Asparaginyl-tRNA Synthetase, a Novel Component of Hippo Signaling, Binds to Salvador and Enhances Yorkie-Mediated Tumorigenesis.
ABSTRACT: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs), which are essential for protein translation, were recently shown to have non-translational functions in various pathological conditions including cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ARSs in cancer remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (NRS) regulates Yorkie-mediated tumorigenesis by binding to the Hippo pathway component Salvador. NRS-RNAi and the NRS inhibitor tirandamycin B (TirB) suppressed Yorkie-mediated tumor phenotypes in Drosophila. Genetic analysis showed that NRS interacted with Salvador, and NRS activated Hippo target genes by regulating Yorkie phosphorylation. Biochemical analyses showed that NRS blocked Salvador-Hippo binding by interacting directly with Salvador, and TirB treatment inhibited NRS-Salvador binding. YAP target genes were upregulated in a mammalian cancer cell line with high expression of NRS, whereas TirB treatment suppressed cancer cell proliferation. These results indicate that NRS regulates tumor growth by interacting with Salvador in the Hippo signaling pathway.
Project description:The Fat-Hippo signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of normal organ growth during development, and in pathological growth during cancer. Fat-Hippo signaling controls growth through a transcriptional co-activator protein, Yorkie. A Fat-Hippo pathway has been described in which Yorkie is repressed by phosphorylation, mediated directly by the kinase Warts and indirectly by upstream tumor suppressors that promote Warts kinase activity. We present here evidence for an alternate pathway in which Yorkie activity is repressed by direct physical association with three other pathway components: Expanded, Hippo, and Warts. Each of these Yorkie repressors contains one or more PPXY sequence motifs, and associates with Yorkie via binding of these PPXY motifs to WW domains of Yorkie. This direct binding inhibits Yorkie activity independently from effects on Yorkie phosphorylation, and does so both in vivo and in cultured cell assays. These results emphasize the importance of the relative levels of Yorkie and its upstream tumor suppressors to Yorkie regulation, and suggest a dual repression model, in which upstream tumor suppressors can regulate Yorkie activity both by promoting Yorkie phosphorylation and by direct binding.
Project description:Mammalian cancers depend on "multiple hits," some of which promote growth and some of which block apoptosis. We screened for mutations that require a synergistic block in apoptosis to promote tissue overgrowth and identified myopic (mop), the Drosophila homolog of the candidate tumor-suppressor and endosomal regulator His-domain protein tyrosine phosphatase (HD-PTP). We find that Myopic regulates the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) tumor suppressor pathway: Myopic PPxY motifs bind conserved residues in the WW domains of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie, and Myopic colocalizes with Yorkie at endosomes. Myopic controls Yorkie endosomal association and protein levels, ultimately influencing expression of some Yorkie target genes. However, the antiapoptotic gene diap1 is not affected, which may explain the conditional nature of the myopic growth phenotype. These data establish Myopic as a Yorkie regulator and implicate Myopic-dependent association of Yorkie with endosomal compartments as a regulatory step in nuclear outputs of the SWH pathway.
Project description:The Salvador-Warts-Hippo (SWH) pathway is a key controller of tissue growth in both flies and mammals, and deregulation of pathway activity contributes to tumour formation. The SWH pathway regulates cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis by restricting activity of the Yorkie transcriptional co-activator protein. The proteins that function together with Yorkie to drive transcription and tissue growth are beginning to be revealed and include the Scalloped (Sd), Teashirt (Tsh) and Homothorax (Hth) transcription factors. In this study, we define Wbp2 as a promoter of Yorkie-dependent growth of Drosophila melanogaster tissues. Mammalian WBP2 was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the mammalian Yorkie homologue, Yes-associated protein. WBP2 has been shown to enhance steroid hormone-dependent transcription in cultured cells but its in vivo function has remained obscure. We show that D. melanogaster Wbp2 interacts with Yorkie in a WW domain- and PY motif-dependent manner and that Wbp2 can enhance Yorkie's transcriptional co-activator properties. In vivo, Wbp2 is required for growth of the D. melanogaster wing, and reduction of Wbp2 expression suppresses overgrowth of tissues that lack the warts growth-suppressive gene. Collectively, these studies define an important role for Wbp2 as a downstream component of the SWH tissue growth-control pathway.
Project description:The Hippo pathway, which was identified from genetic screens in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has a major size-control function in animals. All key components of the Hippo pathway, including the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie that is the most critical substrate and downstream effector of the Hippo kinase cassette, are found in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. As revealed by microarray and quantitative real-time PCR, expression of Hippo pathway genes is particularly enriched in several mitotic tissues, including the ovary, testis, and wing disc. Developmental profiles of Hippo pathway genes are generally similar (with the exception of Yorkie) within each organ, but vary greatly in different tissues showing nearly opposing expression patterns in the wing disc and the posterior silk gland (PSG) on day 2 of the prepupal stage. Importantly, the reduction of Yorkie expression by RNAi downregulated Yorkie target genes in the ovary, decreased egg number, and delayed larval-pupal-adult metamorphosis. In contrast, baculovirus-mediated Yorkie(CA) overexpression upregulated Yorkie target genes in the PSG, increased PSG size, and accelerated larval-pupal metamorphosis. Together the results show that Yorkie potentially facilitates organ growth and metamorphosis, and suggest that the evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway is critical for size control, particularly for PSG growth, in the silkworm.
Project description:EGFR and Hippo signaling pathways both control growth and, when dysregulated, contribute to tumorigenesis. We find that EGFR activates the Hippo pathway transcription factor Yorkie and demonstrate that Yorkie is required for the influence of EGFR on cell proliferation in Drosophila. EGFR regulates Yorkie through the influence of its Ras-MAPK branch on the Ajuba LIM protein Jub. Jub is epistatic to EGFR and Ras for Yorkie regulation, Jub is subject to MAPK-dependent phosphorylation, and EGFR-Ras-MAPK signaling enhances Jub binding to the Yorkie kinase Warts and the adaptor protein Salvador. An EGFR-Hippo pathway link is conserved in mammals, as activation of EGFR or RAS activates the Yorkie homolog YAP, and EGFR-RAS-MAPK signaling promotes phosphorylation of the Ajuba family protein WTIP and also enhances WTIP binding to the Warts and Salvador homologs LATS and WW45. Our observations implicate the Hippo pathway in EGFR-mediated tumorigenesis and identify a molecular link between these pathways.
Project description:The Dpp and Fat-Hippo signaling pathways both regulate growth in Drosophila. Dpp is a BMP family ligand and acts via a Smad family DNA-binding transcription factor, Mad. Fat-Hippo signaling acts via a non-DNA-binding transcriptional coactivator protein, Yorkie. Here, we show that these pathways are directly interlinked. They act synergistically to promote growth, in part via regulation of the microRNA gene bantam, and their ability to promote growth is mutually dependent. Yorkie and Mad physically bind each other, and we identify a 410 bp minimal enhancer of bantam that responds to Yorkie:Mad in vivo and in cultured cells, and show that both Yorkie and Mad associate with this enhancer in vivo. Our results indicate that in promoting the growth of Drosophila tissues, Fat-Hippo and Dpp signaling contribute distinct subunits of a shared transcriptional activation complex, Yorkie:Mad.
Project description:Hippo signaling limits organ growth by inhibiting the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie. Despite the key role of Yorkie in both normal and oncogenic growth, the mechanism by which it activates transcription has not been defined. We report that Yorkie binding to chromatin correlates with histone H3K4 methylation and is sufficient to locally increase it. We show that Yorkie can recruit a histone methyltransferase complex through binding between WW domains of Yorkie and PPxY sequence motifs of NcoA6, a subunit of the Trithorax-related (Trr) methyltransferase complex. Cell culture and in vivo assays establish that this recruitment of NcoA6 contributes to Yorkie's ability to activate transcription. Mammalian NcoA6, a subunit of Trr-homologous methyltransferase complexes, can similarly interact with Yorkie's mammalian homolog YAP. Our results implicate direct recruitment of a histone methyltransferase complex as central to transcriptional activation by Yorkie, linking the control of cell proliferation by Hippo signaling to chromatin modification.
Project description:The Hippo signaling pathway regulates tissue growth and organ size through controlling cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. During these processes, the coactivator Yorkie partners with the transcription factor Scalloped to mediate Hippo pathway-regulated cellular functions. Here, we demonstrate that Taiman facilitates the activity of Yorkie. First, Taiman overexpression upregulates Hippo pathway-responsive genes and induces tissue overgrowth. Second, the loss of tai downregulates the expression of Hippo pathway target genes and reduces organ size as well as tissue overgrowth caused by Yorkie overexpression. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Taiman binds to Yorkie and facilitates the activity of Yorkie-Scalloped to activate the transcription of several Hippo pathway target genes. Moreover, we found that the C-terminus of Taiman is indispensable for the function of Taiman in Hippo signaling. Finally, we demonstrate that Taiman is also required in intestinal stem cell proliferation. Our findings suggest Taiman is an essential coactivator of Yorkie.
Project description:Homeostasis in the Drosophila midgut is maintained by stem cells [1, 2]. The intestinal epithelium contains two types of differentiated cells that are lost and replenished: enteroendocrine (EE) cells and enterocytes (ECs). Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are the only cells in the adult midgut that proliferate [3, 4], and ISC divisions give rise to an ISC and an enteroblast (EB), which differentiates into an EC or an EE cell [3-5]. If the midgut epithelium is damaged, then ISC proliferation increases [6-12]. Damaged ECs express secreted ligands (Unpaired proteins) that activate Jak-Stat signaling in ISCs and EBs to promote their proliferation and differentiation [7, 9, 13, 14]. We show that the Hippo pathway components Warts and Yorkie mediate a transition from low- to high-level ISC proliferation to facilitate regeneration. The Hippo pathway regulates growth in diverse organisms and has been linked to cancer [15, 16]. Yorkie is activated in ECs in response to tissue damage or activation of the damage-sensing Jnk pathway. Activation of Yorkie promotes expression of unpaired genes and triggers a nonautonomous increase in ISC proliferation. Our observations uncover a role for Hippo pathway components in regulating stem cell proliferation and intestinal regeneration.
Project description:Genetic studies in Drosophila have been instrumental in characterizing the Hippo pathway, which converges on the co-activator Yorkie to regulate target gene transcription. A routinely used strategy to interrogate upstream regulators of Yorkie involves the examination of selected Hippo target genes upon loss or gain of function of a suspected pathway regulator. A caveat with this strategy is that aberrant expression of a given Hippo target per se does not distinguish whether it is caused by changes in Yorkie or Yorkie-independent inputs converging on the same target gene. Building on previous findings that the DNA-binding transcription factor Scalloped mediates both Yorkie overexpression and loss-of-function phenotypes yet is itself dispensable for normal eye development, we describe a simple strategy to distinguish these possibilities by analyzing double-mutant clones of scalloped and a suspected Yorkie regulator. We provide proof of principle that this strategy can be used effectively to validate canonical Yorkie regulators and to exclude proteins that impact target expression independent of Yorkie. The described methodology and reagents should facilitate efforts to assess the expanding repertoire of proteins implicated in regulation of Yorkie activity.