Turn up the healthy eating and activity time (HEAT): Physical activity outcomes from a 4-year non-randomized controlled trial in summer day camps.
ABSTRACT: Summer day camps (SDCs) serve over 14 million children in the U.S. and are well-positioned to help children accumulate the guideline of 60 min per day (60 min/d) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component intervention to increase the percentage of children meeting 60 min/d of MVPA. Twenty SDCs serving 3524 children (7.9 yrs., 46.2% girls, 66.1% non-Hispanic Black) participated in a 4-summer non-randomized two-group intervention. Children's accelerometer-derived MVPA was collected using accelerometers worn on the non-dominant wrist. SDCs were assigned to either 2 summers of intervention (n = 10, no intervention summer 2015, intervention summer 2016 and 2017) or 1 summer of intervention (n = 10, no intervention summer 2015 and 2016, intervention summer 2017). The final summer (July 2018) was a no intervention follow-up. Multilevel mixed effects regression models estimated changes in percent of children meeting 60 min/d of MVPA. Across all summers and SDCs, children accumulated an average of 89.2 min/day (±22.5) of MVPA. The likelihood of meeting the 60 min/d MVPA guideline was not different during intervention versus baseline summers for boys or girls (p > 0.05). Girls and boys were 3.5 (95CI = 1.5, 8.1) and 3.7 (95CI = 1.6, 8.4) times more likely to meet the 60 min/d guideline during intervention summers versus follow-up, respectively. The intervention was not successful at increasing the percentage of children meeting the 60 min/d MVPA guideline. However, children attending SDCs accumulated substantial amounts of MVPA thus efforts should focus on making SDCs an accessible setting for all children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Summer day camps (SDCs) serve 14 million children yearly in the U.S. and aim to provide participating children with 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study evaluated an intervention designed to increase the percent of children meeting this MVPA guideline. DESIGN:Two-group, pre-post quasi-experimental. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS:Twenty SDCs serving 1,830 children aged 5-12 years were assigned to MVPA intervention (n = 10) or healthy eating attention control (n = 10). INTERVENTION:The STEPs (Strategies to Enhance Practice) intervention is a capacity-building approach grounded in the Theory of Expanded, Extended and Enhanced Opportunities. Camp leaders and staff receive training to expand (e.g., introduction of activity breaks/active field trips), extend (e.g., schedule minimum of 3 hours/day for PA opportunities), and enhance (e.g., maximize MVPA children accumulate during schedule activity) activity opportunities. Camps in the comparison condition received support for improving the types of foods/beverages served. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Percent of children accumulating the 60min/d MVPA guideline at baseline (summer 2015) and post-test (summer 2016) measured via wrist-accelerometry. RESULTS:Multilevel logistic regression conducted fall 2016 indicated boys and girls attending intervention SDCs were 2.04 (95CI = 1.10,3.78) and 3.84 (95CI = 2.02,7.33) times more likely to meet the 60min/d guideline compared to boys and girls attending control SDCs, respectively. This corresponded to increases of +10.6% (78-89%) and +12.6% (69-82%) in the percentage of boys and girls meeting the guideline in intervention SDCs, respectively. Boys in comparison SDCs increased by +1.6% (81-83%) and girls decreased by -5.5% (76-71%). Process data indicated intervention SDCs successfully extended and enhanced PA opportunities, but were unable to expand PA opportunities, compared to control SDCs. CONCLUSIONS:Although substantial proportions of children met the MVPA guideline at baseline, no SDCs ensured all children met the guideline. This intervention demonstrated that, with support, SDCs can help all children in attendance to accumulate their daily recommended 60min MVPA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02161809.
