The DELLA proteins interact with MYB21 and MYB24 to regulate filament elongation in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) are two essential phytohormones for filament elongation in Arabidopsis. GA and JA trigger degradation of DELLAs and JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins through SCFSLY1 and SCFCOI1 separately to activate filament elongation. In JA pathway, JAZs interact with MYB21 and MYB24 to control filament elongation. However, little is known how DELLAs regulate filament elongation. RESULTS:Here we showed that DELLAs interact with MYB21 and MYB24, and that R2R3 domains of MYB21 and MYB24 are responsible for interaction with DELLAs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that DELLA and JAZ proteins coordinately repress the transcriptional function of MYB21 and MYB24 to inhibit filament elongation. CONCLUSION:We discovered that DELLAs interact with MYB21 and MYB24, and that DELLAs and JAZs attenuate the transcriptional function of MYB21 and MYB24 to control filament elongation. This study reveals a novel cross-talk mechanism of GA and JA in the regulation of filament elongation in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Precise coordination between stamen and pistil development is essential to make a fertile flower. Mutations impairing stamen filament elongation, pollen maturation, or anther dehiscence will cause male sterility. Deficiency in plant hormone gibberellin (GA) causes male sterility due to accumulation of DELLA proteins, and GA triggers DELLA degradation to promote stamen development. Deficiency in plant hormone jasmonate (JA) also causes male sterility. However, little is known about the relationship between GA and JA in controlling stamen development. Here, we show that MYB21, MYB24, and MYB57 are GA-dependent stamen-enriched genes. Loss-of-function of two DELLAs RGA and RGL2 restores the expression of these three MYB genes together with restoration of stamen filament growth in GA-deficient plants. Genetic analysis showed that the myb21-t1 myb24-t1 myb57-t1 triple mutant confers a short stamen phenotype leading to male sterility. Further genetic and molecular studies demonstrate that GA suppresses DELLAs to mobilize the expression of the key JA biosynthesis gene DAD1, and this is consistent with the observation that the JA content in the young flower buds of the GA-deficient quadruple mutant ga1-3 gai-t6 rga-t2 rgl1-1 is much lower than that in the WT. We conclude that GA promotes JA biosynthesis to control the expression of MYB21, MYB24, and MYB57. Therefore, we have established a hierarchical relationship between GA and JA in that modulation of JA pathway by GA is one of the prerequisites for GA to regulate the normal stamen development in Arabidopsis.
Project description:The phytohormone jasmonates (JAs) regulate various defense responses and diverse developmental processes including stamen development and fertility. Previous studies showed that JA induces CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1-mediated degradation of JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, and activates the MYB transcription factors (such as MYB21 and MYB24) to regulate stamen development. In this study, we further uncover the mechanism underlying how MYB24 interacts with JAZs to control JA-regulated stamen development. We show that N-terminus of MYB21/24 interacts with 10 out of 12 JAZ proteins while both N-terminus and C-terminus of MYB24 are involved in dimerization of MYB21 and MYB24. Interestingly, male sterility of the JA-deficient mutant opr3 can be rescued by suitable level of the MYB24 overexpression but not by excessive high level of MYB24. Surprisingly, overexpression of MYB24NT, but not MYB24CT, could cause male sterility. These results provide new insights on MYB factors in JA-regulated stamen development.
