Effects of an Autonomy-Supportive Physical Activity Program for Compensatory Care Students During Recess Time.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical activity-based intervention conducted during recess time for Spanish students with special needs. The intervention was designed to utilize an autonomy-supportive motivational style to promote feelings of autonomy and to contribute to increased physical activity involvement in these students. Participants were 62 students in the fifth and sixth year of elementary school, with ages between 10 and 12 years (M = 10.75 years, SD = 0.80 years). Students' perceptions of autonomy support, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, sport and physical activity motivation and actual physical activity level were assessed. A quasi-experimental design was employed with two intervention groups (autonomy-supportive and controlling styles), as well as a control group. Results indicated that students in the autonomy-supportive condition demonstrated a significant increase in feelings of autonomy and increased their physical activity levels while demonstrating a significant decrease in extrinsic motivation over the course of the intervention. The results provide support for the expectation that well-designed and theoretically based physical activity interventions can optimize learning and motivational outcomes for students in inclusive physical education settings.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examined the shift in types of motivation to increase PA and healthy dieting among participants of a primary care CLI, and the contribution of lifestyle coaching to potential changes in motivational quality.<h4>Methods</h4>This prospective cohort study included participants of 29 general practices in the Netherlands that implemented a CLI named 'BeweegKuur'. Questionnaires including items on demographics, lifestyle coaching and motivation were sent at baseline and after 4 months. Aspects of motivation were assessed with the Behavioural Regulation and Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and the Regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (REBS). We performed a drop out analysis to identify selective drop-out. Changes in motivation were analysed with t-tests and effect size interpretations (Cohen's d), and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of motivational change.<h4>Results</h4>For physical activity, changes in motivational regulation were fully in line with the tenets of Self Determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing: participants made a shift towards a more autonomous type of motivation (i.e. controlled types of motivation decreased and autonomous types increased). Moreover, an autonomy supportive coaching style was generally found to predict a larger shift in autonomous types of motivation. For healthy dietary behaviour, however, except for a small decrease in external motivation, no favourable changes in different types of motivation were observed. The relation between coaching and motivation appeared to be influenced by the presence of physical activity guidance in the programme.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Motivation of participants of a real life primary care CLI had changed towards a more autonomous motivation after 4 months of intervention. Autonomy-supportive lifestyle coaching contributed to this change with respect to physical activity. Lifestyle coaching for healthy diet requires thorough knowledge about the problem of unhealthy dieting and solid coaching skills.
Project description:This study investigated situational changes in learners' degree of autonomous regulation during other-initiated learning activities and examined the influence of the instructional style on such changes. To this end, relative autonomous motivation of 172 fifth to seventh grade students was measured before, during and after execution of a musical learning activity. It was experimentally manipulated whether students were instructed in an autonomy-supportive or a controlling style. As expected based on self-determination theory and the action-based model of cognitive dissonance, relative autonomous motivation increased in the course of the execution of the learning activity. Unexpectedly, this increase was only statistically significant when students were instructed in a controlling style. At all times though, students instructed in an autonomy-supportive style were more autonomously motivated than students instructed in a controlling style. Furthermore, results showed a positive effect of an autonomy-supportive instructional style on students' functional state and their interest in continuing with the learning activity. The pattern of changes in relative autonomous motivation might indicate that in controlling conditions a reduction of dissonance is of functional importance, which is why relative autonomous motivation increased under controlling conditions but not under autonomy-supportive conditions. In an applied perspective, the study demonstrates that executing an activity might be beneficial for fostering autonomous motivation and it corroborates findings that indicate positive effects of an autonomy-supportive instructional style on students' motivation and functional state.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inadequate physical activity in young people is associated with several physical and mental health concerns. Physical education (PE) is a potentially viable existing network for promoting physical activity in this population. However, little research has been conducted on whether PE teachers can influence students' engagement in leisure-time physical activity. The present study therefore examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at increasing PE teachers' autonomy support on students' leisure-time physical activity (the PETALS trial). The intervention was guided by the trans-contextual model (TCM) explaining the processes by which PE teachers' provision of autonomy support during PE promotes students' motivation and engagement in physical activity in their leisure time. METHODS:The study adopted a cluster-randomized, waitlist control intervention design with randomization by school. Participants were PE teachers (N?=?29, 44.83%female; M age?=?42.83, SD?=?9.53?yrs) and their lower secondary school students (N?=?502, 43.82%female; M age?=?14.52, SD?