Biomechanical evaluation of strategies for adjacent segment disease after lateral lumbar interbody fusion: is the extension of pedicle screws necessary?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a well-known complication after interbody fusion. Pedicle screw-rod revision possesses sufficient strength and rigidity. However, is a surgical segment with rigid fixation necessary for ASD reoperation? This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical effect of different instrumentation on lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) for ASD treatment. METHODS:A validated L2~5 finite element (FE) model was modified for simulation. ASD was considered the level cranial to the upper-instrumented segment (L3/4). Bone graft fusion in LLIF with bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) fixation occurred at L4/5. The ASD segment for each group underwent a) LLIF + posterior extension of BPS, b) PLIF + posterior extension of BPS, c) LLIF + lateral screw, and d) stand-alone LLIF. The L3/4 range of motion (ROM), interbody cage stress and strain, screw-bone interface stress, cage-endplate interface stress, and L2/3 nucleus pulposus of intradiscal pressure (NP-IDP) analysis were calculated for comparisons among the four models. RESULTS:All reconstructive models displayed decreased motion at L3/4. Under each loading condition, the difference was not significant between models a and b, which provided the maximum ROM reduction (73.8 to 97.7% and 68.3 to 98.4%, respectively). Model c also provided a significant ROM reduction (64.9 to 77.5%). Model d provided a minimal restriction of the ROM (18.3 to 90.1%), which exceeded that of model a by 13.1 times for flexion-extension, 10.3 times for lateral bending and 4.8 times for rotation. Model b generated greater cage stress than other models, particularly for flexion. The maximum displacement of the cage and the peak stress of the cage-endplate interface were found to be the highest in model d under all loading conditions. For the screw-bone interface, the stress was much greater with lateral instrumentation than with posterior instrumentation. CONCLUSIONS:Stand-alone LLIF is likely to have limited stability, particularly for lateral bending and axial rotation. Posterior extension of BPS can provide reliable stability and excellent protective effects on instrumentation and endplates. However, LLIF with the use of an in situ screw may be an alternative for ASD reoperation.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is increasingly popular for the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar disc diseases. The constructs intended for segmental stability are varied in MI-TLIF. We adopted finite element (FE) analysis to compare the stability after different construct fixations using interbody cage with posterior pedicle screw-rod or pedicle screw-plate instrumentation system.<h4>Methods</h4>A L3-S1 FE model was modified to simulate decompression and fusion at L4-L5 segment. Fixation modes included unilateral plate (UP), unilateral rod (UR), bilateral plate (BP), bilateral rod (BR) and UP+UR fixation. The inferior surface of the S1 vertebra remained immobilized throughout the load simulation, and a bending moment of 7.5 Nm with 400N pre-load was applied on the L3 vertebra to recreate flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Range of motion (ROM) and Von Mises stress were evaluated for intact and instrumentation models in all loading planes.<h4>Results</h4>All reconstructive conditions displayed decreased motion at L4-L5. The pedicle screw-plate system offered equal ROM to pedicle screw-rod system in unilateral or bilateral fixation modes respectively. Pedicle screw stresses for plate system were 2.2 times greater than those for rod system in left lateral bending under unilateral fixation. Stresses for plate were 3.1 times greater than those for rod in right axial rotation under bilateral fixation. Stresses on intervertebral graft for plate system were similar to rod system in unilateral and bilateral fixation modes respectively. Increased ROM and posterior instrumentation stresses were observed in all loading modes with unilateral fixation compared with bilateral fixation in both systems.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion augmentation with pedicle screw-plate system fixation increases fusion construct stability equally to the pedicle screw-rod system. Increased posterior instrumentation stresses are observed in all loading modes with plate fixation, and bilateral fixation could reduce stress concentration.