Project description:(1) Background: Interventions using activity trackers and smartphone apps have demonstrated their ability to increase physical activity in children and adults. However, they have not been tested in whole families. Further, few family-centered interventions have actively involved both parents and assessed physical activity effects separately for children, mothers and fathers. Objective: To examine the feasibility and short-term effects of an activity tracker and app intervention to increase physical activity in the whole family (children, mothers and fathers). (2) Methods: This was a single-arm feasibility study with pre-post intervention measures. Between 2017-2018, 40 families (58 children aged 6-10 years, 39 mothers, 33 fathers) participated in the 6-week Step it Up Family program in Queensland, Australia. Using commercial activity trackers combined with apps (Garmin Vivofit Jr for children, Vivofit 3 for adults; Garmin Australasia Pty Ltd., Sydney, Australia), the intervention included individual and family-level goal-setting, self-monitoring, performance feedback, family step challenges, family social support and modelling, weekly motivational text messages and an introductory session. Parent surveys were used to assess physical activity effects measured as pre-post intervention changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children, mothers and fathers. Objective Garmin activity tracker data was recorded to assess physical activity levels (steps, active minutes) during the intervention. (3) Results: Thirty-eight families completed the post intervention survey (95% retention). At post intervention, MVPA had increased in children by 58 min/day (boys: 54 min/day, girls: 62 min/day; all p < 0.001). In mothers, MVPA increased by 27 min/day (p < 0.001) and in fathers, it increased by 31 min/day (p < 0.001). The percentage of children meeting Australia's physical activity guidelines for children (?60 MVPA min/day) increased from 34% to 89% (p < 0.001). The percentage of mothers and fathers meeting Australia's physical activity guidelines for adults (?150 MVPA min/week) increased from 8% to 57% (p < 0.001) in mothers and from 21% to 68% (p < 0.001) in fathers. The percentage of families with 'at least one child and both parents' meeting the physical activity guidelines increased from 0% to 41% (p < 0.001). Objective activity tracker data recorded during the intervention showed that the mean (SD) number of active minutes per day in children was 82.1 (17.1). Further, the mean (SD) steps per day was 9590.7 (2425.3) in children, 7397.5 (1954.2) in mothers and 8161.7 (3370.3) in fathers. (4) Conclusions: Acknowledging the uncontrolled study design, the large pre-post changes in MVPA and rather high step counts recorded during the intervention suggest that an activity tracker and app intervention can increase physical activity in whole families. The Step it Up Family program warrants further efficacy testing in a larger, randomized controlled trial.
Project description:PURPOSE:Integrated 24-Hour Movement Guidelines provide specific recommendations on screen viewing (SV), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep to improve health of children and youth. However, few studies have examined whether these guidelines are met in young children, particularly in Asia. We evaluated adherence to integrated and individual guidelines and its predictors in 5.5-year-old Singaporean children. METHODS:Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) is a mother-offspring birth cohort study. At age 5.5 years, child SV was reported by parents. Movement behaviours (MBs) were measured continuously using wrist-worn accelerometers over 7 consecutive days and nights. For accelerometer data including ≥3 days with ≥16 h/day we estimated mean (±SD) daily MVPA, SV and nighttime sleep duration across the week. Adherence to integrated (Canadian/Australian) guidelines was defined as meeting all individual guidelines: ≥60 min of MVPA/day, ≤2 h of screen time/day, and 9-11 h of sleep/night. Socio-demographic and maternal predictors collected at pregnancy enrolment and at 26-28 weeks' gestation were examined by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:Of 864 children followed up age 5.5 years, 547 (63.3%) had both valid ActiGraph and questionnaire data (51.7% boys and 58.3% Chinese ethnicity). Children averaged 101.9 (± 88.7) min/day SV, 67.3 (± 23.7) min/day MVPA and 480.6 (± 57.2) min/night sleep. Few children met integrated guidelines. Specifically, the proportions of children who met none, SV, MVPA, sleep and integrated guidelines were 11.2, 70.2, 59.6, 13.7 and 5.5%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that maternal activity and television (TV) viewing were associated with meeting integrated guidelines (insufficiently vs. highly active (OR [95% CI]): 0.11 [0.01, 0.95]; 2-3 vs. ≥ 3 h TV: 3.52 [1.02, 12.22]). Examining higher adherence to individual guidelines, Chinese ethnicity, younger maternal age and lower maternal TV and sleep time were associated with greater SV; male sex, Malay ethnicity, higher birth order and higher maternal activity level were associated with greater MVPA; and older maternal age was associated with adherence to sleep guideline. CONCLUSIONS:Beyond individual behaviours, consideration of the full spectrum of MBs may be important to improve children's health. However, few Singaporean children adhere to integrated 24-h movement guidelines. Maternal behaviours as early as during pregnancy could be important targets for future interventions aiming to promote these MBs in children.
