Oligodendroglial connexin 47 regulates neuroinflammation upon autoimmune demyelination in a novel mouse model of multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT: In multiple sclerosis plaques, oligodendroglial connexin (Cx) 47 constituting main gap junction channels with astroglial Cx43 is persistently lost. As mice with Cx47 single knockout exhibit no demyelination, the roles of Cx47 remain undefined. We aimed to clarify the effects of oligodendroglia-specific Cx47 inducible conditional knockout (icKO) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55) in PLP/CreERT;Cx47fl/fl mice at 14 d after tamoxifen injection. Cx47 icKO mice demonstrated exacerbation of acute and chronic relapsing EAE with more pronounced demyelination than Cx47 flox (fl)/fl littermates. CD3+ T cells more abundantly infiltrated the spinal cord in Cx47 icKO than in Cx47 fl/fl mice throughout the acute to chronic phases. CXCR3-CCR6+CD4+ and IL17+IFN?-CD4+ helper T (Th) 17 cells isolated from spinal cord and brain tissues were significantly increased in Cx47 icKO mice compared with Cx47 fl/fl mice, while MOG35-55-specific proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production of splenocytes were unaltered. Microarray analysis of isolated microglia revealed stronger microglial activation toward proinflammatory and injury-response phenotypes with increased expressions of chemokines that can attract Th17 cells, including Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl7, and Ccl8, in Cx47 icKO mice compared with Cx47 fl/fl mice. In Cx47 icKO mice, NOS2+ and MHC class II+ microglia were more enriched immunohistochemically, and A1-specific astroglial gene expressions and astroglia immunostained for C3, a representative A1 astrocyte marker, were significantly increased at the acute phase, compared with Cx47 fl/fl mice. These findings suggest that oligodendroglia-specific Cx47 ablation induces severe inflammation upon autoimmune demyelination, underscoring a critical role for Cx47 in regulating neuroinflammation.
Project description:Objective: To elucidate the role of Cx47 loss in chronic neuroinflammation and establish an SPMS model. Methods: Plp-CreERT; Cx47fl/fl mice were generated and administered tamoxifen to induce oligodendroglia-specific conditional knockout of Cx47 (Cx47 icKO). Ten days after tamoxifen treatment, Cx47 icKO mice and their control littermates were immunized by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Overall design: FL naive MG as control.
Project description:Objective: To elucidate the role of Cx47 loss in chronic neuroinflammation and establish an SPMS model. Methods: Plp-CreERT; Cx47fl/fl mice were generated and administered tamoxifen to induce oligodendroglia-specific conditional knockout of Cx47 (Cx47 icKO). Ten days after tamoxifen treatment, Cx47 icKO mice and their control littermates were immunized by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Overall design: contorols: 1FL naive Ast as control.
Project description:Priming of autoreactive T cells in lymph nodes by dendritic cells (DCs) is critical for the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). DC activation reflects a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals. One anti-inflammatory factor is prostaglandin D2 signaling through its cognate receptor, D-prostanoid receptor 1 (PTGDR), on myeloid cells. Loss of PTGDR signaling might be expected to enhance DC activation and EAE but here we show that PTGDR-/- mice developed only mild signs of MOG35-55 peptide immunization-induced EAE. Compared to wild type mice, PTGDR-/- mice exhibited less demyelination, decreased leukocyte infiltration and diminished microglia activation. These effects resulted from increased pro-inflammatory responses in the lymph nodes, most notably in IL-1? production, with the unexpected consequence of increased activation-induced apoptosis of MOG35-55 peptide-specific T cells. Conditional deletion of PTGDR on DCs, and not other myeloid cells ameliorated EAE. Together, these results demonstrate the indispensable role that PGD2/PTGDR signaling on DCs has in development of pathogenic T cells in autoimmune demyelination.