Project description:Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a widely applied and useful procedure for spinal surgeries. However, posterior fixation has not yet been decided. We compared the radiographic and clinical outcomes of unilateral versus bilateral instrumented one-level LLIF for degenerative lumbar disease. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 100 patients, who underwent unilateral (group U) or bilateral (group B) instrumented one-level LLIF for degenerative lumbar disease. Forty-one patients in group U were undergoing unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation, and 59 patients in group B were undergoing bilateral pedicle screw instrumentation. Clinical characteristic and demographic data before surgery were compared. The intraoperative data, including operative time with changes in positions, intraoperative blood loss, and X-ray exposure time, as well as the perioperative data, including postoperative hospital stay and clinical and radiographic data were compared. As a result, Group U required a significantly shorter operating time than group B. The subsidence grade and fusion rates exhibited no significant differences in the postoperative radiographic evaluation. Group U had better results in clinical assessments than group B. However, group U required more additional surgeries owing to complications.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is an effective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease. However, this fusion technique requires resection of inferior facet joint to provide access for superior facet joint resection, which results in reduced lumbar spinal stability and unnecessary trauma. We have previously developed extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF) that can avoid back muscle injury with direct nerve root decompression. This study aims to show that ELIF enhances lumbar spinal stability in comparison to TLIF by comparing lumbar spinal stability of L4-L5 range of motion (ROM) on 12 cadaveric spine specimens after performing TLIF or ELIF.<h4>Methods</h4>12 cadaveric spine specimens were randomly divided and treated in accordance with the different internal fixations, including ELIF with a unilateral pedicle screw (ELIF+UPS), TLIF with a unilateral pedicle screw (TLIF+UPS), TLIF with a bilateral pedicle screw (TLIF+BPS), ELIF with a unilateral pedicle screw and translaminar facet screw (ELIF+UPS+TLFS) and ELIF with a bilateral pedicle screw (ELIF+BPS). The treatment groups were exposed to a 400-N load and 6 N·m movement force to calculate the angular displacement of L4-L5 during anterior flexion, posterior extension, lateral flexion and rotation operation conditions.<h4>Results</h4>The ROM in ELIF+UPS group was smaller than that of TLIF+UPS group under all operating conditions, with the significant differences in left lateral flexion and right rotation by 36.15% and 25.97% respectively. The ROM in ELIF+UPS group was higher than that in TLIF+BPS group. The ROM in the ELIF+UPS+TLFS group was much smaller than that in the ELIF+UPS group, but was not significantly different than that in the TLIF+BPS group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Despite that TLIF+BPS has great stability, which can be comparable by that of ELIF+UPS. Additionally, ELIF stability can be further improved by using translaminar facet screws without causing more tissue damage to patient.
Project description:<h4>Study design</h4>Systematic review.<h4>Study rationale</h4>The surgical treatment of adult degenerative lumbar conditions remains controversial. Conventional techniques include posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A new direct approach known as lumbar lateral interbody fusion (LLIF), or extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF(®)) or direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF), has been introduced. Objectives?The objective of this article is to determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of LLIF, at one or more levels with or without instrumentation, versus PLIF or TLIF surgery in adults with lumbar degenerative conditions, and to determine which preoperative factors affect patient outcomes following LLIF surgery.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed and bibliographies of key articles. Articles were reviewed by two independent reviewers based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Each article was evaluated using a predefined quality rating scheme.<h4>Results</h4>The search yielded 258 citations and the following met our inclusion criteria: three retrospective cohort studies (all using historical cohorts) (class of evidence [CoE] III) examining the comparative effectiveness and safety of LLIF/XLIF(®)/DLIF versus PLIF or TLIF surgery, and one prospective cohort study (CoE II) and two retrospective cohort studies (CoE III) assessing factors affecting patient outcome following LLIF. Patients in the LLIF group experienced less estimated blood loss and a lower mortality risk compared with the PLIF group. The number of levels treated and the preoperative diagnosis were significant predictors of perioperative or early complications in two studies.<h4>Conclusion</h4>There is insufficient evidence of the comparative effectiveness of LLIF versus PLIF/TLIF surgery. There is low-quality evidence suggesting that LLIF surgery results in fewer complications or reoperations than PLIF/TLIF surgery. And there is insufficient evidence that any preoperative factors exist that predict patient outcome after LLIF surgery.