Project description:To assess relationships between current physical activity (PA), dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) in English children.Longitudinal birth cohort study in northeast England, cross-sectional analysis.425 children (41% of the original cohort) aged 6-8?years (49% boys).PA over 7?days was measured objectively by an accelerometer; three categories of PA were created: 'active' ?60?min/day moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA); 'moderately active' 30-59?min/day MVPA; 'inactive' <30?min/day MVPA. Dietary intake over 4?days was measured using a prospective dietary assessment tool which incorporated elements of the food diary and food frequency methods. Three diet categories were created: 'healthy', 'unhealthy' and 'mixed', according to the number of portions of different foods consumed. Adherence to the '5-a-day' recommendations for portions of fruit and vegetables was also assessed. Children were classified as 'healthy weight' or 'overweight or obese' (OW/OB) according to International Obesity Taskforce cutpoints for BMI. Associations between weight status and PA/diet categories were analysed using logistic regression.Few children met the UK-recommended guidelines for either MVPA or fruit and vegetable intake, with just 7% meeting the recommended amount of MVPA of 60?min/day, and 3% meeting the 5-a-day fruit and vegetable recommendation. Higher PA was associated with a lower OR for OW/OB in boys only (0.20, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.88). There was no association detected between dietary intake and OW/OB in either sex.Increasing MVPA may help to reduce OW/OB in boys; however, more research is required to examine this relationship in girls. Children are not meeting the UK guidelines for diet and PA, and more needs to be done to improve this situation.
Project description:In 2015, YMCA-operated afterschool programs (ASPs) across South Carolina pledged to achieve the national standard that calls for every child to accumulate 30 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during program time. This study shares the first-year findings related to the dissemination, implementation, and outcomes associated with the statewide intervention to achieve the MVPA Standard. Twenty ASPs were sampled from all YMCA-operated ASPs (N = 97) and visited at baseline (spring 2015) and first-year follow-up (spring 2016). Programs were provided standardized professional development training to increase the MVPA children accumulated while attending ASPs. The training focused on extending the scheduled time for activity opportunities and modifying commonly played games to increase MVPA. The RE-AIM framework was used to evaluate the statewide intervention. Accelerometer-derived MVPA was the primary outcome. Implementation was evaluated via direct observation. Intent-to-treat (ITT) and as-treated comparisons were conducted in summer 2016. Reach/adoption was variable, with attendance at trainings ranging from 0 to 100% across ASPs. Effectiveness of the intervention using ITT models indicated no changes from baseline in the percentage of programs meeting the MVPA standard for boys or girls. Implementation levels also varied and were related to increases in both boys' and girls' MVPA for moderate and high implementers. Findings indicate improvements in MVPA can be made from attending the trainings and implementing some or all of the training components. Additional work is necessary to identify ways to ensure staff attend trainings to implement strategies and to identify which specific factors contributed to increases in MVPA.
Project description:An evidence-based steps/day translation of U.S. federal guidelines for youth to engage in ?60?minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) would help health researchers, practitioners, and lay professionals charged with increasing youth's physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to determine the number of free-living steps/day (both raw and adjusted to a pedometer scale) that correctly classified children (6-11?years) and adolescents (12-17?years) as meeting the 60-minute MVPA guideline using the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) accelerometer data, and to evaluate the 12,000 steps/day recommendation recently adopted by the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program.Analyses were conducted among children (n?=?915) and adolescents (n?=?1,302) in 2011 and 2012. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve plots and classification statistics revealed candidate steps/day cut points that discriminated meeting/not meeting the MVPA threshold by age group, gender and different accelerometer activity cut points. The Evenson and two Freedson age-specific (3 and 4 METs) cut points were used to define minimum MVPA, and optimal steps/day were examined for raw steps and adjusted to a pedometer-scale to facilitate translation to lay populations.For boys and girls (6-11?years) with???60?minutes/day of MVPA, a range of 11,500-13,500 uncensored steps/day for children was the optimal range that balanced classification errors. For adolescent boys and girls (12-17) with ?60?minutes/day of MVPA, 11,500-14,000 uncensored steps/day was optimal. Translation to a pedometer-scaling reduced these minimum values by 2,500 step/day to 9,000 steps/day. Area under the curve was ?84% in all analyses.No single study has definitively identified a precise and unyielding steps/day value for youth. Considering the other evidence to date, we propose a reasonable 'rule of thumb' value of???11,500 accelerometer-determined steps/day for both children and adolescents (and both genders), accepting that more is better. For practical applications, 9,000 steps/day appears to be a more pedometer-friendly value.
