Additions to N-Sulfinylamines as an Approach for the Metal-free Synthesis of Sulfonimidamides: O-Benzotriazolyl Sulfonimidates as Activated Intermediates.
ABSTRACT: Sulfonimidamides are obtained in moderate to very good yields from the key intermediates O-benzotriazolyl sulfonimidates, which are formed by reacting aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates, N-tritylsulfinylamine, and N-hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate in a process mediated by a tertiary amine. The formation of the sulfonimidate proceeds in inexpensive and environmentally benign dimethyl carbonate as the solvent, it does not require anhydrous conditions, and the product yields generally exceed 70?%. The substrate scope is broad, and a wide range of sensitive organic functionalities is well tolerated. The reactions probably proceed via aryl radicals formed from diazonium cations with assistance from both the tertiary amine and the sulfinylamine.
Project description:Unprotected tertiary sulfonimidamides have been prepared in good to excellent yields in a one-pot transformation from tertiary sulfinamides through NH transfer. The reaction is mediated by commercially available (diacetoxyiodo)benzene and ammonium carbamate in methanol under convenient conditions. A wide range of functional groups are tolerated and initial results indicate that the NH transfer is stereospecific. A small molecule X-ray analysis of NH sulfonimidamide 2?a and its behavior in selected in?vitro assays in comparison to the matched sulfonamide are also reported. This new reaction provides a safe, short and efficient approach to sulfonimidamides, which have been the subject of recent, growing interest in the life sciences.
Project description:An unprecedented set of structurally diverse sulfonimidamides (47?compounds) has been prepared by various N-functionalization reactions of tertiary =NH sulfonimidamide 2?aa. These N-functionalization reactions of model compound?2?aa include arylation, alkylation, trifluoromethylation, cyanation, sulfonylation, alkoxycarbonylation (carbamate formation) and aminocarbonylation (urea formation). Small molecule X-ray analyses of selected N-functionalized products are reported. To gain further insight into the properties of sulfonimidamides relevant to medicinal chemistry, a variety of structurally diverse reaction products were tested in selected in vitro assays. The described N-functionalization reactions provide a short and efficient approach to structurally diverse sulfonimidamides which have been the subject of recent, growing interest in the life sciences.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The synthesis of sulfonimidamides involves the nucleophilic substitution of a sulfonimidoyl chloride with an amine. However, only four chlorinating systems have been reported for the preparation of the sulfonimidoyl chloride intermediates. Whereas some of them have shown a rather limited substrate spectrum, the most versatile and commonly used tert-butyl hypochlorite is known to be explosive. To establish alternative methods for the synthesis of these molecules is therefore desirable.<h4>Results</h4>The preparation of various p-tolylsulfonimidamides through the reaction of the corresponding N-protected p-tolylsulfinamides and a number of amines in the presence of N-chlorosuccinimide was achieved at room temperature in 50-97% yield.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A convenient alternative procedure for the synthesis of sulfonimidamides from sulfinamides and various amines and sulfonamides using N-chlorosuccinimide as halogenating agent has been developed.
Project description:An efficient synthesis of aryl substituted cyclic sulfonimidamides designed as chiral nonplanar heterocyclic carboxylic acid bioisosteres is described. The cyclic sulfonimidamide ring system could be prepared in two steps from a trifluoroacetyl protected sulfinamide and methyl ester protected amino acids. By varying the amino acid, a range of different C-3 substituted sulfonimidamides could be prepared. The compounds could be further derivatized in the aryl ring using standard cross-coupling reactions to yield highly substituted cyclic sulfonimidamides in excellent yields. The physicochemical properties of the final compounds were examined and compared to those of the corresponding carboxylic acid and tetrazole derivatives. The unique nonplanar shape in combination with the relatively strong acidity (pK a 5-6) and the ease of modifying the chemical structure to fine-tune the physicochemical properties suggest that this heterocycle can be a valuable addition to the range of available carboxylic acid isosteres.
Project description:Herein is reported the first asymmetric utilization of aryldiazonium cations as a source of electrophilic nitrogen. This is achieved through a chiral anion phase-transfer pyrroloindolinization reaction that forms C3-diazenated pyrroloindolines from simple tryptamines and aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates. The title compounds are obtained in up to 99% yield and 96% ee. The air- and water-tolerant reaction allows electronic and steric diversity of the aryldiazonium electrophile and the tryptamine core.