Project description:The jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA) signaling pathways interact to coordinate stress responses and developmental processes. This coordination affects plant growth and yield, and is mediated by interactions between the repressors of each pathway, the JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN PROTEIN (JAZ) and DELLA proteins. In this study we attempted to identify rice (Oryza sativa) JAZs that interact with rice DELLAs such as SLENDER RICE 1 (SLR1). Analysis of protein-protein interactions showed that OsJAZ8 and OsJAZ9 interact with SLR1; OsJAZ9 also interacted with the SLR1-LIKE (SLRL) protein SLRL2. Based on this broader interaction, we explored the function of OsJAZ9 in JA and GA responses by analyzing transcript levels of the JA-responsive gene OsbHLH148 and the GA-responsive gene OsPIL14 in OsJAZ9-overexpressing (OsJAZ9-Ox) and osjaz9 mutant plants. OsbHLH148 and OsPIL14 encode key transcription factors controlling JA and GA responses, respectively, and JA and GA antagonistically regulate their expression. In OsJAZ9-Ox, the expression of OsbHLH148 was downregulated and the expression of OsPIL14 was upregulated. By contrast, in osjaz9 mutants, the expression of OsbHLH148 was upregulated and the expression of OsPIL14 was downregulated. These observations indicated that OsJAZ9 regulates both JA and GA responses in rice, and this finding was supported by the opposite expression patterns of OsDREB1s, downstream targets of OsbHLH148 and OsPIL14, in the OsJAZ9-Ox and osjaz9 plants. Together, these findings indicate that OsJAZ9 suppresses JA responses and promotes GA responses in rice, and the protein-protein interaction between OsJAZ9 and SLR1 is involved in the antagonistic interplay between JA and GA.
Project description:Flower maturation consists of several events that contribute to reproductive success as flowers open, including petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, pollen release, nectary maturation, stigma growth, and gynoecium maturation to support pollen tube growth. The Arabidopsis transcription factors ARF6 (Auxin Response Factor 6) and ARF8 regulate all of these processes, in part by activating jasmonate biosynthesis. Jasmonates in turn activate genes encoding the transcription factors MYB21 and MYB24, which mediate a subset of the processes controlled by ARF6 and ARF8. This experiment was designed to characterize gene expression in flowers before and after they open, and to determine how arf6 arf8 and myb21 myb24 mutation combinations affect these gene expression patterns. Three biological replicates were prepared at each of two developmental stages, stage 12 (oldest closed buds) and stage 13 (youngest open flowers), for three genotypes (Wild type, arf6-2 arf8-3, and myb21-5 myb24-5). For the mutant genotypes, stage 13 flowers do not actually open, so corresponding flowers of equivalent age were chosen based on the position of open flowers in wild-type inflorescences.
Project description:For self-pollinating plants to reproduce, male and female organ development must be coordinated as flowers mature. The Arabidopsis transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8 regulate this complex process by promoting petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence, and gynoecium maturation, thereby ensuring that pollen released from the anthers is deposited on the stigma of a receptive gynoecium. ARF6 and ARF8 induce jasmonate production, which in turn triggers expression of MYB21 and MYB24, encoding R2R3 MYB transcription factors that promote petal and stamen growth. To understand the dynamics of this flower maturation regulatory network, we have characterized morphological, chemical, and global gene expression phenotypes of arf, myb, and jasmonate pathway mutant flowers. We found that MYB21 and MYB24 promoted not only petal and stamen development but also gynoecium growth. As well as regulating reproductive competence, both the ARF and MYB factors promoted nectary development or function and volatile sesquiterpene production, which may attract insect pollinators and/or repel pathogens. Mutants lacking jasmonate synthesis or response had decreased MYB21 expression and stamen and petal growth at the stage when flowers normally open, but had increased MYB21 expression in petals of older flowers, resulting in renewed and persistent petal expansion at later stages. Both auxin response and jasmonate synthesis promoted positive feedbacks that may ensure rapid petal and stamen growth as flowers open. MYB21 also fed back negatively on expression of jasmonate biosynthesis pathway genes to decrease flower jasmonate level, which correlated with termination of growth after flowers have opened. These dynamic feedbacks may promote timely, coordinated, and transient growth of flower organs.
Project description:The lipid-derived hormone jasmonate (JA) regulates diverse aspects of plant immunity and development. Among the central components of the JA signaling cascade are the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFCOI1 and Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress transcription of JA-responsive genes. Recent studies provide evidence that amino acid-conjugated forms of JA initiate signal transduction upon formation of a coronatine-insensitive1 (COI1)-JA-JAZ ternary complex in which JAZs are ubiquitinated and subsequently degraded. Coronatine, a virulence factor produced by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, is a potent agonist of this hormone receptor system. Coronatine-induced targeting of JAZs to COI1 obstructs host immune responses to P. syrinage, providing a striking example of how pathogens exploit hormone signaling pathways in the host to promote disease. These findings, together with homology between COI1 and the auxin receptor, TIR1, extend the paradigm of F-box proteins as intracellular sensors of small molecules, and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the auxin and JA response pathways.
