Routing Nanomolar Protein Cargoes to Lipid Raft-Mediated/Caveolar Endocytosis through a Ganglioside GM1-Specific Recognition Tag.
ABSTRACT: There is a pressing need to develop ways to deliver therapeutic macromolecules to their intracellular targets. Certain viral and bacterial proteins are readily internalized in functional form through lipid raft-mediated/caveolar endocytosis, but mimicking this process with protein cargoes at therapeutically relevant concentrations is a great challenge. Targeting ganglioside GM1 in the caveolar pits triggers endocytosis. A pentapeptide sequence WYKYW is presented, which specifically captures the glycan moiety of GM1 (K D = 24 nm). The WYKYW-tag facilitates the GM1-dependent endocytosis of proteins in which the cargo-loaded caveosomes do not fuse with lysosomes. A structurally intact immunoglobulin G complex (580 kDa) is successfully delivered into live HeLa cells at extracellular concentrations ranging from 20 to 160 nm, and escape of the cargo proteins to the cytosol is observed. The short peptidic WYKYW-tag is an advantageous endocytosis routing sequence for lipid raft-mediated/caveolar cell delivery of therapeutic macromolecules, especially for cancer cells that overexpress GM1.
Project description:Gangliosides and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) tipically partition in specialized membrane microdomains called lipid-rafts. uPAR becomes functionally important in fostering angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) upon recruitment in caveolar-lipid rafts. Moreover, cell membrane enrichment with exogenous GM1 ganglioside is pro-angiogenic and opposite to the activity of GM3 ganglioside. On these basis, we first checked the interaction of uPAR with membrane models enriched with GM1 or GM3, relying on the adoption of solid-supported mobile bilayer lipid membranes with raft-like composition formed onto solid hydrophilic surfaces, and evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) the extent of uPAR recruitment. We estimated the apparent dissociation constants of uPAR-GM1/GM3 complexes. These preliminary observations, indicating that uPAR binds preferentially to GM1-enriched biomimetic membranes, were validated by identifying a pro-angiogenic activity of GM1-enriched EPCs, based on GM1-dependent uPAR recruitment in caveolar rafts. We have observed that addition of GM1 to EPCs culture medium promotes matrigel invasion and capillary morphogenesis, as opposed to the anti-angiogenesis activity of GM3. Moreover, GM1 also stimulates MAPKinases signalling pathways, typically associated with an angiogenesis program. Caveolar-raft isolation and Western blotting of uPAR showed that GM1 promotes caveolar-raft partitioning of uPAR, as opposed to control and GM3-challenged EPCs. By confocal microscopy, we have shown that in EPCs uPAR is present on the surface in at least three compartments, respectively, associated to GM1, GM3 and caveolar rafts. Following GM1 exogenous addition, the GM3 compartment is depleted of uPAR which is recruited within caveolar rafts thereby triggering angiogenesis.
Project description:Endocytic trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors is critical to neuronal signaling and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Although the importance of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in receptor trafficking in neurons is well established, the contribution of the caveolar/lipid raft pathway has been little explored. Here, we show that caveolin-1, an adaptor protein that associates with lipid rafts and the main coat protein of caveolae, binds to and colocalizes with metabotropic glutamate receptors 1/5 (mGluR1/5). The interaction with caveolin-1 controls the rate of constitutive mGluR1 internalization, thereby regulating expression of the receptor at the cell surface. Consistent with a role for caveolin-1 in mGluR trafficking, we show that mGluR1/5 associate with lipid rafts in the brain and that their constitutive internalization is mediated, in both heterologous cells and neurons, by caveolar/raft-dependent endocytosis. We further show that caveolin-1 attenuates mGluR1-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, an effect that is abolished in cells expressing mutant mGluR1 lacking intact caveolin binding motifs. Neurons from caveolin-1 knock-out mice show enhanced basal ERK1/2 phosphorylation and prolonged ERK1/2 activation in response to stimulation with DHPG [(RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine], a group I mGluR-selective agonist. Together, these findings underscore the importance of caveolar rafts in neurons and suggest that this pathway might play an important role in synapse formation and plasticity.
