Alternative processing technology for the preparation of carbonized Zingiberis Rhizoma by stir-frying with sand.
ABSTRACT: Context: Carbonized ginger, a type of charry herb, has been used as a hemostatic medicine since ancient times. However, there are some serious problems such as inhomogeneous heating and emitting smoke during processing with traditional stir-frying method.Objective: To investigate the feasibility to obtain carbonized ginger by stir-frying with sand instead of stir-frying method.Materials and methods: Dried-ginger (100?g) was processed by stir-frying for 30?min at 270?±?10?°C, or by stir-frying with sand (1:10, w/w) for 8?min at 240?±?5?°C. The HPLC fingerprint was established for two samples. The adsorption capacity and major components including tannins, gingerols, shogaols and gingerone were quantitated by UV and HPLC, respectively. The hemostatic effect by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was evaluated in vitro.Results: The similarity of the two samples for HPLC fingerprints was >0.93. The sand-fried samples showed significantly higher adsorption capacity compared with the stir-fried samples (4.915 vs. 4.593?mg/g; p??0.05). The PT and APTT values were similar between the stir-fried and sand-fried test groups and significantly lower compared to controls (p?
Project description:The active component obtained from ginger is a high value-added product, but continued research is required for improved extraction techniques that will lead to better quality extracts and greater yields. In this study, major functional compounds of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol in ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Rosc) were extracted using microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Possible ranges for optimal MAE conditions were predicted by merging of the contour plots of each response to observe the overlapping area of all responses. Optimal conditions predicted were ethanol concentration of 70%, extraction time of 10 min, and microwave power of 180 W. Verification tests carried out at a set of random condition within the above mentioned optimal ranges, which got experimental values for total soluble solid yield, antioxidant activity, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol of 30.0±0.8%, 87.8±0.8%, 2.8±0.6 mg/g and 1.3±0.5 mg/g, respectively. Analysis results showed that steamed ginger sample contained lower 6-gingerol content, soluble solid as well as reduced antioxidant activity, but higher in 6-shogaol as compared with fresh sample.
Project description:Red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) is among the most widely consumed medicinal herbs in Indonesia. Ginger rhizome contains phenol compounds including gingerol and shogaol. 10-gingerol has been reported to exhibit the greatest anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities compared with those of other gingerols. Pharmacokinetic studies on ginger have been reported, but there is a lack of such study on red ginger. The present work studied the pharmacokinetics of 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in the plasma of healthy subjects treated with a single dose of red ginger suspension. Healthy subjects (n=19) were given a single dose of red ginger suspension (2 g/15 ml), and blood samples were taken at baseline (0 min), 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min. Analysis of 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol was performed by dissolving 200 µl of the subjects' plasma in 800 µl acetonitrile. The mixture was vortexed and centrifuged at 20,440 × g for 15 min at room temperature. The supernatant was filtered using Millipore membrane (pore size 0.2 µm) and injected into an RP-C18 column for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A mixture of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water and acetonitrile (38:62) was used as the mobile phase. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach Cmax of 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol were 160.49 ng/ml (38 min) and 453.40 ng/ml (30 min), respectively. The elimination half-lives were 336 and 149 min for 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol, respectively. Thus, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol were absorbed after per oral single dose of red ginger suspension and could be quantified in the plasma of the healthy subjects. Additionally, the red ginger analytes exhibited relatively slow elimination half-lives.
Project description:The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent years, and is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Many patients report using alternative therapies to self-treat asthma symptoms as adjuncts to short-acting and long-acting ?-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). As many as 40% of patients with asthma use herbal therapies to manage asthma symptoms, often without proven efficacy or known mechanisms of action. Therefore, investigations of both the therapeutic and possible detrimental effects of isolated components of herbal treatments on the airway are important. We hypothesized that ginger and its active components induce bronchodilation by modulating intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In isolated human ASM, ginger caused significant and rapid relaxation. Four purified constituents of ginger were subsequently tested for ASM relaxant properties in both guinea pig and human tracheas: -gingerol, -gingerol, and -shogaol induced rapid relaxation of precontracted ASM (100-300 ?M), whereas -gingerol failed to induce relaxation. In human ASM cells, exposure to -gingerol, -gingerol, and -shogaol, but not -gingerol (100 ?M), blunted subsequent Ca(2+) responses to bradykinin (10 ?M) and S-(-)-Bay K 8644 (10 ?M). In A/J mice, the nebulization of -gingerol (100 ?M), 15 minutes before methacholine challenge, significantly attenuated airway resistance, compared with vehicle. Taken together, these novel data show that ginger and its isolated active components, -gingerol, -gingerol, and -shogaol, relax ASM, and -gingerol attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness, in part by altering [Ca(2+)](i) regulation. These purified compounds may provide a therapeutic option alone or in combination with accepted therapeutics, including ?(2)-agonists, in airway diseases such as asthma.
