Structures of the M1 and M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor/G-protein complexes.
ABSTRACT: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that respond to acetylcholine and play important signaling roles in the nervous system. There are five muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1R to M5R), which, despite sharing a high degree of sequence identity in the transmembrane region, couple to different heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) to transmit signals. M1R, M3R, and M5R couple to the Gq/ 11 family, whereas M2R and M4R couple to the Gi/ o family. Here, we present and compare the cryo-electron microscopy structures of M1R in complex with G11 and M2R in complex with GoA The M1R-G11 complex exhibits distinct features, including an extended transmembrane helix 5 and carboxyl-terminal receptor tail that interacts with G protein. Detailed analysis of these structures provides a framework for understanding the molecular determinants of G-protein coupling selectivity.
Project description:Acetylcholine regulates perfusion of numerous organs via changes in local blood flow involving muscarinic receptor-induced release of vasorelaxing agents from the endothelium. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of M₁, M₃, and M₅ muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in vasodilation of small arteries using gene-targeted mice deficient in either of the three receptor subtypes (M1R(-/-), M3R(-/-), or M5R(-/-) mice, respectively). Muscarinic receptor gene expression was determined in murine cutaneous, skeletal muscle, and renal interlobar arteries using real-time PCR. Moreover, respective arteries from M1R(-/-), M3R(-/-), M5R(-/-), and wild-type mice were isolated, cannulated with micropipettes, and pressurized. Luminal diameter was measured using video microscopy. mRNA for all five muscarinic receptor subtypes was detected in all three vascular preparations from wild-type mice. However, M(3) receptor mRNA was found to be most abundant. Acetylcholine produced dose-dependent dilation in all three vascular preparations from M1R(-/-), M5R(-/-), and wild-type mice. In contrast, cholinergic dilation was virtually abolished in arteries from M3R(-/-) mice. Deletion of either M₁, M₃, or M₅ receptor genes did not affect responses to nonmuscarinic vasodilators, such as substance P and nitroprusside. These findings provide the first direct evidence that M₃ receptors mediate cholinergic vasodilation in cutaneous, skeletal muscle, and renal interlobar arteries. In contrast, neither M₁ nor M₅ receptors appear to be involved in cholinergic responses of the three vascular preparations tested.
Project description:Carbachol stimulation of the muscarinic acetylcholine m1 receptor (m1R), stably expressed in Rat 1a fibroblasts, resulted in a calcium-dependent activation of c-Jun kinase (JNK). Stimulation of the muscarinic acetylcholine m2 receptor (m2R), stably expressed in Rat 1a fibroblasts, resulted in a G1-mediated activation of JNK that was weak relative to that observed with the m1R. Chelation of calcium inhibited the m2R-mediated activation of JNK but not the robust m2R stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. These findings demonstrate a role for the second messenger, calcium, in the differential regulation of the activity of JNK and MAPK in Rat 1a cells.
Project description:In search for selective ligands for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (MR) subtype M2, the dimeric ligand approach, that is combining two pharmacophores in one and the same molecule, was pursued. Different types (agonists, antagonists, orthosteric, and allosteric) of monomeric MR ligands were combined by various linkers with a dibenzodiazepinone-type MR antagonist, affording five types of heterodimeric compounds ("DIBA-xanomeline," "DIBA-TBPB," "DIBA-77-LH-28-1," "DIBA-propantheline," and "DIBA-4-DAMP"), which showed high M2R affinities (pKi > 8.3). The heterodimeric ligand UR-SK75 (46) exhibited the highest M2R affinity and selectivity [pKi (M1R-M5R): 8.84, 10.14, 7.88, 8.59, and 7.47]. Two tritium-labeled dimeric derivatives ("DIBA-xanomeline"-type: [3H]UR-SK71 ([3H]44) and "DIBA-TBPB"-type: [3H]UR-SK59 ([3H]64)) were prepared to investigate their binding modes at hM2R. Saturation-binding experiments showed that these compounds address the orthosteric binding site of the M2R. The investigation of the effect of various allosteric MR modulators [gallamine (13), W84 (14), and LY2119620 (15)] on the equilibrium (13-15) or saturation (14) binding of [3H]64 suggested a competitive mechanism between [3H]64 and the investigated allosteric ligands, and consequently a dualsteric binding mode of 64 at the M2R.