Project description:Background:Children from low-income families experience accelerated BMI gain and learning loss during summer. Healthy Summer Learners (HSL) addresses accelerated BMI gain and academic learning loss during summer by providing academic- and health-focused programming. This manuscript reports the effects of HSL on underlying obesogenic behaviors (i.e., physical activity, screen time, sleep, diet) that lead to accelerated summer BMI gain, a necessary first step to informing a future randomized controlled trial of HSL. Methods:In the summer of 2018 and 2019 using a quasi-experimental study design, 180 children (90 per summer, 7.9?years [SD = 1.0], 94% non-Hispanic Black, 40% male) at two schools (i.e., one per summer) who were struggling academically (25-75% on a standardized reading test) were provided a free, school-based 6-week health- and academic-focused summer program (i.e., HSL, n = 60), a 4- to 6-week academic-focused summer program (i.e., 21st Century Summer Learning program (21C), n = 60), or no summer program (n = 60). Children wore the Fitbit Charge 2™ over a 10-week period during the summers (June-Aug) of 2018-2019. Differences within (within child days attend vs. not attend) and between (differences between groups attend vs. not attend) were evaluated using mixed effects linear regression. Results:Regression estimates indicated that, on days attending, HSL children experienced a greater reduction in sedentary minutes (- 58.6 [95% CI = - 92.7, - 24.4]) and a greater increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (36.2 [95% CI = 25.1, 47.3]) and steps (2799.2 [95% CI = 2114.2, 3484.2]) compared to 21C children. However, both HSL and 21C children were more active (i.e., greater MVPA, total steps) and less sedentary (i.e., less sedentary minutes and total screen time) and displayed better sleeping patterns (i.e., earlier and less variability in sleep onset and offset) on days they attended than children in the control. Conclusions:HSL produced greater changes in physical activity than 21C. However, attendance at either HSL or 21C leads to more healthy obesogenic behaviors. Based on the behavioral data in this pilot study, a larger trial may be warranted. These results must be considered along with the pending primary outcomes (i.e., academics and BMI z-score) of the HSL pilot to determine if a full-scale trial is warranted. Trial registration:NIH-NCT03321071. Registered 25 October 2017.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To describe the objectively measured levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in a nationally representative sample of 10-11-year-old children, and compare adherence estimates to the UK PA guidelines using two approaches to assessing prevalence. DESIGN:Nationally representative longitudinal cohort study. SETTING:Scotland wide in partnership with the Growing up in Scotland (GUS) study. Data collection took place between May 2015 and May 2016. PARTICIPANTS:The parents of 2402 GUS children were approached and 2162 consented to contact. Consenting children (n=1096) wore accelerometers for 8 consecutive days and 774 participants (427 girls, 357 boys) met inclusion criteria. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Total PA (counts per minute, cpm); time spent sedentary and in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA); proportion of children with ?60 min MVPA on each day of wear (daily approach); proportion of children with ?60 min of MVPA on average across days of wear (average approach)-presented across boys and girls, index of multiple deprivation and season. RESULTS:Mean PA level was 648 cpm (95% CI, 627 to 670). Children spent 7.5 hours (7.4-7.6) sedentary/day and 72.6 min (70.0-75.3) in MVPA/day. 11% (daily) and 68% (average) of children achieved the recommended levels of PA (P<0.05 for difference); a greater proportion of boys met the guidelines (12.5% vs 9.8%, NS; 75.9% vs 59.5%, P<0.001); guideline prevalence exhibited seasonal variation. No significant socioeconomic patterning existed across any outcome measure. CONCLUSIONS:PA estimates are significantly influenced by the analytical method used to assess prevalence. This could have a substantial impact on the evaluation of interventions, policy objectives and public health investment. Existing guidelines, which focus on daily PA only may not further our understandings about the underlying construct itself. Gender differences exist within this age-group, suggesting greater investment, with particular consideration of seasonality, is needed for targeted