Project description:Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen and responsible for candidiasis. C. albicans readily forms biofilms on various biotic and abiotic surfaces, and these biofilms can cause local and systemic infections. C. albicans biofilms are more resistant than its free yeast to antifungal agents and less affected by host immune responses. Transition of yeast cells to hyphal cells is required for biofilm formation and is believed to be a crucial virulence factor. In this study, six components of ginger were investigated for antibiofilm and antivirulence activities against a fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strain. It was found 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 6-shogaol effectively inhibited biofilm formation. In particular, 6-shogaol at 10 µg/ml significantly reduced C. albicans biofilm formation but had no effect on planktonic cell growth. Also, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol inhibited hyphal growth in embedded colonies and free-living planktonic cells, and prevented cell aggregation. Furthermore, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced C. albicans virulence in a nematode infection model without causing toxicity at the tested concentrations. Transcriptomic analysis using RNA-seq and qRT-PCR showed 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol induced several transporters (CDR1, CDR2, and RTA3), but repressed the expressions of several hypha/biofilm related genes (ECE1 and HWP1), which supported observed phenotypic changes. These results highlight the antibiofilm and antivirulence activities of the ginger components, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, against a drug resistant C. albicans strain. Overall design: Gene expression changes by 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol in Candida albicans
Project description:Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen and responsible for candidiasis. C. albicans readily forms biofilms on various biotic and abiotic surfaces, and these biofilms can cause local and systemic infections. C. albicans biofilms are more resistant than its free yeast to antifungal agents and less affected by host immune responses. Transition of yeast cells to hyphal cells is required for biofilm formation and is believed to be a crucial virulence factor. In this study, six components of ginger were investigated for antibiofilm and antivirulence activities against a fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strain. It was found 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 6-shogaol effectively inhibited biofilm formation. In particular, 6-shogaol at 10 ?g/ml significantly reduced C. albicans biofilm formation but had no effect on planktonic cell growth. Also, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol inhibited hyphal growth in embedded colonies and free-living planktonic cells, and prevented cell aggregation. Furthermore, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced C. albicans virulence in a nematode infection model without causing toxicity at the tested concentrations. Transcriptomic analysis using RNA-seq and qRT-PCR showed 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol induced several transporters (CDR1, CDR2, and RTA3), but repressed the expressions of several hypha/biofilm related genes (ECE1 and HWP1), which supported observed phenotypic changes. These results highlight the antibiofilm and antivirulence activities of the ginger components, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, against a drug resistant C. albicans strain.
Project description:Dietary supplements containing preparations of ginger roots/rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) are being used by consumers, and clinical trials using ginger dietary supplements have been carried out to evaluate their anti-inflammatory or antiemetic properties with inconsistent results. Chemical standardization of these products is needed for quality control and to facilitate the design of clinical trials and the evaluation of data from these studies. To address this issue, methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were developed for the detection, characterization, and quantitative analysis of gingerol-related compounds in botanical dietary supplements containing ginger roots/rhizomes. During negative ion electrospray with collision-induced dissociation, the cleavage of the C4-C5 bond with a neutral loss of 194 u and benzylic cleavage leading to the neutral loss of 136 u were found to be class-characteristic fragmentation patterns of the pharmacologically active gingerols or shogaols, respectively. On the basis of these results, an assay using LC-MS/MS with neutral loss scanning (loss of 194 or 136 u) was developed that is suitable for the fingerprinting of ginger dietary supplements based on the selective detection of gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and gingerdiones. In addition, a quantitative assay based on LC-MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring was developed for the quantitative analysis of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, and 10-shogaol in ginger dietary supplements. After method validation, the quantities of these compounds in three commercially available ginger dietary supplements were determined. This assay showed excellent sensitivity, accuracy, and precision and may be used to address the need for quality control and standardization of ginger dietary supplements.