=?0.71?yrs). We measured TCM constructs, including perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation in PE and leisure time, beliefs and intentions towards leisure-time physical activity, and physical activity behavior at baseline, post-intervention, and at one-, three-, and six-months. Study hypotheses were tested through a series of ANOVAs and structural equation models using post-intervention and one-month follow-up data. RESULTS:We found no changes in TCM constructs or physical activity behavior in either group at post-intervention or at 1 month. Path analyses supported two propositions of the TCM as change variables: perceived autonomy support had a significant effect on autonomous motivation in PE and autonomous motivation in PE had a significant effect on autonomous motivation in leisure time. Although we found a direct effect of autonomous motivation in leisure time on physical activity, we did not find support for the third premise of the TCM that autonomous motivation in leisure time indirectly affects physical activity through beliefs and intentions. CONCLUSIONS:Current findings did not support the efficacy of the PETALS intervention at changing physical activity behavior and TCM constructs. More research is required to determine whether the TCM predictive validity is supported when other model variables are manipulated through experimental and intervention studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN, ISRCTN39374060 . Registered 19 July 2018. Prospectively registered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Given the documented decline in levels of physical activity in early adolescence, promoting physical activity in young people is a priority for health promotion. School physical education (PE) is an important existing network in which participation in physical activity beyond school can be promoted to the captive young people. The objective of current article is to present the protocol for a PE teacher-delivered theory-based trial to promote secondary school students' participation in physical activity out-of-school contexts. The intervention will be guided by the trans-contextual model explaining the processes by which PE teachers' support for autonomous motivation in the classroom promotes students' motivation to engage in out-of-school physical activity. We hypothesize that school students receiving the teacher-delivered intervention to promote autonomous motivation toward physical activity will exhibit greater participation in physical activities outside of school, relative to students receiving a control intervention. METHODS:The trial will adopt a waitlist-control design with cluster-randomization by school. PE teachers assigned to the intervention condition will receive a two-week, 12-h training program comprising basic information on how to promote out-of-school physical activity and theory-based training on strategies to promote students' autonomous motivation toward physical activity. Teachers assigned to the waitlist control condition will receive an alternative training on how to monitor physical functional capacity in children with special needs. PE teachers (n?=?29) from eleven schools will apply the intervention program to students (n?=?502) in PE classes for one month. Physical activity participation, the primary outcome variable, and psychological mediators from the trans-contextual model will be measured at pre-trial, post-trial, and at one-, three- and six-months post-trial. We will also assess teachers' autonomy-supportive techniques and behaviours by observation. DISCUSSION:The study will make a unique contribution to the literature by testing a theory-based intervention delivered by PE teachers to promote school students' participation in out-of-school physical activity. Information will be useful for educators, community stakeholders and policy makers interested in developing programs to promote students' out-of-school physical activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN39374060 . Registered 19.7.2018.
Project description:This intervention study investigates the effects of teacher autonomy support on basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation for giving physical education classes and satisfaction from engaging in physical activity. The sample consisted of 61 students (32 in the experimental group and 29 in the control group), aged 12 to 14 years. Two physical education teachers were part of the group, one who was trained to give autonomy-support classes and the other used the usual class model. The experimental group teacher gave classes based on the autonomy support style, while his control group counterpart did not follow any model. The students, assessed before and after the 8-month intervention, were measured for perception of interpersonal teaching style, basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and satisfaction from engaging in physical activity. The results showed that the experimental group exhibited higher indices for autonomy, competence and relatedness, self-determined motivation and satisfaction from engaging in physical activity, when compared to the control group. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of programs that support autonomy in physical education classes, emphasizing the importance of pedagogical strategies and educational programs that promote the development of basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and its positive consequences in relation to physical education classes.
Project description:PURPOSE: Internalization of students' motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC), relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students' basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more 'human centred' teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. CONCLUSION: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students' self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.
Project description:Self-determination theory (SDT) has been used to predict children's physical activity and well-being. However, few school-based SDT intervention studies have been conducted, and no research exists with children of low socio-economic status (SES). Therefore, SDT-derived needs-supportive teaching techniques informed the design and analyses of the Healthy Choices Programme (HCP). The aim was to determine if the HCP could enhance moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and well-being among children of low SES through increasing autonomy-support, needs satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.A mixed factorial two (group)?×?two (time) wait-list controlled trial was conducted and reported using the TREND guidelines. A total of 155 children (56% females; intervention n?=?84, control n?=?71) took part and completed measures at baseline (week 0) and post-intervention (week 11). The effect of the intervention on MVPA (model 1) and well-being (model 2) was tested through serial mediation models with three mediators (i.e. autonomy-support, needs satisfaction and intrinsic motivation).In comparison to the control group, the intervention was related to increases in MVPA (??=?.45) and autonomy-support (??=?.17). In model 1, analyses revealed partial mediation of the MVPA change through autonomy-support (??=?.14), intrinsic motivation (??=?.51) and all three SDT mediators in sequence (total r 2 ?=?.34). In model 2, well-being was indirectly enhanced through autonomy-support (??=?.38) and autonomy-support and needs satisfaction in sequence (total r 2 ?=?.21).The HCP enhanced MVPA and well-being by engendering a needs-supportive physical activity environment. The scientific and practical contribution of this study was the application of SDT in all aspects of the HCP intervention's design and analyses. Practitioners may consider integrating SDT principles, as implemented in the HCP, for health promotion.This study is registered on Research Registry (number researchregistry2852 ).
