The construct validity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D-5L, AQL-5D and a bespoke TTO in acute asthmatics.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Measuring quality of life in acute asthmatics is challenging, especially when asthma attacks can occur sporadically. Several questionnaires can be used to measure quality of life in this patient group; however, psychometric testing is limited on questionnaires that can be used to estimate Quality Adjusted Life years. The objective of this study is to assess the construct validity (convergent and discriminative validity) and responsiveness of the EuroQol-5-Dimensions 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L), Asthma Quality of Life Utility Index-5 Dimensions (AQL-5D) and Time Trade-Off (TTO) in acute asthma patients. METHODS:Data from a prospective cohort study were used to test the validity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D-5L, AQL-5D and TTO in asthma patients who were recruited from UK accident & emergency departments or hospital wards. The spearman's rank correlation coefficient, the Kruskal-Wallis test statistic and the standardized response mean were used to test for convergent validity, discriminative validity and responsiveness, respectively. RESULTS:One hundred and twenty-one participants were included in the available case analysis. The EQ-5D-5L and AQL-5D showed moderate to strong correlations for convergent validity at baseline, week 4 and week 8. The AQL-5D and TTO showed moderate correlations at week 4 and week 8. No statistical significance was observed for discriminative validity at baseline. Both the EQ-5D-5L and the AQL-5D also showed that they were sensitive to change for the recovery responses. CONCLUSIONS:The EQ-5D-5L and AQL-5D showed stronger construct validity and responsiveness compared to the TTO. Therefore, both the EQ-5D-5L and AQL-5D should be considered for use in future economic evaluations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although evidence suggests that the EuroQoL-5 dimension (EQ-5D) and Short Form-6 dimension (SF-6D) have equivalent psychometric properties in people with depression, there is some evidence that the EQ-5D may lack responsiveness in certain populations with depression. AIMS:To examine the psychometric properties of the five-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) and SF-6D measures of health-related quality of life in a representative sample of pregnant women with depression. METHOD:Data were taken from a cohort of pregnant women identified at or soon after the first antenatal care contact and followed-up at 3 months postpartum. Health-related quality of life was measured using both the EQ-5D-5L and the SF-6D at baseline and follow-up. We examined acceptability and conducted psychometric validation in the aspects of concurrent validity, convergent validity, known-group validity and responsiveness in 421 women with available data. RESULTS:The EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D have similarly high levels of acceptability. However, concurrent validation shows a lack of concordance between the EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D. The EQ-5D-5L tends to be higher than the SF-6D in individuals with better health states. The SF-6D tends to be higher than EQ-5D-5L in individuals with poorer health states. Convergent and known-group validity are comparable between the two utility measures. Longitudinally, women who recovered show larger increase in SF-6D utilities than those who did not recover at follow-up. With the EQ-5D-5L, this is not the case. Additionally, the ceiling effects were more apparent in the EQ-5D-5L. CONCLUSIONS:The effectiveness of perinatal mental health interventions may be better captured by the SF-6D than the EQ-5D-5L but this needs to be cross-validated in more studies. DECLARATION OF INTEREST:L.M.H. chaired the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence CG192 guidelines development group on antenatal and postnatal mental health in 2012-2014. L.M.H. reports grants from NIHR, MRC, Nuffield and the Stefanou Foundation, UK. K.T., M.H. and S.B. report funding by NIHR and the Stefanou Foundation, UK.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evidence of quality of life implications of asthma attacks are limited, particularly when measured on a utility scale, which enables calculating Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) and comparisons with other health conditions and services. Therefore, this study sought to estimate the utility loss associated with an asthma-related crisis event (accident and emergency (A&E) attendance or hospital admission). METHODS:Participants were recruited in a cohort study from A&E and hospital admissions at three UK hospitals. They completed the EuroQol-5 Dimensions 5-Level (EQ-5D-5 L), Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ), Time trade-off (TTO), and peak flow and symptom diary over 8 weeks, where three different methods (EQ-5D-5 L, AQLQ, and TTO), were used to estimate utilities. The mean difference between two time points were estimated using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS:From baseline to week 8, mean increases (95% CI) were estimated to be 0.086 (0.019-0.153), 0.154 (0.112-0.196) and 0.132 (0.063-0.201) for EQ-5D-5 L, AQL-5D (preference-based measure derived from AQLQ), and TTO respectively over 8 weeks (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION:Asthma crisis events are estimated to be associated with a mean utility loss of between 0.086 and 0.132. The utility decrement can be used to assign values to asthma-related crisis events, which can enhance economic evaluations. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02771678 . Registered 13 May 2016.