Project description:Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines for the treatment of numerous ailments and improvement of body functions. It may be used in combination with prescribed drugs. The coadministration of ginger with therapeutic drugs raises a concern of potential deleterious drug interactions via the modulation of the expression and/or activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, resulting in unfavorable therapeutic outcomes. This study aimed to determine the molecular interactions between 12 main active ginger components (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, ar-curcumene, ?-bisabolene, ?-sesquiphelandrene, 6-gingerdione, (-)-zingiberene, and methyl-6-isogingerol) and human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 and to predict the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) of the 12 ginger components using computational approaches and comprehensive literature search. Docking studies showed that ginger components interacted with a panel of amino acids in the active sites of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 mainly through hydrogen bond formation, to a lesser extent, via ?-? stacking. The pharmacokinetic simulation studies showed that the [I]/[Ki ] value for CYP2C9, 2C19, and 3A4 ranged from 0.0002 to 19.6 and the R value ranged from 1.0002 to 20.6 and that ginger might exhibit a high risk of drug interaction via inhibition of the activity of human CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, but a low risk of drug interaction toward CYP2C19-mediated drug metabolism. Furthermore, it has been evaluated that the 12 ginger components possessed a favorable ADMET profiles with regard to the solubility, absorption, permeability across the blood-brain barrier, interactions with CYP2D6, hepatotoxicity, and plasma protein binding. The validation results showed that there was no remarkable effect of ginger on the metabolism of warfarin in humans, whereas concurrent use of ginger and nifedipine exhibited a synergistic effect on platelet aggregation in humans. Moreover, ginger components showed a rapid half-life and no to low toxicity in humans. Taken together, this study shows that ginger components may regulate the activity and expression of various human CYPs, probably resulting in alterations in drug clearance and response. More studies are warranted to identify and confirm potential ginger-drug interactions and explore possible interactions of ginger with human CYPs and other functionally important proteins, to reduce and avoid side effects induced by unfavorable ginger-drug interactions.
Project description:Gingerols and shogaols are recognized as active ingredients in ginger and exhibit diverse pharmacological activities. The preclinical pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution investigations of gingerols and shogaols in rats remain less explored, especially for the simultaneous analysis of multi-components. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, selective, and reliable method using an Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Q-Exactive High-Resolution Mass Spectrometer (UPLC-Q-Exactive?HRMS) was established and validated for simultaneous determination of eight compounds, including 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-gingerol, 10-shogaol, Zingerone, and 6-isodehydrogingenone in plasma and tissues of rats. The analytes were separated on a Syncronis C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min at 30 °C. The method was linear for each ingredient over the investigated range with all correlation coefficients greater than 0.9910. The lowest Lower Limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 1.0 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD%) were less than 12.2% and the accuracy (relative error, RE%) ranged from -8.7% to 8.7%. Extraction recovery was 91.4?107.4% and the matrix effect was 86.3?113.4%. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of eight components after oral administration of ginger extract to rats. These results provide useful information about the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the multi-component bioactive ingredients of ginger in rats and will contribute to clinical practice and the evaluation of the safety of a Chinese herbal medicine.
Project description:Noodles are widely consumed in China, which can be cooked in different ways. The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, microwave heating, stir-frying and frying) on the resistance starch (RS) content and digestive properties (digestion rate, digestibility and estimated glycemic index (eGI) value) of noodles were investigated. The RS content was greatly affected by the cooking time, and it was varied when the noodles were optimally cooked using different cooking methods. The RS contents of the microwaved and stir-fried noodles were relatively high (0.59%-0.99%), but it was lower (0.43%-0.44%) in the boiled and steamed noodles. Microwaved noodles showed the slowest digestion rate and the lowest eGI. Due to the limited water within fried noodles, none RS was found in the fried noodles, whereas stir-fried noodles showed RS5 formation from the XRD and DSC results. Compared with boiled and steamed noodles, the microwaved noodles showed a more compact morphology without porous holes on the surface, whereas fried noodles showed irregular morphology. The results indicated that the digestive properties of noodles made with the same ingredients can be greatly altered by using different cooking methods, and the digestive properties of different cooked noodles are worthy of confirmation using in vivo analysis.
Project description:Ginger, the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale , has received extensive attention because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Most researchers have considered gingerols as the active principles and have paid little attention to shogaols, the dehydration products of corresponding gingerols during storage or thermal processing. In this study, we have purified and identified eight major components, including three major gingerols and corresponding shogaols, from ginger extract and compared their anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. Our results showed that shogaols (, , and ) had much stronger growth inhibitory effects than gingerols (, , and ) on H-1299 human lung cancer cells and HCT-116 human colon cancer cells, especially when comparing -shogaol with -gingerol (IC50 of approximately 8 versus approximately 150 microM). In addition, we found that -shogaol had much stronger inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid release and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis than -gingerol.