Project description:Background:Rigid interspinous process fixation (ISPF) has received consideration as an efficient, minimally disruptive technique in supporting lumbar interbody fusion. However, despite advantageous intraoperative utility, limited evidence exists characterizing midterm to long-term clinical outcomes with ISPF. The objective of this multicenter study was to prospectively assess patients receiving single-level anterior (ALIF) or lateral (LLIF) lumbar interbody fusion with adjunctive ISPF. Methods:This was a prospective, randomized, multicenter (11 investigators), noninferiority trial. All patients received single-level ALIF or LLIF with supplemental ISPF (n?=?66) or pedicle screw fixation (PSF; n?=?37) for degenerative disc disease and/or spondylolisthesis (grade ?2). The randomization patient ratio was 2:1, ISPF/PSF. Perioperative and follow-up outcomes were collected (6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months). Results:For ISPF patients, mean posterior intraoperative outcomes were: blood loss, 70.9 mL; operating time, 52.2 minutes; incision length, 5.5 cm; and fluoroscopic imaging time, 10.4 seconds. Statistically significant improvement in patient Oswestry Disability Index scores were achieved by just 6 weeks after operation (P?<?.01) and improved out to 12 months for the ISPF cohort. Patient-reported 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and Zurich Claudication Questionnaire scores were also significantly improved from baseline to 12 months in the ISPF cohort (P?<?.01). A total of 92.7% of ISPF patients exhibited interspinous fusion at 12 months. One ISPF patient (1.5%) required a secondary surgical intervention of possible relation to the posterior instrumentation/procedure. Conclusion:ISPF can be achieved quickly, with minimal tissue disruption and complication. In supplementing ALIF and LLIF, ISPF supported significant improvement in early postoperative (?12 months) patient-reported outcomes, while facilitating robust posterior fusion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the current surgical therapeutic regimen for the degenerative lumbar disease, both oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) and lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) are gradually accepted. Thus, the objective of this study is to compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes of OLIF and LLIF for the degenerative lumbar disease. METHODS:We conducted an exhaustive literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to find the relevant studies about OLIF and LLIF for the degenerative lumbar disease. Random-effects model was performed to pool the outcomes about disc height (DH), fusion, operative blood loss, operative time, length of hospital stays, complications, visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry disability index (ODI). RESULTS:56 studies were included in this study. The two groups of patients had similar changes in terms of DH, operative blood loss, operative time, hospital stay and the fusion rate (over 90%). The OLIF group showed slightly better VAS and ODI scores improvement. The incidence of perioperative complications of OLIF and LLIF was 26.7 and 27.8% respectively. Higher rates of nerve injury and psoas weakness (21.2%) were reported for LLIF, while higher rates of cage subsidence (5.1%), endplate damage (5.2%) and vascular injury (1.7%) were reported for OLIF. CONCLUSIONS:The two groups are similar in terms of radiographic outcomes, operative blood loss, operative time and the length of hospital stay. The OLIF group shows advantages in VAS and ODI scores improvement. Though the incidence of perioperative complications of OLIF and LLIF is similar, the incidence of main complications is significantly different.
Project description:PURPOSE: To relate the progress of vertebral segmental stability after interbody fusion surgery with radiological assessment of spinal fusion. METHODS: Twenty goats received double-level interbody fusion and were followed for a period of 3, 6 and 12 months. After killing, interbody fusion was assessed radiographically by two independent observers. Subsequently, the lumbar spines were subjected to four-point bending and rotational deformation, assessed with an optoelectronic 3D movement registration system. In addition, four caprine lumbar spines were analysed in both the native situation and after the insertion of a cage device, as to mimic the direct post-surgical situation. The range of motion (ROM) in flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation was analysed ex vivo using a multi-segment testing system. RESULTS: Significant reduction in ROM in the operated segments was already achieved with moderate bone ingrowth in flexion/extension (71 % reduction in ROM) and with only limited bone ingrowth in lateral bending (71 % reduction in ROM) compared to the post-surgical situation. The presence of a sentinel sign always resulted in a stable vertebral segment in both flexion/extension and lateral bending. For axial rotation, the ROM was already limited in both native and cage inserted situations, resulting in non-significant differences for all radiographic scores. DISCUSSION: In vivo vertebral segment stability, defined as a significant reduction in ROM, is achieved in an early stage of spinal fusion, well before a radiological bony fusion between the vertebrae can be observed. Therefore, plain radiography underestimates vertebral segment stability.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose of this study was to investigate finite element biomechanical properties of the novel transpedicular transdiscal (TPTD) screw fixation with interbody arthrodesis technique in lumbar spine.<h4>Methods</h4>An L4-L5 finite element model was established and validated. Then, two fixation models, TPTD screw system and bilateral pedicle screw system (BPSS), were established on the validated L4-L5 finite element model. The inferior surface of the L5 vertebra was set immobilised, and moment of 7.5 Nm was applied on the L4 vertebra to test the range of motion (ROM) and stress at flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation.<h4>Results</h4>The intact model was validated for prediction accuracy by comparing two previously published studies. Both of TPTD and BPSS fixation models displayed decreased motion at L4-L5. The ROMs of six moments of flexion, extension, left lateral bending, right lateral bending, left axial rotation and right axial rotation in TPTD model were 1.92, 2.12, 1.10, 1.11, 0.90 and 0.87°, respectively; in BPSS model, they were 1.48, 0.42, 0.35, 0.38, 0.74 and 0.75°, respectively. The screws' peak stress of above six moments in TPTD model was 182.58, 272.75, 133.01, 137.36, 155.48 and 150.50 MPa, respectively; and in BPSS model, it was 103.16, 129.74, 120.28, 134.62, 180.84 and 169.76 MPa, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Both BPSS and TPTD can provide stable biomechanical properties for lumbar spine. The decreased ROM of flexion, extension and lateral bending was slightly more in BPSS model than in TPTD model, but TPTD model had similar ROM of axial rotation with BPSS model. The screws' peak stress of TPTD screw focused on the L4-L5 intervertebral space region, and more caution should be put at this site for the fatigue breakage.<h4>The translational potential of this article</h4>Our finite element study provides the biomechanical properties of novel TPTD screw fixation, and promotes this novel transpedicular transdiscal screw fixation with interbody arthrodesis technique be used clinically.