Project description:Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS), is mediated by myelin-specific autoreactive T cells that cause inflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS), with significant contributions from activated microglia and macrophages. The molecular bases for expansion and activation of these cells, plus trafficking to the CNS for peripheral cells, are not fully understood. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (Aif-1) (also known as ionized Ca(2+) binding adapter-1 [Iba-1]) is induced in leukocytes in MS and EAE; here we provide the first assessment of Aif-1 function in this setting. After myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55) immunization, Aif-1-deficient mice were less likely than controls to develop EAE and had less CNS leukocyte infiltration and demyelination; their spinal cords contained fewer CD4 T cells and microglia and more CD8 T cells. These mice also showed significantly less splenic CD4 T-cell expansion and activation, plus decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression. These findings identify Aif-1 as a potent molecule that promotes expansion and activation of CD4 T cells, plus elaboration of a proinflammatory cytokine milieu, in MOG35-55-induced EAE and as a potential therapeutic target in MS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) plays a vital role in preventing microvascular thrombosis and inflammation. Reduced ADAMTS13 levels in plasma have been detected in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In the present study, we have determined the role of ADAMTS13 in the disease progression of MS using a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS:Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35-55 peptide and then treated with ADAMTS13 or vehicle in preventive and therapeutic settings. Mice were analyzed for clinical deficit, white matter demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltration. To explore the underlying mechanism, VWF expression and blood-spinal cord barriers (BSCB) were determined. RESULTS:Plasma ADAMTS13 activity was suppressed in EAE mice. ADAMTS13-treated EAE mice exhibited an ameliorated disease course, reduced demyelination, and decreased T lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. Consistently, ADAMTS13 treatment reduced VWF levels and inhibited BSCB breakdown in the spinal cords of EAE mice. However, leukocytes in the blood and spleen of EAE mice remained unaffected by ADAMTS13 administration. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that ADAMTS13 treatment ameliorates inflammatory responses, demyelination and disease course in EAE mice. Therefore, our study suggests that ADAMTS13 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for MS patients.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease characterized by autoimmune demyelination and progressive neurodegeneration. Pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease remain largely unknown. Changes in synaptic functions have been reported; however, the significance of such alterations in the disease course remains unclear. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of targeting synapses is not well-established. Synapses have key signaling elements that regulate intracellular transport and overall neuronal health. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)6 is a microtubule-associated deacetylase. The interaction between HDAC6 and microtubules is augmented by HDAC6 inhibitors. In this study, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, an animal model of MS, were treated with the HDAC6 inhibitor drug ACY-738 (20 mg/kg) on day 9 and day 10 post-immunization. Mice were assessed for working memory using the cross-maze test at 10 days post-immunization (d.p.i.), whereas disease scores were recorded over approximately 4 weeks post-immunization. We observed that ACY-738 delayed disease onset and reduced disease severity. Most importantly, ACY-738 increased short-term memory in a manner sensitive to disease severity. We induced EAE disease with various amounts of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55). EAE mice receiving 100 μg of MOG35-55 and treated with ACY-738 had a statistically significant increase in short term-memory compared to naive mice. Additionally, EAE mice receiving 50 μg MOG35-55 and treated with ACY-738 had a statistically significant increase in short term-memory when compared to EAE mice without drug treatment. In contrast, ACY-738 did not change short-term memory in EAE mice immunized with 200 μg of MOG35-55. Because ACY-738 increases short-term memory only with lower amounts of EAE-inducing reagents, we hypothesize that the inflammatory-demyelinating environment induced by higher amount of EAE-inducing reagents overpowers (at day 10 post-immunization) the synaptic molecules targeted by ACY-738. These studies pave the way for developing ACY-738-like compounds for MS patients and for using ACY-738 as a probe to elucidate disease-sensitive changes at the synapses occurring early in the disease course.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While many groups use experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model to uncover therapeutic targets and understand the pathology underlying multiple sclerosis (MS), EAE protocol variability introduces discrepancies in central nervous system (CNS) pathogenesis and clinical disease, limiting the comparability between studies and slowing much-needed translational research. OPTIMIZED METHOD:Here we describe a detailed, reliable protocol for chronic EAE induction in C57BL/6 mice utilizing two injections of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55) peptide mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant and paired with pertussis toxin. RESULTS:The active MOG35-55-EAE protocol presented here induces ascending paralysis in 80-100% of immunized mice. We observe: (1) consistent T cell immune activation, (2) robust CNS infiltration by peripheral immune cells, and (3) perivascular demyelinating lesions concurrent with axon damage in the spinal cord and various brain regions, including the optic nerve, cortex, hippocampus, internal capsule, and cerebellum. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD(S):Lack of detailed protocols, combined with variability between laboratories, make EAE results difficult to compare and hinder the use of this model for therapeutic development. We provide the most detailed active MOG35-55-EAE protocol to date. With this protocol, we observe high disease incidence and a consistent, reliable disease course. The resulting pathology is MS-like and includes optic neuritis, perivascular mononuclear infiltration, CNS axon demyelination, and axon damage in both infiltrating lesions and otherwise normal-appearing white matter. CONCLUSIONS:By providing a detailed active MOG35-55-EAE protocol that yields consistent and robust pathology, we aim to foster comparability between pre-clinical studies and facilitate the discovery of MS therapeutics.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that attacks myelinated axons in the central nervous system. Induction of oral tolerance is a potent mechanism to prevent autoimmunity. The food yeast Candida utilis was used to test the therapeutic potential of oral tolerance induction in an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). We constructed a C. utilis strain, which displays a fusion peptide composed of the encephalitogenic MOG35-55 peptide and the C. utilis Gas1 cell wall protein on its surface.By immunizing mice with MOG35-55 peptide experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in a mouse model. Feeding of mice with C. utilis that expresses MOG35-55 peptide on its surface was started seven days prior to immunization and was continued for ten days. Control animals were treated with wild-type fungus or left untreated. Untreated mice developed first clinical symptoms ten days post immunization (p. i.) with an ascending paralysis reaching maximal clinical disability at day 18 to 20 p. i.. Treatment with the wild-type strain demonstrated comparable clinical symptoms. In contrast, oral gavage of MOG35-55-presenting fungus ameliorated the development of EAE. In addition, incidence as well as maximal clinical disease severity were significantly reduced. Interestingly, reduction of disease severity also occurred in animals treated with heat-inactivated C. utilis cells indicating that tolerance induction was independent of fungal viability. Better disease outcome correlated with reduced demyelination and cellular inflammation in the spinal cord, lower T cell proliferation against rechallenge with MOG35-55 and more regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes. Our data demonstrate successful that using the food approved fungus C. utilis presenting the immunogenic MOG35-55 peptide on its surface induced an oral tolerance against this epitope in EAE. Further studies will reveal the nature and extent of an anti-inflammatory environment established by the treatment that prevents the development of an autoimmune disorder affecting the CNS.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease in which myelin in the spinal cord is damaged. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is implicated in immune cell migration and cytokine release in central nervous system (CNS). We investigated whether CCR5 plays a role in MS progression using a murine model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in CCR5 deficient (CCR5-/-) mice. CCR5-/- and CCR5+/+ (wild-type) mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG35-55) followed by pertussis toxin, after which EAE paralysis was scored for 28 days. We found that clinical scoring and EAE neuropathology were lower in CCR5-/- mice than CCR5+/+ mice. Immune cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, B cell, NK cell and macrophages) infiltration and astrocytes/microglial activation were attenuated in CCR5-/- mice. Moreover, levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, IFN-? and MCP-1 cytokine levels were decreased in CCR5-/- mice spinal cord. Myelin basic protein (MBP) and CNPase were increased while NG2 and O4 were decreased in CCR5-/- mice, indicating that demyelination was suppressed by CCR5 gene deletion. These findings suggest that CCR5 is likely participating in demyelination in the spinal cord the MS development, and that it could serve as an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of MS.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex disease associated with multifocal demyelination of the central nervous system and poorly understood etiology. It has been previously indicated that many factors, including oxidative stress and p38MAPK-SGK1 pathway, contribute to the pathogenesis of MS.This study, using an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model system, was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms determining interaction p38MAPK-SGK1 pathway and oxidative stress in MS pathogenesis. C57BL/6 mice was immunized with MOG35-55 peptide for EAE induction, which was followed by determination of the effect of treatment with classic p38 inhibitor SB203580 and antioxidant tempol on the development and progression of EAE.Our experiments showed a dynamic change of immune inflammation, oxidative stress and p38MAPK-SGK1 pathway involvement in EAE demonstrating that p38MAPK-SGK1 pathway and oxidative stress contribute to the demyelination in central nerve system caused by Th17 inflammatory responses in a synergistic way. The administration of SB203580 and Tempol both markedly suppressed the progression of EAE. Furthermore, tempol showed a strong inhibiting effect to the p38MAPK-SGK1 pathway similar to SB203580 suggesting that oxidative stress exacerbates EAE via the activation of p38MAPK-SGK1 pathway.Cumulatively, our results show that oxidative stress p38MAPK-SGK1 signaling pathway may be a central player in EAE and even in MS.