intervention work in younger children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Insufficient physical activity, short sleep duration, and excessive recreational screen time are increasing globally. Currently, there are little to no data describing prevalences and correlates of movement behaviours among children in low-middle-income countries. The few available reports do not include both urban and rural respondents, despite the large proportion of rural populations in low-middle-income countries. We compared the prevalence of meeting 24-h movement guidelines and examined correlates of meeting the guidelines in a sample of urban and rural Mozambican schoolchildren. METHODS:This is cross-sectional study of 9-11?year-old children (n?=?683) recruited from 10 urban and 7 rural schools in Mozambique. Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration were measured by waist-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Accelerometers were worn 24?h/day for up to 8 days. Recreational screen time was self-reported. Potential correlates of meeting 24-h movement guidelines were directly measured or obtained from validated items of context-adapted questionnaires. Multilevel multivariable logit models were used to determine the correlates of movement behaviours. Meeting 24-h movement guidelines was defined as ?60?min/day of MVPA, ?2?h/day of recreational screen time, and between 9 and 11?h/night of sleep. RESULTS:More rural (17.7%) than urban (3.6%) children met all three 24-h movement guidelines. Mean MVPA was lower (82.9?±?29.5?min/day) among urban than rural children (96.7?±?31.8?min/day). Rural children had longer sleep duration (8.9?±?0.7?h/night) and shorter recreational screen time (2.7?±?1.9?h/day) than their urban counterparts (8.7?±?0.9?h/night and 5.0?±?2.3?h/day respectively). Parental education (OR: 0.37; CI: 0.16-0.87), school location (OR: 0.21; CI: 0.09-0.52), and outdoor time (OR: 0.67; CI: 0.53-0.85) were significant correlates of meeting all three 24-h movement guidelines. CONCLUSIONS:Prevalence and correlates of meeting movement guidelines differed between urban and rural schoolchildren in Mozambique. On average, both groups had higher daily MVPA minutes, shorter sleep duration, and higher recreational screen time than the 24-h movement guidelines recommend. These findings (e.g., higher than recommended mean daily MVPA minutes) differ from those from high-income countries and highlight the need to sample from both urban and rural areas.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate factors associated with movement behaviours among White British (WB) and South Asian (SA) children aged 6-8 years during school terms and holidays. DESIGN:Cross-sectional. SETTING:Three primary schools from the Bradford area, UK. PARTICIPANTS:One hundred and sixty WB and SA children aged 6-8 years. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:Sedentary behaviour (SB), light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) measured by accelerometry during summer, winter and spring and during school terms and school holidays. Data were analysed using multivariate mixed-effects multilevel modelling with robust SEs. Factors of interest were ethnicity, holiday/term, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, weekend/weekday and season. RESULTS:One hundred and eight children (67.5%) provided 1157 valid days of data. Fifty-nine per cent of children were WB (n=64) and 41% (n=44) were SA. Boys spent more time in MVPA (11 min/day, p=0.013) compared with girls and SA children spent more time in SB (39 min, p=0.017) compared with WB children in adjusted models. Children living in higher SES areas were more sedentary (43 min, p=0.006) than children living in low SES areas. Children were more active during summer (15 min MVPA, p<0.001; 27 LPA, p<0.001) and spring (15 min MVPA, p=0.005; 38 min LPA, p<0.001) and less sedentary (-42 min and -53 min, p<0.001) compared with winter. Less time (8 min, p=0.012) was spent in LPA during school terms compared with school holidays. Children spent more time in MVPA (5 min, p=0.036) during weekend compared with weekdays. Overweight and obese children spent more time in LPA (21 min, p=0.021) than normal-weight children. CONCLUSION:The results of our study suggest that significant child level factors associated with movement behaviours are ethnicity, sex, weight-status and area SES. Significant temporal factors are weekends, school holidays and seasonality. Interventions to support health enhancing movement behaviours may need to be tailored around these factors.