Project description:Internalization of some plasma membrane constituents, bacterial toxins, and viruses occurs via caveolae; however, the factors that regulate caveolar internalization are still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a brief treatment of cultured cells with natural or synthetic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) or elevation of cholesterol (either by acute treatment with mbeta-cyclodextrin/cholesterol or by alteration of growth conditions) dramatically stimulates caveolar endocytosis with little or no effect on other endocytic mechanisms. These treatments also stimulated the movement of GFP-labeled vesicles in cells transfected with caveolin-1-GFP and reduced the number of surface-connected caveolae seen by electron microscopy. In contrast, overexpression of caveolin-1 decreased caveolar uptake, but treatment with GSLs reversed this effect and stimulated caveolar endocytosis. Stimulation of caveolar endocytosis did not occur using ceramide or phosphatidylcholine and was not due to GSL degradation because similar results were obtained using a nonhydrolyzable GSL analog. Stimulated caveolar endocytosis required src kinase and PKC-alpha activity as shown by i) use of pharmacological inhibitors, ii) expression of kinase inactive src or dominant negative PKCalpha, and iii) stimulation of src kinase activity upon addition of GSLs or cholesterol. These results suggest that caveolar endocytosis is regulated by a balance of caveolin-1, cholesterol, and GSLs at the plasma membrane.
Project description:After binding to its cell surface receptor ganglioside GM1, simian virus 40 (SV40) is endocytosed by lipid raft-mediated endocytosis and slowly transported to the endoplasmic reticulum, where partial uncoating occurs. We analyzed the intracellular pathway taken by the virus in HeLa and CV-1 cells by using a targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing screen, electron microscopy, and live-cell imaging as well as by testing a variety of cellular inhibitors and other perturbants. We found that the virus entered early endosomes, late endosomes, and probably endolysosomes before reaching the endoplasmic reticulum and that this pathway was part of the infectious route. The virus was especially sensitive to a variety of perturbations that inhibited endosome acidification and maturation. Contrary to our previous models, which postulated the passage of the virus through caveolin-rich organelles that we called caveosomes, we conclude that SV40 depends on the classical endocytic pathway for infectious entry.
Project description:Binding of echovirus 1 (EV1, a nonenveloped RNA virus) to the alpha2beta1 integrin on the cell surface is followed by endocytic internalization of the virus together with the receptor. Here, video-enhanced live microscopy revealed the rapid uptake of fluorescently labeled EV1 into mobile, intracellular structures, positive for green fluorescent protein-tagged caveolin-1. Partial colocalization of EV1 with SV40 (SV40) and cholera toxin, known to traffic via caveosomes, demonstrated that the vesicles were caveosomes. The initiation of EV1 infection was dependent on dynamin II, cholesterol, and protein phosphorylation events. Brefeldin A, a drug that prevents SV40 transport, blocked the EV1 infection cycle, whereas drugs that disrupt the cellular cytoskeleton had no effect. In situ hybridization revealed the localization of viral RNA with endocytosed viral capsid proteins in caveosomes before initiation of viral replication. Thus, both the internalization of EV1 to caveosomes and subsequent events differ clearly from caveolar endocytosis of SV40 because EV1 uptake is fast and independent of actin and EV1 is not sorted further to sER from caveosomes. These results shed further light on the cell entry of nonenveloped viral pathogens and illustrate the use of viruses as probes to dissect caveolin-associated endocytic pathways.
Project description:The GM1/caveolin-1 lipid raft mediated endocytosis mechanism was explored for generation 5 and 7 poly(amidoamine) dendrimer polyplexes employing the Cos-7, 293A, C6, HeLa, KB, and HepG2 cell lines. Expression levels of GM1 and caveolin-1 were measured using dot blot and Western blot, respectively. The level of GM1 in the cell plasma membrane was adjusted by incubation with exogenous GM1 or ganglioside inhibitor PPMP, and the level of CAV-1 was adjusted by upregulation with the adenovirus vector expressed caveolin-1 (AdCav-1). Cholera toxin B subunit was employed as a positive control for uptake in all cases. No evidence was found for a GM1/caveolin-1 lipid raft mediated endocytosis mechanism for the generation 5 and 7 poly(amidoamine) dendrimer polyplexes.
Project description:Caveolae are an abundant feature of the plasma membrane of many mammalian cell types, and have key roles in mechano-transduction, metabolic regulation, and vascular permeability. Caveolin and cavin proteins, as well as EHD2 and pacsin 2, are all present in caveolae. How these proteins assemble to form a protein interaction network for caveolar morphogenesis is not known. Using in vivo crosslinking, velocity gradient centrifugation, immuno-isolation, and tandem mass spectrometry, we determine that cavins and caveolins assemble into a homogenous 80S complex, which we term the caveolar coat complex. There are no further abundant components within this complex, and the complex excludes EHD2 and pacsin 2. Cavin 1 forms trimers and interacts with caveolin 1 with a molar ratio of about 1?4. Cavins 2 and 3 compete for binding sites within the overall coat complex, and form distinct subcomplexes with cavin 1. The core interactions between caveolin 1 and cavin 1 are independent of cavin 2, cavin 3, and EHD2 expression, and the cavins themselves can still interact in the absence of caveolin 1. Using immuno-electron microscopy as well as a recently developed protein tag for electron microscopy (MiniSOG), we demonstrate that caveolar coat complexes form a distinct coat all around the caveolar bulb. In contrast, and consistent with our biochemical data, EHD2 defines a different domain at the caveolar neck. 3D electron tomograms of the caveolar coat, labeled using cavin-MiniSOG, show that the caveolar coat is composed of repeating units of a unitary caveolar coat complex.