Project description:There is a strong belief that physical education can affect an individual's physical activity, healthy habits, and behaviors through pleasant, positive, and significant exercise experiences, a practical knowledge base, and comprehensive teaching strategies. However, a crucial cognitive aspect for the effective and significant learning of the activities offered in the educational environment is the concentration of students. This study aims to test a hypothetical model based on self-determination theory to assess the degree of support prediction provided by the teacher for student autonomy in the various types of motivation and on student concentration in physical education classes in high schools within the Mexican context and test invariance across gender groups. This study included 859 students between 11 and 16 years from different high schools in the city of San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León (México). The Learning Climate Questionnaire, the Perceived Locus of Causality, and the Concentration scale adapted to physical education and translated into Mexican Spanish were used. Results showed good internal consistency for all instruments. Both the measurement model and the structural equation modeling showed satisfactory adjustment indexes. The results revealed that the autonomy support positively predicted autonomous motivation, controlled motivation to a lesser extent, and amotivation negatively. Furthermore, the students' concentration was highly and positively predicted by autonomous motivation, by controlled motivation to a lesser extent, and by amotivation negatively. The model predicted 39% of variance of autonomous motivation with large effect size (ƒ2 = 0.64), 2% of controlled motivation with small effect size (ƒ2 = 0.02), 8% of amotivation with small effect size (ƒ2 = 0.09), and 49% of concentration with large effect size (ƒ2 = 0.96). Finally, the invariance analysis revealed that the model fit was invariant across gender groups. The results of this study emphasize how important it is for teachers to adopt an interpersonal style of autonomy support to generate a motivational climate that influences the concentration of students. This could contribute to the achievement of the purposes and educational objectives of the physical education class, which, in turn, might be conducive to students adopting healthy lifestyles in adolescence and beyond.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity to maintain good health. Smartphone apps are increasingly used to support physical activity but typically focus on tracking behaviors with no support for the complex process of behavior change. Tracking features do not engage all users, and apps could better reach their targets by engaging users in reflecting their reasons, capabilities, and opportunities to change. Motivational interviewing supports this active engagement in self-reflection and self-regulation by fostering psychological needs proposed by the self-determination theory (ie, autonomy, competence, and relatedness). However, it is unknown whether digitalized motivational interviewing in a smartphone app engages users in this process. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to describe the theory- and evidence-based development of the Precious app and to examine how digitalized motivational interviewing using a smartphone app engages users in the behavior change process. Specifically, we aimed to determine if use of the Precious app elicits change talk in participants and how they perceive autonomy support in the app. METHODS:A multidisciplinary team built the Precious app to support engagement in the behavior change process. The Precious app targets reflective processes with motivational interviewing and spontaneous processes with gamified tools, and builds on the principles of self-determination theory and control theory by using 7 relational techniques and 12 behavior change techniques. The feasibility of the app was tested among 12 adults, who were asked to interact with the prototype and think aloud. Semistructured interviews allowed participants to extend their statements. Participants' interactions with the app were video recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with deductive thematic analysis to identify the theoretical themes related to autonomy support and change talk. RESULTS:Participants valued the autonomy supportive features in the Precious app (eg, freedom to pursue personally relevant goals and receive tailored feedback). We identified the following five themes based on the theory-based theme autonomy support: valuing the chance to choose, concern about lack of autonomy, expecting controlling features, autonomous goals, and autonomy supportive feedback. The motivational interviewing features actively engaged participants in reflecting their outcome goals and reasons for activity, producing several types of change talk and very little sustain talk. The types of change talk identified were desire, need, reasons, ability, commitment, and taking steps toward change. CONCLUSIONS:The Precious app takes a unique approach to engage users in the behavior change process by targeting both reflective and spontaneous processes. It allows motivational interviewing in a mobile form, supports psychological needs with relational techniques, and targets intrinsic motivation with gamified elements. The motivational interviewing approach shows promise, but the impact of its interactive features and tailored feedback needs to be studied over time. The Precious app is undergoing testing in a series of n-of-1 randomized controlled trials.
Project description:PURPOSE:To test the effectiveness of an intervention to increase motivation for physical activity in racially diverse third- through fifth-grade students. DESIGN:Natural experiment. SETTING:Elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS:Two hundred ninety-one students in 18 Minne-Loppet Ski Program classes and 210 students in 12 control classrooms from the same schools. INTERVENTION:The Minne-Loppet Ski Program, an 8-week curriculum in elementary schools that teaches healthy physical activity behaviors through cross-country skiing. MEASURES:Pretest and posttest surveys measured self-determination theory outcomes: intrinsic exercise motivation, intrinsic ski motivation, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. ANALYSIS:Hierarchical linear regression models tested treatment effects controlled for grade, race, sex, and baseline measures of the outcomes. RESULTS:Minne-Loppet program students showed significantly greater motivation to ski (? = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.75) and significantly greater perceived competence (? = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.06-1.50) than students in control classrooms. Treatment effects for general exercise motivation and perceived competence differed by race. African American students in Minne-Loppet classes showed significantly greater general exercise motivation (? = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.03-2.14) and perceived competence (? = 1.95, 95% CI: 0.91-2.99) than African American students in control classes. CONCLUSION:The Minne-Loppet program promoted perceived competence and motivation to ski. Future improvements to the Minne-Loppet and similar interventions should aim to build general motivation and provide support needed to better engage all participants.