Project description:A convenient and general zinc-catalyzed borylation of aryl diazonium salts and aryltriazenes has been developed. With bis- (pinacolato)diboron as the borylation reagent, aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborate salts and aryltriazenes were transformed into the corresponding arylboronates in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions. As a convenient and practical methodology, no additional ligands, base, or any other additives are required here.
Project description:Prior studies have shown that trifluoromethylarenes can be labeled in high molar activities (A m > 200 GBq/?mol) with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t 1/2 = 20.4 min) by the reaction of the copper(I) derivative of [11C]fluoroform [11C]CuCF3, with several types of precursors, such as aryl iodides, arylboronic acids, and aryldiazonium salts. Nonetheless, these precursors can be challenging to synthesize, and in the case of diazonium salts, are unstable. Methods that reduce challenges in precursor preparation for the synthesis of [11C]trifluoromethylarenes are desirable to enhance possibilities for developing biologically relevant 11C-labeled compounds as radiotracers for biomedical imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Here, we explored the production of no-carrier-added [11C]trifluoromethylarenes from commercially available primary aromatic amines through reactions of [11C]CuCF3 with diazonium salts that were generated in situ. Moderate to high isolated decay-corrected radiochemical yields (RCY) (32-84%) were obtained rapidly (within 2 min) for many para-substituted and meta-substituted primary aromatic amines bearing a halo, methoxy, thiomethyl, hydroxy, nitro, nitrile, carboxyl, ethylcarboxy, or trifluoromethyl substituent. Null to low RCYs (0-13%) were observed only for ortho bromo-, nitro-, or nitrile-substituted precursors. This new radiosynthetic method usefully expands options for producing PET radiotracers bearing a [11C]trifluoromethyl group, especially from aryl amine precursors.
Project description:Sulfoximines and sulfonimidamides are promising compounds for medicinal and agrochemistry. As monoaza analogues of sulfones and sulfonamides, respectively, they combine good physicochemical properties, high stability, and the ability to build complexity from a three-dimensional core. However, a lack of quick and efficient methods to prepare these compounds has hindered their uptake in molecule discovery programmes. Herein, we describe a unified, one-pot approach to both sulfoximines and sulfonimidamides, which exploits the high electrophilicity of sulfinyl nitrenes. We generate these rare reactive intermediates from a novel sulfinylhydroxylamine (R-O-N=S=O) reagent through an N-O bond fragmentation process. Combining sulfinyl nitrenes with carbon and nitrogen nucleophiles enables the synthesis of sulfoximines and sulfonimidamides in a reaction time of just 15 min. Alkyl, (hetero)aryl, and alkenyl organometallic reagents can all be used as the first or second component in the reaction, while primary and secondary amines, and anilines, all react with high efficiency as the second nucleophile. The tolerance of the reaction to steric and electronic factors has allowed for the synthesis of the most diverse set of sulfoximines and sulfonimidamides yet described. Experimental and computational investigations support the intermediacy of sulfinyl nitrenes, with nitrene formation proceeding via a transient triplet intermediate before reaching a planar singlet species.
Project description:Gold-catalyzed C-heteroatom (C-X) coupling reactions are evaluated without using sacrificial oxidants. Vital to the success of this methodology is the nucleophile-assisted activation of aryldiazonium salts, which could be an effective oxidant for converting Au(i) to Au(iii) even without the addition of an assisting ligand or photocatalyst. By accelerating the reaction kinetics to outcompete C-C homo-coupling or diazonium dediazoniation, gold-catalyzed Sandmeyer reactions were achieved with different nucleophiles, forming C-Br, C-S and C-P bonds in high yields and selectivities.
Project description:Pyridine promotes dediazoniation of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates. The formed aryl radicals were trapped with B2pin2, iodine, or tetrahydrofuran to afford boronic esters, iodobenzenes and benzenes, respectively. The application to the synthesis of (pentafluorosulfanyl)phenylboronic esters, iodo(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes and (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene is shown.