Project description:Drugs that treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by antagonizing the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) have had a significant effect on health, but can suffer from their lack of selectivity against the M2R subtype, which modulates heart rate. Beginning with the crystal structures of M2R and M3R, we exploited a single amino acid difference in their orthosteric binding pockets using molecular docking and structure-based design. The resulting M3R antagonists had up to 100-fold selectivity over M2R in affinity and over 1,000-fold selectivity in vivo. The crystal structure of the M3R-selective antagonist in complex with M3R corresponded closely to the docking-predicted geometry, providing a template for further optimization.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine the functional role of M(3) and M(5) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in ophthalmic arteries using gene-targeted mice. METHODS:Muscarinic receptor gene expression was quantified in murine ophthalmic arteries using real-time PCR. To test the functional relevance of M(3) and M(5) receptors, ophthalmic arteries from mice deficient in either subtype (M3R(-/-), M5R(-/-), respectively) and wild-type controls were isolated, cannulated with micropipettes, and pressurized. Changes in luminal vessel diameter in response to muscarinic and nonmuscarinic receptor agonists were measured by video microscopy. RESULTS:With the use of real-time PCR, all five muscarinic receptor subtypes were detected in ophthalmic arteries. However, mRNA levels of M(1), M(3), and M(5) receptors were higher than those of M(2) and M(4) receptors. In functional studies, after preconstriction with phenylephrine, acetylcholine and carbachol produced concentration-dependent dilations of ophthalmic arteries that were similar in M5R(-/-) and wild-type mice. Strikingly, cholinergic dilation of ophthalmic arteries was almost completely abolished in M3R(-/-) mice. Deletion of either M(3) or M(5) receptor did not affect responses to nonmuscarinic vasodilators such as bradykinin or nitroprusside. CONCLUSIONS:These findings provide the first evidence that M(3) receptors are critically involved in cholinergic regulation of diameter in murine ophthalmic arteries.
Project description:G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channel regulates cellular excitability upon activation of Gi/o-coupled receptors. In Gi/o-coupled muscarinic M2R, the intracellular third loop (i3) is known as a key domain for Gi/o coupling, because replacement of i3 of Gq-coupled muscarinic M1R with that of M2R enables the chimeric receptor (MC9) to activate the GIRK channel. In the present study, we showed that MC9, but not M1R, co-localizes with the GIRK channel and G?i1 by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. When M1R was forced to stay adjacent to the channel through ligation with short linkers, M1R activated the GIRK channel. FRET analysis further suggested that the efficacy of channel activation is correlated with the linker length between M1R and the GIRK channel. The results show that co-localization is an important factor for activating the GIRK channel. In contrast, for MC9 and M2R, the GIRK channel was activated even when they were connected by long linkers, suggesting the formation of a molecular complex even in the absence of a linker. We also observed that replacement of 13 amino acid residues at the N-terminal end of i3 of MC9 with those of M1R impaired the co-localization with the GIRK channel as well as channel activation. These results show that localization of the receptor near the GIRK channel is a key factor in efficiently activating the channel and that the N-terminal end of i3 of M2R plays an important role in co-localization.
Project description:In our study, we investigated the effect of muscarinic receptor blockade on murine intestinal stem cell activity and differentiation. Following pharmacologic (scopolamine) and genetic muscarinic receptor interruption (M3R-KO, M1R-KO; Vil-Cre x M3R fl/fl, Vil-Cre x M1R fl/fl mice, respectively), we observe a selective, significant expansion of DCLK1-positive tuft cells. This is primarily sensed by endocrine Prox1-positive cells (Prox1-CreERT2 x M3R fl/fl mice), while Lgr5-positive ISCs respond with a reduction of their cellular activity (Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2 x M3R fl/fl mice). To characterize expanding tuft cells in more detail, adult BAC transgenic DCLK1-DTR-ZSgreen reporter mice generated in our lab were treated with scopolamine or sodium chloride as controls (Sham) for 7d and live jejunal EPC-positive/ZSgreen-positive cells sorted. Extracted total RNA from sorted ZSgreen-positive cells of scopolamine- and sham-treated mice was sequenced. Further analysis revealed that expanding tuft cells orchestrate an increase in mucosal acetylcholine, which maintained intracellular signaling pathways such as p-ERK/ERK 1/2 or TCF-1/7. Finally, acute irradiation injury was employed to investigate the importance of this regulatory circuit for tissue homeostasis. Indeed, tissue injury in Vil-Cre x M3R fl/fl mice resulted in a severe reduction of epithelial DCLK1-positive tuft cells, concomitant to reduced mucosal Ach levels as well as intracellular PI3K-/p-ERK levels. Therefore, DCLK1-positive tuft cells appear essential for the maintenance of a regular intestinal cholinergic niche. Overall design: Bulk gene expression data are presented for sorted DCLK1-DTR-ZSgreen-positive cells from scopolamine treated mice (n=4) or sham treated mice (n=4).
