-23 (IL-23), rather than IL-12p70, was induced by BCG-CWS, while interferon-inducible genes were induced only by LPS. By Northern and reverse transcription-PCR analyses, we confirmed the differential expression of more than 30 BCG-CWS regulatory genes, and their expression was compared with that of LPS and other known TLR ligands. A battery of genes responded rapidly and for a short time to LPS but for a long time to BCG-CWS. Structural analysis of the identified novel or hypothetical proteins revealed that some are potential candidates as signaling mediators or transcriptional regulators. Hence, BCG-CWS may profoundly modulate APC responses in a way distinct from that of LPS, leading to possible advantages for its adjuvant-active therapeutic potential.
Project description:Drug delivery to the brain has been a major challenge due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which limits the uptake of most chemotherapeutics into brain. We developed a dual-functionalized liposomal delivery system, conjugating cell penetrating peptide penetratin to transferrin-liposomes (Tf-Pen-conjugated liposomes) to enhance the transport of an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), across the blood-brain barrier into the tumor cells. The in vitro cellular uptake study showed that the dual-functionalized liposomes are capable of higher cellular uptake in glioblastoma (U87) and brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells monolayer. In addition, dual-functionalized liposomes demonstrated significantly higher apoptosis in U87 cells. The liposomal nanoparticles showed excellent blood compatibility and in vitro cell viability, as studied by hemolysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, respectively. The 5-FU-loaded dual-functionalized liposomes demonstrated higher transport across the brain endothelial barrier and delivered 5-FU to tumor cells inside poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-chitosan scaffold (an in vitro brain tumor model), resulting in significant tumor regression.
Project description:The delivery of curcumin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat osteosarcoma (OS). Curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in cyclodextrins followed by a second encapsulation in liposomes. Liposomal curcumin's potential was evaluated against cancer models of mesenchymal (OS) and epithelial origin (breast cancer). The resulting 2-Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin/curcumin - liposome complex shows promising anticancer potential both in vitro and in vivo against KHOS OS cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. An interesting aspect is that liposomal curcumin initiates the caspase cascade that leads to apoptotic cell death in vitro in comparison with DMSO-curcumin induced autophagic cell death. In addition, the efficiency of the liposomal curcumin formulation was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft OS model. Curcumin-loaded ?-cyclodextrin liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of different tissue origin.Curcumin-loaded ?-cyclodextrin liposomes were demonstrated in vitro to have significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Differences between mechanisms of cell death were also evaluated.
Project description:Despite the wide-spread use of liposomal drug delivery systems, application of these systems for oral purposes is limited due to their large-scale formulation and storage issues. Proliposomes are one of the formulation approaches for achieving solid powders that readily form liposomes upon hydration. In this work, we investigated a dry powder formulation of a model low-soluble drug with phospholipids loaded in porous functionalized calcium carbonate microparticles. We characterized the liposome formation under conditions that mimic the different gastrointestinal stages and studied the factors that influence the dissolution rate of the model drug. The liposomes that formed upon direct contact with the simulated gastric environment had a capacity to directly encapsulate 25% of the drug in situ. The emerged liposomes allowed complete dissolution of the drug within 15 min. We identified a negative correlation between the phospholipid content and the rate of water uptake. This correlation corroborated the results obtained for the rate of dissolution and liposome encapsulation efficiency. This approach allows for the development of solid proliposomal dosage formulations, which can be scaled up with regular processes.
Project description:Research on liposome formulations has progressed from that on conventional vesicles to new generation liposomes, such as cationic liposomes, temperature sensitive liposomes, and virosomes, by modulating the formulation techniques and lipid composition. Many research papers focus on the correlation of blood circulation time and drug accumulation in target tissues with physicochemical properties of liposomal formulations, including particle size, membrane lamellarity, surface charge, permeability, encapsulation volume, shelf time, and release rate. This review is mainly to compare the therapeutic effect of current clinically approved liposome-based drugs with free drugs, and to also determine the clinical effect via liposomal variations in lipid composition. Furthermore, the major preclinical and clinical data related to the principal liposomal formulations are also summarized.