Project description:We show here that the GTPase RhoG is involved in caveolar trafficking. Wild-type RhoG moves sequentially to the plasma membrane, intracellular vesicles, and the Golgi apparatus along markers of this endocytic pathway. Such translocation is associated with changes in RhoG GDP/GTP levels and is highly dependent on lipid raft integrity and on the function of the GTPase dynamin2. In addition, the constitutively active RhoG(Q61L) mutant is preferentially located in endocytic vesicles that can be decorated with markers of the caveola-derived endocytic pathway. RhoG(Q61L), but not the analogous Rac1 mutant protein, affects caveola internalization and the subsequent delivery of endocytic vesicles to the Golgi apparatus. The expression of RhoG/Rac1 chimeric proteins and RhoG(Q61L) effector mutants in cells induces alterations in the internalization of caveolae and severe changes in vesicle structure, respectively. However, the knockdown of endogenous rhoG transcripts using small interfering RNAs does not affect significantly the trafficking of caveola-derived vesicles, suggesting that RhoG function is dispensable for this endocytic process or, alternatively, that its function is compensated by other molecules. Taken together, these observations assign a novel function to RhoG and suggest that caveolar trafficking, as previously shown for other endocytic routes, is modulated by GTPases of the Ras superfamily.
Project description:We present plasma membrane (PM) internalization responses of type I alveolar epithelial cells to a 50 mosmol/l increase in tonicity. Our research is motivated by interest in ATI repair, for which endocytic retrieval of PM appears to be critical. We validated pharmacological and molecular tools to dissect the endocytic machinery of these cells and used these tools to test the hypothesis that osmotic stress triggers a pathway-specific internalization of PM domains. Validation experiments confirmed the fluorescent analogs of lactosyl-ceramide, transferrin, and dextran as pathway-specific cargo of caveolar, clathrin, and fluid-phase uptake, respectively. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that hypertonic exposure causes a downregulation of clathrin and fluid-phase endocytosis while stimulating caveolar endocytosis. The tonicity-mediated increase in caveolar endocytosis was associated with the translocation of caveolin-1 from the PM and was absent in cells that had been transfected with dominant-negative dynamin constructs. In separate experiments we show that hypertonic exposure increases the probability of PM wound repair following micropuncture from 82 ± 4 to 94 ± 2% (P < 0.01) and that this effect depends on Src pathway activation-mediated caveolar endocytosis. The therapeutic and biological implications of our findings are discussed.
Project description:Diarrheal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide. Evidence has indicated immature human enterocytes and their interaction with bacteria and enterotoxins may account for the noted increased susceptibility of neonates to diarrhea. Our aim was to characterize the developmental difference in cholera toxin (CT)-GM1-mediated endocytosis.We used H4 cells (a fetal human small intestinal epithelial cell line), T84 cells, primary cultured mature human small intestinal epithelial cells, and human fetal small intestine xenografts. In addition, hydrocortisone was used as a potent intestinal trophic factor to induce maturation of the human enterocytes.Here we show an increase in CT-caveolae and a decrease in CT-clathrin colocalization in H4/hydrocortisone compared with H4 cells by electron microscopy. In T84 and freshly isolated human small intestinal epithelial cells, a significant amount of GM1 was partitioned into the lipid rafts. In contrast, there was little CT-GM1/lipid raft association in H4 cells. However, hydrocortisone significantly increased GM1/lipid raft association in H4 cells. Furthermore, we noted an increase in the level of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and the ratio of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylinositol in mature compared with immature enterocytes and that hydrocortisone can accelerate this maturational process. Disruption of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha using small interference RNA showed an increase in GM1/lipid raft association in H4 cells and resulted in a decreased CT response.Our studies suggest that the developmental change in CT endocytosis is partially caused by an increased GM1-lipid raft association through a maturational change of phospholipid composition on the cell surface of immature enterocytes.