Clinicopathological significance of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins in ovarian carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States due to the late-stage disease at diagnosis. Overexpression of GRP78 and PDI following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) promote growth and invasion in cancer. To identify novel prognostic biomarkers in EOC, here we determined the expression of ER stress-associated proteins (GRP78, ATF6 and PERK) and correlated with clinical outcome in EOC. Tissue microarray (TMA) samples from 415 tissues collected from three cancer centers (UM, USC, and KCCRI) were used to assess the expression levels of ER-associated proteins using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We observed that the expression levels of GRP78 (p?
Project description:It has been known that overexposure to Ni can induce nephrotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of underlying Ni nephrotoxicity are still elusive, and also Ni- and Ni compound-induced ER stress has been not reported in vivo at present. Our aim was to use broiler chickens as animal model to test whether the ER stress was induced and UPR was activated by NiCl2 in the kidney using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. Two hundred and eighty one-day-old broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups and fed on a control diet and the same basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg, 600mg/kg and 900mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. We found that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg induced ER stress, which was characterized by increasing protein and mRNA expression of ER stress markers, e.g., GRP78 and GRP94. Concurrently, all the three UPR pathways were activated by dietary NiCl2. Firstly, the PERK pathway was activated by increasing eIF2a and ATF4 mRNA expression. Secondly, the IRE1 pathway was activated duo to increase in IRE1 and XBP1 mRNA expression. And thirdly, the increase of ATF6 mRNA expression suggested that ATF6 pathway was activated. The findings clearly demonstrate that NiCl2 induces the ER stress through activating PERK, IRE1 and ATF6 UPR pathways, which is proved to be a kind of molecular mechanism of Ni- or/and Ni compound-induced nephrotoxicity.
Project description:Disruptions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that perturb protein folding cause ER stress and elicit an unfolded protein response (UPR) that involves translational and transcriptional changes in gene expression aimed at expanding the ER processing capacity and alleviating cellular injury. Three ER stress sensors (PERK, ATF6, and IRE1) implement the UPR. PERK phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eIF2 during ER stress represses protein synthesis, which prevents further influx of ER client proteins. Phosphorylation of eIF2? (eIF2?~P) also induces preferential translation of ATF4, a transcription activator of the integrated stress response. In this study we show that the PERK/eIF2?~P/ATF4 pathway is required not only for translational control, but also for activation of ATF6 and its target genes. The PERK pathway facilitates both the synthesis of ATF6 and trafficking of ATF6 from the ER to the Golgi for intramembrane proteolysis and activation of ATF6. As a consequence, liver-specific depletion of PERK significantly reduces both the translational and transcriptional phases of the UPR, leading to reduced protein chaperone expression, disruptions of lipid metabolism, and enhanced apoptosis. These findings show that the regulatory networks of the UPR are fully integrated and help explain the diverse biological defects associated with loss of PERK.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection induces autophagy and apoptosis. These cellular responses could be connected with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It remains unknown if PCV2 induces ER stress and if autophagy or apoptosis is primary to PCV2 infection or secondary responses following ER stress. Here, we demonstrate that PCV2 triggered unfolded protein response (UPR) in PK-15 cells by activating the PERK/eIF2? pathway without concomitant activation of IRE1 or ATF6. Since ATF4 and CHOP were induced later than PERK/eIF2?, it is clear that persistent PCV2 infection could lead to selective activation of PERK via the PERK-eIF2?-ATF4-CHOP axis. Therefore, PERK activation could be part of the pro-apoptotic signaling via induced expression of CHOP by PCV2. Since PERK inhibition by GSK2606414 or RNA silencing or suppression of eIF2? dephosphorylation by salubrinal limited viral replication, we suppose that PCV2 deploys UPR to enhance its replication. Over-expression of GRP78 or treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid could enhance viral capsid expression and/or viral titers, indicating that these chaperones, endogenous or exogenous, could help correct folding of viral proteins. Our findings provide the first evidence that ER stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of PCV2 infection probably as part of autophagic and apoptotic responses.
Project description:The mechanisms hallmarking melanoma progression are insufficiently understood. Here we studied the impact of the unfolded protein response (UPR) - a signalling cascade playing ambiguous roles in carcinogenesis - in melanoma malignancy. We identified isogenic patient-derived melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E-mutations as a model system to study the role of intrinsic UPR in melanoma progression. We show that the activity of the three effector pathways of the UPR (ATF6, PERK and IRE1) was increased in metastatic compared to non-metastatic cells. Increased UPR-activity was associated with increased flexibility to cope with ER stress. The activity of the ATF6- and the PERK-, but not the IRE-pathway, correlated with poor survival in melanoma patients. Using whole-genome expression analysis, we show that the UPR is an inducer of FGF1 and FGF2 expression and cell migration. Antagonization of the UPR using the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) reduced FGF expression and inhibited cell migration and viability. Consistently, FGF expression positively correlated with the activity of ATF6 and PERK in human melanomas. We conclude that chronic UPR stimulates the FGF/FGF-receptor signalling axis and promotes melanoma progression. Hence, the development of potent chemical chaperones to antagonize the UPR might be a therapeutic approach to target melanoma.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to changes in intracellular homeostasis through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR can facilitate the restoration of cellular homeostasis, via the concerted activation of three ER stress sensors, namely IRE1, PERK and ATF6. Global approaches in several cellular contexts have revealed that UPR regulates the expression of many miRNAs that play an important role in the regulation of life and death decisions during UPR. Here we show that expression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster is downregulated during UPR. IRE1 inhibitor (4 μ8C) and deficiency of XBP1 had no effect on downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 during UPR. Treatment of cells with CCT030312, a selective activator of EIF2AK3/PERK signalling, leads to the downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 expression. The repression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster during conditions of ER stress is compromised in PERK-deficient MEFs. miR-424 regulates the expression of ATF6 via a miR-424 binding site in its 3' UTR and attenuates the ATF6 transcriptional activity during UPR. Further miR-424 had no effect on IRE1-XBP1 axis but enhanced the regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD). Our results suggest that miR-424 constitutes an obligatory fine-tuning mechanism where PERK-mediated downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 cluster regulates optimal activation of IRE1 and ATF6 during conditions of ER stress.