Project description:Cholinergic (ACh) basal forebrain (BF) neurons are active during wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and are involved in sleep homeostasis. We have previously shown in adult animals that cortical neurons that express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the receptor for Substance P (NK1R) are activated during non-REM (NREM) sleep in proportion to homeostatic sleep drive. Here, we show that BF neurons modulate cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. In vitro optogenetic stimulation of BF terminals both activated and inhibited nNOS/NK1R neurons. Pharmacological studies revealed cholinergic responses mediated by postsynaptic activation of muscarinic receptors (mAChRs; M3R > M2/4R > M1R) and that presynaptic M3R and M2R activation reduced glutamatergic input onto nNOS/NK1R neurons whereas nicotinic receptor (nAChR)-mediated responses of nNOS/NK1R neurons were mixed. Cholinergic responses of nNOS/NK1R neurons were largely unaffected by prolonged wakefulness. ACh release, including from BF cells, appears to largely excite cortical nNOS/NK1R cells while reducing glutamatergic inputs onto these neurons. We propose that cholinergic signaling onto cortical nNOS/NK1R neurons may contribute to the regulation of cortical activity across arousal states, but that this response is likely independent of the role of these neurons in sleep homeostasis.
Project description:Here we show that male, but not female mice lacking expression of the GTPase M-Ras developed urinary retention with distention of the bladder that exacerbated with age but occurred in the absence of obvious anatomical outlet obstruction. There were changes in detrusor morphology in Mras-/- males: Smooth muscle tissue, which exhibited a compact organization in WT mice, appeared disorganized and became increasingly 'layered' with age in Mras-/- males, but was not fibrotic. Bladder tissue near the apex of bladders of Mras-/- males exhibited hypercontractility in response to the cholinergic agonist carbachol in in vitro, while responses in Mras-/- females were normal. In addition, spontaneous phasic contractions of detrusors from Mras-/- males were increased, and Mras-/- males exhibited urinary incontinence. We found that expression of the muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors that mediate the cholinergic contractile stimuli of the detrusor muscle was dysregulated in both Mras-/- males and females, although only males exhibited a urinary phenotype. Elevated expression of M2R in young males lacking M-Ras and failure to upregulate M3R with age resulted in significantly lower ratios of M3R/M2R expression that correlated with the bladder abnormalities. Our data suggests that M-Ras and M3R are functionally linked and that M-Ras is an important regulator of male bladder control in mice. Our observations also support the notion that bladder control is sexually dimorphic and is regulated through mechanisms that are largely independent of acetylcholine signaling in female mice.
Project description:Cholinergic bronchoconstriction is mediated by M(2) and M(3) muscarinic receptors (MR). In heart and urinary bladder, MR are linked to caveolin-1 or -3, the structural proteins of caveolae. Caveolae are cholesterol-rich, omega-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane. They provide a scaffold for multiple G protein receptors and membrane-bound enzymes, thereby orchestrating signaling into the cell interior. Hence, we hypothesized that airway MR signaling pathways are coupled to caveolae as well. To address this issue, we determined the distribution of caveolin isoforms and MR subtype M2R in murine and human airways and investigated protein-protein associations by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis in immunolabeled murine tissue sections. Bronchoconstrictor responses of murine bronchi were recorded in lung-slice preparations before and after caveolae disruption by methyl-?-cyclodextrin, with efficiency of this treatment being validated by electron microscopy. KCl-induced bronchoconstriction was unaffected after treatment, demonstrating functional integrity of the smooth muscle. Caveolae disruption decreased muscarine-induced bronchoconstriction in wild-type and abolished it in M2R(-/-) and M3R(-/-) mice. Thus M2R and M3R signaling pathways require intact caveolae. Furthermore, we identified a presumed skeletal and cardiac myocyte-specific caveolin isoform, caveolin-3, in human and murine bronchial smooth muscle and found it to be associated with M2R in situ. In contrast, M2R was not associated with caveolin-1, despite an in situ association of caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 that was detected. Here, we demonstrated that M2R- and M3R-mediated bronchoconstriction is caveolae-dependent. Since caveolin-3 is directly associated with M2R, we suggest caveolin-3 as novel regulator of M2R-mediated signaling.