Project description:PURPOSE:The validity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D-3L in visual conditions has been questioned, inspiring development of a vision 'bolt-on' domain (EQ-5D-3L?+?VIS). Developments in preference-based measures (PBM) also includes the EQ-5D-5L and the ICECAP-O capability wellbeing measure. This study aimed to examine the construct validity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D-5L, EQ-5D-3L?+?VIS and ICECAP-O in cataract surgery patients for the first time, to inform choice of PBM for economic evaluation in this population. METHODS:The analyses used data from the UK Predict-CAT cataract surgery cohort study. PBMs and the Cat-PROM5 [a validated measure of cataract quality of life (QOL)] were completed before surgery and 4-8 weeks after. Construct validity was assessed using correlations and known-group differences evaluated using regression. Responsiveness was evaluated using effect sizes and analysis of variance to compare change scores between groups, defined by patient-reported and clinical outcomes. RESULTS:The sample comprised 1315 patients at baseline. No PBMs were associated with visual acuity and only the ICECAP-O (Spearman's rs?=??-?0.35), EQ-5D-3L?+?VIS (rs?=??-?0.42) and EQ-5D-5L (Value Set for England rs?=??-?0.31) correlated at least moderately with the Cat-PROM5. Effect sizes of change were consistently largest for the EQ-5D-3L?+?VIS (range 0.34-0.41), followed by the ICECAP-O (range 0.20-0.34). Results indicated no improvement in responsiveness using the EQ-5D-5L (range 0.13-0.16) compared to the EQ-5D-3L (range 0.17-0.20). CONCLUSIONS:Whilst no PBMs comprehensively demonstrated evidence of construct validity and responsiveness in cataract surgery patients, the ICECAP-O was the most responsive generic PBM to improvements in QOL. Surprisingly the EQ-5D-5L was not more responsive than the EQ-5D-3L in this setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L are two generic health-related quality of life measures, which may be used in clinical and health economic research. They measure impairment in 5 aspects of health: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L in measuring the self-reported health status of older patients with substantial multimorbidity and associated polypharmacy. METHODS:Between 2017 and 2019, we administered EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L to a subset of patients participating in the OPERAM trial at 6 months and 12 months after enrolment. The OPERAM trial is a two-arm multinational cluster randomised controlled trial of structured medication review assisted by a software-based decision support system versus usual pharmaceutical care, for older people (aged???70 years) with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. In the psychometric analyses, we only included participants who completed the measures in full at 6 and 12 months. We assessed whether responses to the measures were consistent by assessing the proportion of EQ-5D-5L responses, which were 2 or more levels away from that person's EQ-5D-3L response. We also compared the measures in terms of informativity, and discriminant validity and responsiveness relative to the Barthel Index, which measures independence in activities of daily living. RESULTS:224 patients (mean age of 77 years; 56% male) were included in the psychometric analyses. Ceiling effects reported with the EQ-5D-5L (22%) were lower than with the EQ-5D-3L (29%). For the mobility item, the EQ-5D-5L demonstrated better informativity (Shannon's evenness index score of 0.86) than the EQ-5D-3L (Shannon's evenness index score of 0.69). Both the 3L and 5L versions of EQ-5D demonstrated good performance in terms of discriminant validity, i.e. (out of all items of the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L, the pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression items had the weakest correlation with the Barthel Index. Both the 3L and 5L versions of EQ-5D demonstrated good responsiveness to changes in the Barthel Index. CONCLUSION:Both EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L demonstrated validity and responsiveness when administered to older adults with substantial multimorbidity and polypharmacy who were able to complete the measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D), developed in 1990, is a most widely used generic tool to measure the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and considered suitable for patients with asthma. In 2009, the EuroQol Group developed a new EQ-5D version to overcome limitations related to its consistently reported high ceiling effect. To enhance the sensitivity for assessing the HRQoL in further patient populations, the number of responses of EQ-5D was increased from 3 to 5 levels (EQ-5D-5L). Moreover, the availability of well-defined requirements for its Web-based administration allows EQ-5D-5L use to monitor the HRQoL in electronic health (eHealth) programs. No study has evaluated the metric properties of the new EQ-5D-5L in patients with asthma yet. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to examine the distribution, construct validity, and reliability of the new EQ-5D-5L questionnaire administered online to adults with asthma. METHODS:We evaluated patients with asthma (age: 18-40 years) from a primary care setting in France and England, who self-completed the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire online. The inclusion criteria were persistent asthma defined as >6 months of prescribed inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonists or inhaled corticosteroids alone during the 12 months prior to inclusion. The EQ-5D index was obtained by applying the English preference value set for the new EQ-5D-5L and the French 3L-5L crosswalk value set. Both value sets produced single preference-based indices ranging from 1 (best health state) to negative values (health states valued as worse than death), where 0=death, allowing the calculation of quality-adjusted life years. Responses to dimensions and index distribution, including ceiling and floor effects, were examined. The construct validity was assessed by comparing the means of known groups by analyses of variance and calculation of effect sizes. RESULTS:Of 312 patients answering the baseline Web-based survey, 290 completed the EQ-5D-5L (93%). The floor effect was null, and the ceiling effect was 26.5% (74/279). The mean EQ-5D-5L index was 0.88 (SD 0.14) with the English value set and 0.83 (SD 0.19) with the French 3L-5L crosswalk value set. In both indices, large effect sizes were observed for known groups defined by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (1.06 and 1.04, P<.001). Differences between extreme groups defined by chronic conditions (P=.002 and P=.003 for the English value set and French 3L-5L crosswalk value set, respectively), short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) canisters in the last 12 months (P=.02 and P=.03), or SABA use during the previous 4 weeks (P=.03 and P=.01) were of moderate magnitude with effect sizes around 0.5. CONCLUSIONS:The new EQ-5D-5L questionnaire has an acceptable ceiling effect, a good construct validity based on the discriminant ability for distinguishing among health-related known groups, and high reliability, supporting its adequacy for assessing the HRQoL in patients with asthma. EQ-5D-5L completion by most Web-based respondents supports the feasibility of this administration form.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An international valuation protocol exists for obtaining societal values for each of the 3125 health states of the five-level EuroQol-five dimensions (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire. A feedback module (FM) that can be related to theoretical models used in behavioral economics was recently included in this protocol. OBJECTIVES:Our objective was to assess the impact of using an FM to estimate an EQ-5D-5L value set in Hong Kong. METHODS:EQ-5D-5L health states were elicited using a composite time trade-off (C-TTO) and a discrete-choice (DC) experiment. Use of the FM according to participant characteristics and the impact of the FM on the number of inconsistent C-TTO responses were assessed. We employed a main-effects hybrid model that combined data from both elicitation techniques. RESULTS:In total, 1014 individuals completed the survey. The sample was representative of the general Chinese Hong Kong population in terms of sex, educational attainment, marital status, and most age groups but not for employment status. The use of the FM reduced the number of C-TTO inconsistencies. Participant characteristics differed significantly between those who used and did not use the FM. The model without a constant resulted in logical consistent coefficients and was therefore selected as the model to produce the value set. The predicted EQ-5D-5L values ranged from -0.864 to 1. CONCLUSIONS:The use of an FM to allow participants to exclude C-TTO responses reduced the number of inconsistent responses and improved the quality of the data when estimating an EQ-5D-5L value set in Hong Kong.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To date, a value set for the EQ-5D-5L based on the health state preferences of the general Taiwanese population has not been available. This study aimed to develop a Taiwanese value set for EQ-5D-5L to facilitate health technology assessment for medical products and services. METHODS:An international standardized protocol for EQ-5D-5L valuation studies developed by the EuroQol group was adopted. Adult members of the general public were recruited from six geographic regions in Taiwan. In computer-based face-to-face interviews, each participant completed 10 composite time trade-off (C-TTO) tasks and 7 discrete choice experiment (DCE) tasks. The C-TTO and DCE data were modeled alone or in combination (using hybrid models) with additive models containing 20 dummy variables as main effects. The model performance was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively (mainly logical consistency and prediction patterns). RESULTS:Of 1,073 recruited participants, 1,000 completed the study. Approximately 13% of observed utility values were -1 in the C-TTO tasks. The hybrid model, using all available data that assumed C-TTO response values left-censored at -1 and with main effects coefficients with logical consistency (monotonicity), was considered as the most appropriate model. The predicted utility ranged from -1.0259 to 1. CONCLUSIONS:An EQ-5D-5L value set was developed for Taiwan using an established study protocol and a representative sample of the general population. This may facilitate health economic evaluations and decision making on resource allocation under Taiwan's national health insurance program in the future.