Project description:Gram-negative bacterial pathogens deliver a variety of virulence proteins through the type III secretion system (T3SS) directly into the host cytoplasm. These type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) play an essential role in bacterial infection, mainly by targeting host immunity. However, the molecular basis of their functionalities remains largely enigmatic. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae T3SE HopZ1a, a member of the widely distributed YopJ effector family, directly interacts with jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins through the conserved Jas domain in plant hosts. JAZs are transcription repressors of jasmonate (JA)-responsive genes and major components of the jasmonate receptor complex. Upon interaction, JAZs can be acetylated by HopZ1a through a putative acetyltransferase activity. Importantly, P. syringae producing the wild-type, but not a catalytic mutant of HopZ1a, promotes the degradation of HopZ1-interacting JAZs and activates JA signaling during bacterial infection. Furthermore, HopZ1a could partially rescue the virulence defect of a P. syringae mutant that lacks the production of coronatine, a JA-mimicking phytotoxin produced by a few P. syringae strains. These results highlight a novel example by which a bacterial effector directly manipulates the core regulators of phytohormone signaling to facilitate infection. The targeting of JAZ repressors by both coronatine toxin and HopZ1 effector suggests that the JA receptor complex is potentially a major hub of host targets for bacterial pathogens.
Project description:Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection.
Project description:Plants have evolved sophisticated systems for adaptation to their natural habitat. In response to developmental and environmental cues, plants produce and perceive jasmonate (JA) signals, which induce degradation of JASMONATE-ZIM-Domain (JAZ) proteins and derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors to regulate diverse aspects of defense responses and developmental processes. Here, we identified the bHLH subgroup IIId transcription factors (bHLH3, bHLH13, bHLH14 and bHLH17) as novel targets of JAZs. These bHLH subgroup IIId transcription factors act as transcription repressors and function redundantly to negatively regulate JA responses. The quadruple mutant bhlh3 bhlh13 bhlh14 bhlh17 showed severe sensitivity to JA-inhibited root growth and JA-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and exhibited obvious increase in JA-regulated plant defense against pathogen infection and insect attack. Transgenic plants overexpressing bHLH13 or bHLH17 displayed reduced JA responses. Furthermore, these bHLH factors functioned as transcription repressors to antagonize the transcription activators, such as MYC2 and the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex, through binding to their target sequences. Coordinated regulation of JA responses by transcription activators and repressors would benefit plants by allowing fine regulation of defense and development, and survival in their frequently changing environment.
Project description:Jasmonate (JA) is an important signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins have been implicated in regulating JA signaling pathways and the cross talk between various phytohormones. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for monocotyledon studies. Although many JAZ proteins have been characterized in Arabidopsis and rice, few reports have examined the function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this report, we examined the phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern of JAZ family genes in maize. In addition, a tassel and endosperm-specific JAZ gene, ZmJAZ14, was identified using microarray data analysis and real-time RT-PCR, and its expression was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), jasmonate (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GAs). ZmJAZ14 was shown to be localized in the nucleus and possessed no transcriptional activating activity, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional regulator. We found that overexpression of ZmJAZ14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to JA and ABA treatment, as well as PEG stress, while it promoted growth under GA stimulus. Moreover, ZmJAZ14 interacted with a subset of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, and the accumulation of several marker genes involved in JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways were altered in the overexpression lines. These results suggest that ZmJAZ14 may serve as a hub for the cross talk among the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways. Our results can be used to further characterize the function of JAZ family proteins in maize, and the gene cloned in this study may serve as a candidate for drought tolerance and growth promotion regulation in maize.