Project description:Flavivirus infection causes host cell death by initiation of an unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is initiated following activation of three ER-membrane resident sensors, PERK, IRE1α and ATF6, which are otherwise kept inactive through association with the ER-chaperone GRP78. Activation precedes cellular and molecular changes that act to restore homeostasis but might eventually initiate apoptosis. These changes involve influencing function of multiple genes by either transcriptional or post-transcriptional or post-translational mechanisms. Transcriptional control includes expression of transcription factor cascades, which influence cognate gene expression. Malat1 is a long non-coding RNA which is over-expressed in many human oncogenic tissues and regulates cell cycle and survival. In this report, for the first time we show activation of Malat1 following infection by two flaviviruses, both of which activate the UPR in host cells. The temporal kinetics of expression was restricted to later time points. Further, Malat1 was also activated by pharmacological inducer of UPR, to a similar degree. Using drugs that specifically inhibit or activate the PERK or IRE1α sensors, we demonstrate that signalling through the PERK axis activates this expression, through a transcriptional mechanism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an UPR pathway regulating the expression of an lncRNA.
Project description:Accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the relevance of the UPR in a mouse model of chronic MPTP/probenecid (MPTP/P) injection, which causes severe and persistent degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Enhanced activation of the UPR branches, including ATF6? and PERK/eIF2?/ATF4, was observed after MPTP/P injections into mice. Deletion of the ATF6? gene accelerated neuronal degeneration and ubiquitin accumulation relatively early in the MPTP/P injection course. Surprisingly, astroglial activation was strongly suppressed, and production of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and anti-oxidative genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and xCT, in astrocytes were reduced in ATF6? -/- mice after MPTP/P injections. Decreased BDNF expression in ATF6? -/- mice was associated with decreased expression of GRP78, an ATF6?-dependent molecular chaperone in the ER. Decreased HO-1 and xCT levels were associated with decreased expression of the ATF4-dependent pro-apoptotic gene CHOP. Consistent with these results, administration of the UPR-activating reagent tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone; IN19) into mice enhanced the expression of UPR-target genes in both dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes, and promoted neuronal survival after MPTP/P injections. These results suggest that the UPR is activated in a mouse model of chronic MPTP/P injection, and contributes to the survival of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, in part, through activated astrocytes.
Project description:To understand the underlying mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by human rhinovirus (HRV) 16 and non-structural transmembrane protein 2B, the expressions of ER chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and three signal transduction pathways, including protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), were evaluated after HRV16 infection and 2B gene transfection. Our results showed that both HRV16 infection and 2B gene transfection increased the expression of ER chaperone GRP78, and induced phosphorylation of PERK and cleavage of ATF6 in a time-dependent manner. Our data also revealed that the HRV16 2B protein was localized to the ER membrane. However, both HRV16 infection and HRV16 2B gene transfection did not induce ER stress through the IRE1 pathway. Moreover, our results showed that apoptosis occurred in H1-HeLa cells infected with HRV16 or transfected with 2B gene accompanied with increased expression of CHOP and cleaved caspase-3. Taken together, non-structural protein 2B of HRV16 induced an ER stress response through the PERK and ATF6 pathways rather than the IRE1 pathway.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) can infect ducks, geese, and many other poultry species and leads to acute, septic and highly fatal infectious disease. Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient pathway that plays an important role in many viral infections. We previously reported that DEV infection induces autophagy for its own benefit, but how this occurs remains unclear. In this study, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was triggered by DEV infection, as demonstrated by the increased expression of the ER stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and the dilated morphology of the ER. Pathways associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR), including the PKR-like ER protein kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathways, but not the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) pathway, were activated in DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. In addition, the knockdown of both PERK and IRE1 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) reduced the level of LC3-II and viral yields, which suggested that the PERK-eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) and IRE1-x-box protein1 (XBP1) pathways may contribute to DEV-induced autophagy. Collectively, these data offer new insight into the mechanisms of DEV -induced autophagy through activation of the ER stress-related UPR pathway.
Project description:The UPR (Unfolded Protein Response) is a well-orchestrated response to ER protein folding and processing overload, integrating both transcriptional and translational outputs. Its three arms in mammalian cells, the PERK translational response arm, together with the ATF6 and IRE1-XBP1-mediated transcriptional arms, have been thoroughly investigated. Using ribosome footprint profiling, we performed a deep characterization of gene expression programs involved in the early and late ER stress responses, within WT or PERK -/- Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs). We found that both repression and activation gene expression programs, affecting hundreds of genes, are significantly hampered in the absence of PERK. Specifically, PERK -/- cells do not show global translational inhibition, nor do they specifically activate early gene expression programs upon short exposure to ER stress. Furthermore, while PERK -/- cells do activate/repress late ER-stress response genes, the response is substantially weaker. Importantly, we highlight a widespread PERK-dependent repression program, consisting of ER targeted proteins, including transmembrane proteins, glycoproteins, and proteins with disulfide bonds. This phenomenon occurs in various different cell types, and has a major translational regulatory component. Moreover, we revealed a novel interplay between PERK and the XBP1-ATF6 arms of the UPR, whereby PERK attenuates the expression of a specific subset of XBP1-ATF6 targets, further illuminating the complexity of the integrated ER stress response.