Project description:Value sets for the EQ-5D-5L are required to facilitate its use in estimating quality-adjusted life years. An international protocol has been developed to guide the collection of stated preference data for this purpose and has been used to generate EQ-5D-5L valuation data for England. The aim of this paper is report the innovative methods used for modelling those data to obtain a value set. Nine hundred and ninety-six members of the English general public completed time trade-off (TTO) and discrete choice experiment (DCE) tasks. We estimate models, with and without interactions, using DCE data only, TTO data only, and TTO/DCE data combined. TTO data are interpreted as both left and right censored. Heteroskedasticity and preference heterogeneity between individuals are accounted for. We use Bayesian methods in the econometric analysis. The final model is chosen based on the deviance information criterion (DIC). Censoring and taking account of heteroskedasticity have important effects on parameter estimation. For DCE data only, TTO data only, and DCE/TTO data combined, models with parameters for all dimensions and levels perform best, as judged by the DIC. Taking account of heterogeneity improves fit, and the multinomial model reports the lowest DIC. This paper presents approaches that suit observed characteristics of EQ-5D-5L valuation data and recognise respondents' preference heterogeneity. The methods described are potentially relevant to other value set studies.
Project description:The EQ-5D, a generic health status questionnaire that is widely used in health economic evaluation, was recently expanded to the EQ-5D-5L to address criticisms of unresponsiveness and ceiling effect.To describe the validity, responsiveness and minimum important difference of the EQ-5D-5L in COPD.Study 1: The validity of the EQ-5D-5L utility index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was compared with four established disease-specific health status questionnaires and other measures of disease severity in 616 stable outpatients with COPD. Study 2: The EQ-5D-5L utility index and EQ-VAS were measured in 324 patients with COPD before and after 8 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation. Distribution and anchor-based approaches were used to estimate the minimum important difference.There were moderate-to-strong correlations between utility index and EQ-VAS with disease-specific questionnaires (Pearson's r=0.47-0.72). A ceiling effect was seen in 7% and 2.6% of utility index and EQ-VAS. Utility index decreased (worsening health status) with indices of worsening disease severity. With rehabilitation, mean (95% CI) changes in utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.065 (0.047 to 0.083) and 8.6 (6.5 to 10.7), respectively, with standardised response means of 0.39 and 0.44. The mean (range) anchor estimates of the minimum important difference for utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.051 (0.037 to 0.063) and 6.9 (6.5 to 8.0), respectively.The EQ-5D-5L is a valid and responsive measure of health status in COPD and may provide useful additional cost-effectiveness data in clinical trials.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is considered an effective treatment for individuals with severe and complex obesity. Besides reducing weight and improving obesity related comorbidities such as diabetes, bariatric surgery could improve patients' health-related quality of life. However, the frequently used instrument to measure quality of life, the EQ-5D has not been validated for use in bariatric surgery, which is a major limitation to its use in this clinical context. Our study undertook a psychometric validation of the 5 level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) using clinical trial data to measure health-related quality of life in patients with severe and complex obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. Health-related quality of life was assessed at baseline (before randomisation) and six months later in 189 patients in a randomised controlled trial of bariatric surgery. Patients completed two generic health-related quality of life instruments, the EQ-5D-5L and SF-12, which were used together for the validation using data from all patients in the trial as the trial is ongoing. Psychometric analyses included construct and criterion validity and responsiveness to change. Of the 189 validation patients, 141 (75%) were female, the median age was 49 years old (range 23-70 years) and body mass index ranged from 33-70 kg/m2. For construct validity, there were significant improvements in the distribution of responses in all EQ-5D dimensions between baseline and 6 months after randomisation. For criterion validity, the highest degree of correlation was between the EQ-5D pain/discomfort and SF-12 bodily pain domain. For responsiveness the EQ-5D and SF-12 showed statistically significant improvements in health-related quality of life between baseline and 6 months after randomisation. The EQ-5D-5L is a valid generic measure for measuring health-related quality of life in bariatric surgery patients.