Project description:Aim To compare anterior fusion in standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) using cage and screw constructs and anterior cage-alone constructs with posterior pedicle screw supplementation but without posterior fusion. Methods Eighty-five patients underwent single- or two-level ALIF procedure for degenerative disk disease or lytic spondylolisthesis (SPL). Posterior instrumentation was performed without posterior fusion in all cases of lytic SPL and when the anterior cage used did not have anterior screw through cage fixation. Results Seventy (82%) patients had adequate radiological follow-up at a mean of 19 months. Forty patients had anterior surgery alone (24 single level and 16 two levels) and 30 had front-back surgery (15 single level and 15 two levels). Anterior locked pseudarthrosis was only seen in the anterior surgery-alone group when using the STALIF cage (Surgicraft, Worcestershire, UK) (37 patients). This occurred in five of the single-level surgeries (5/22) and nine of the two-level surgeries (9/15). Fusion was achieved in 100% of the front-back group and only 65% (26/40) of the anterior surgery-alone group. Conclusion Posterior pedicle screw supplementation without posterolateral fusion improves the fusion rate of ALIF when using anterior cage and screw constructs. We would recommend supplementary posterior fixation especially in cases where more than one level is being operated.
Project description:Objective:The objective of this study is to use 3D digital lumbar models to investigate and simulate the optimal posterior operative approach for safe decompression and insertion of an interbody cage. Methods:Thirty lumbar spine (L3-S1) computed tomography data are collected for 3D reconstruction. We cut medial half part of the superior facet and define the distance between the margin of the operative side of the spinous process and the medial margin of the cut superior facet as "medial distance (MD)". Then, we cut the total superior facet and define the distance between the margin of the operative side of the spinous process and the lateral side of the junction of the pedicle and the vertebral body as "extend distance (ED)". The feasible insertion of the current standard width size (10 mm and 12 mm) interbody cages was assessed by the two aforementioned MD and ED approaches. Besides the ED, we also simulate four other extensive options of lateral upper, lateral lower, vertical upper and lower and transmedian contralateral decompression on 3D digital lumbar model. Results:The MD increased from 13.48 ± 1.28 mm at L3/4 to 18.05 ± 1.43 mm at L5/S1, and the ED increased from 16.64 ± 1.34 mm at L3/4 to 21.12 ± 1.62 mm at L5/S1. To insert a 10-mm-wide cage, 16.7% (left) and 13.3% (right) of MD for L3/4 is not enough, 60.0% (left) and 46.7% (right) of MD for L3/4 is subsafe, 13.3% (left) and 16.7% (right) of MD for L4/5 is subsafe and all others are safe. To insert a 12-mm-wide cage, 76.7% (left) and 60.0% (right) of MD for L3/4 is not enough, 20.0% (left) and 30.0% (right) of MD for L3/4 is subsafe, 13.3%% (left) and 16.7% (right) of MD for L4/5 is not enough, 63.3% (left) and 56.7% (right) of MD for L4/5 is subsafe and 6.7% (left) and 10.0% (right) of MD for L5/S1 is subsafe, whereas 33.3%% (left) and 30.0% (right) of ED for L3/4 is subsafe, 3.3% (left) and 3.3% (right) of ED for L4/5 is subsafe and all others are safe. Besides the ED, on 3D models, four other extensive options could be simulated too and may need to be performed for different special individuals. Conclusion:Our 3D digital image study provides a feasible optimal medial transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion approach with five extensive options on lower lumbar region. It can provide safe lumbar decompression and interbody fusion in most population. In addition, surgeons can choose the different extensive options for special individual conditions. The translational potential of this article:Transforminal lumbar interbody fusion is very common used for lumbar degenerative diseases. The optimal medial transforminal lumbar interbody fusion with five options provide a safe and precise approach for surgeons in treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases.