Neuroprotective Effects of Qingnao Dripping Pills Against Cerebral Ischemia via Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling Pathway: In Vivo and In Vitro.
ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke patients suffer from relatively limited treatment options. Studies have shown that in cerebral ischemia, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a key mediator in mediating inflammatory responses and results in activation of apoptosis signaling pathways. Here we assessed the in vivo and in vitro effects of Qingnao Dripping Pills (QNDP), a traditional Chinese prescription, on inflammatory responses and apoptosis. Our results showed that QNDP could significantly decrease cerebral ischemia injury, improve neurological function and inhibit apoptosis in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Further, we found that QNDP inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome expression both in MCAO rats and in SH-SY5Y cells under OGD. Moreover, the levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18, which mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome and increased in MCAO rats, could be reduced by QNDP, suggesting that QNDP could protect the neurons against inflammation through a mechanism mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) was also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of QNDP. In conclusion, QNDP had neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway, and was a potential candidate for the future treatment of ischemic stroke.
Project description:Background & Aims:Tetrandrine (Tet) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects and protect from the ischemic strokes. The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a key role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced inflammatory lesions. However, the molecular mechanisms of Tet related to the progression of cerebral ischemia are still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of Tet on cerebral ischemia and the related mechanisms involved in NLRP3 inflammasome. Methods:C57BL/6J mice used as a cerebral I/R injury model underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h following reperfusion for 24 h. Tet (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered for seven days and 30 min before and after MCAO. Their brain tissues were evaluated for NLRP3 inflammasome and Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) expression. An intracerebroventricular injection of Sirt-1 siRNA was administered to assess the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Results:Tet significantly reduced the neurological deficits, infarction volume, and cerebral water content in MCAO mice. Moreover, it inhibited I/R-induced over expression of NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, and Sirt-1. Sirt-1 knockdown with siRNA greatly blocked the Tet-induced reduction of neurological severity score and infarct volume, and reversed the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Conclusion:Our results demonstrate that Tet has benefits for cerebral I/R injury, which are partially related to the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation via upregulating Sirt-1.
Project description:NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome inhibition and autophagy induction attenuate inflammation and improve outcome in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. However, the impact of chronic stress on NLRP3 inflammasome and autophagic response to ischemia remains unknown. Progesterone (PROG), a neuroprotective steroid, shows promise in reducing excessive inflammation associated with poor outcome in ischemic brain injury patients with comorbid conditions, including elevated stress. Stress primes microglia, mainly by the release of alarmins such as high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1? production. In experiment 1, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to social defeat stress for 8 days and then subjected to global ischemia by the 4-vessel occlusion model, a clinically relevant brain injury associated with cardiac arrest. PROG was administered 2 and 6 h after occlusion and then daily for 7 days. Animals were killed at 7 or 14 days post-ischemia. Here, we show that stress and global ischemia exert a synergistic effect in HMGB1 release, resulting in exacerbation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and autophagy impairment in the hippocampus of ischemic animals. In experiment 2, an in vitro inflammasome assay, primary microglia isolated from neonatal brain tissue, were primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and stimulated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP), displaying impaired autophagy and increased IL-1? production. In experiment 3, hippocampal microglia isolated from stressed and unstressed animals, were stimulated ex vivo with LPS, exhibiting similar changes than primary microglia. Treatment with PROG reduced HMGB1 release and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and enhanced autophagy in stressed and unstressed ischemic animals. Pre-treatment with an autophagy inhibitor blocked Progesterone's (PROG's) beneficial effects in microglia. Our data suggest that modulation of microglial priming is one of the molecular mechanisms by which PROG ameliorates ischemic brain injury under stressful conditions.
Project description:Human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) have been shown to ameliorate cerebral ischemia in animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of hUCB-MSCs on inflammatory responses and neuronal apoptosis during the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits.Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in male New Zealand rabbits by occlusion of MCA for 2 h. The blood samples were collected at different time points prior and during MCAO-reperfusion. The animals were euthanized 3 d after MCAO, and the protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in the serum and peri-ischemic brain tissues were detected using Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Inflammatory cell infiltration, neuronal apoptosis and neuronal density were measured morphologically. hUCB-MSCs (5 × 10(6)) were iv injected a few minutes after MCAO.The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were rapidly increased, and peaked at 2 h after the start of MCAO. hUCB-MSC transplantation markedly and progressively suppressed the ischemia-induced increases of serum IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels within 6 h MCAO-reperfusion. Focal cerebral ischemia decreased the serum level of IL-10, which was prevented by hUCB-MSC transplantation. The expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peri-ischemic brain tissues showed similar changes as in the serum. hUCB-MSC transplantation markedly suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells, and increased the neuronal density around the ischemic region. Furthermore, hUCB-MSC transplantation significantly decreased the percentage of apoptosis around the ischemic region.hUCB-MSCs transplantation suppresses inflammatory responses and neuronal apoptosis during the early stage focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) plays an important role in mediating inflammatory responses during ischemic stroke. Bile acid receptor Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5) has been identified as an important component in regulating brain inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of TGR5 in alleviating neuroinflammation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).<h4>Methods</h4>Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAO and TGR5 agonist INT777 was administered intranasally 1 h after MCAO. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting TGR5 and Pellino3 were administered through intracerebroventricular injection 48 h before MCAO. Infarct volumes and neurologic scores were evaluated, and ELISA, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, immunoblotting, and co-immunoprecipitation were used for the evaluations.<h4>Results</h4>Endogenous TGR5 and Pellino3 levels increased after MCAO. TGR5 activation by INT777 significantly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine, cleaved caspase-8, and NLRP3 levels, thereby reducing brain infarctions; both short- and long-term neurobehavioral assessments showed improvements. Ischemic damage induced the interaction of TGR5 with Pellino3. Knockdown of either TGR5 or Pellino3 increased the accumulation of cleaved caspase-8 and NLRP3, aggravated cerebral impairments, and abolished the anti-inflammatory effects of INT777 after MCAO.<h4>Conclusions</h4>TGR5 activation attenuated brain injury by inhibiting neuroinflammation after MCAO, which could be mediated by Pellino3 inhibition of caspase-8/NLRP3.
Project description:Cigarette smoke is a major preventable risk factor of ischemic stroke. Cigarette smoke induces a significant increase in circulating leukocytes. However, it remains unclear to what extent and by what mechanisms smoke priming influences stroke severity. Here we report that exposure to cigarette smoke exacerbated ischemic brain injury in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The augmentation of neurodeficits and brain infarction was accompanied by increased production of pro-inflammatory factors and brain infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes. Prior to brain ischemia, exposure to cigarette smoke induced mobilization of peripheral neutrophils, and monocytes. Furthermore, the detrimental effects of smoke priming on ischemic brain injury were abolished either by pharmacological inhibition of the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes or by blockade of the NLRP3 inflammasome, an effector protein of neutrophils and monocytes. Our findings suggest that cigarette smoke-induced mobilization of peripheral neutrophils and monocytes augments ischemic brain injury.
Project description:Caveolin is the principal protein of caveolae and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. To investigate whether changed expression of caveolins has a pivotal role in focal cerebral ischemia, we induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-reperfusion and examined expression of caveolins, inflammatory activation markers, and mediators of autophagic cell death. We also treated MCAo rats with forced exercise to determine its effects on neurological outcome. Particularly, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used to compare the effects of hypertension on focal cerebral ischemia. All MCAo groups showed neurological deficiencies, motor dysfunction, and disruption of balancing ability; however, these pathological changes were more severe in SHR than WKY rats. Expression of caveolins was decreased in MCAo brain tissue, whereas the levels of iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased. Additionally, LC3-II and beclin-1 levels were elevated in the MCAo groups. Forced exercise attenuated both molecular and behavioral changes in MCAo animals, but SHR rats showed delayed functional recovery and residual molecular changes when compared to WKY rats. These results suggest that forced exercise may be beneficial for promoting functional recovery following cerebral ischemia through caveolin-dependent mechanisms or interactions between caveolins and these signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Birth hypoxia causes neonatal mortality and morbidity. Hypoxia/ischemia can facilitate brain damage, causing various kinds of diseases, such as ischemic stroke. It is necessary to understand the potential underlying mechanisms of ischemic stroke. Previous studies revealed the involvement of thousand and one kinase 1 (TAOK1) in many cellular processes. METHODS:Herein, middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAO) was performed in rats to establish ischemic stroke in the animal model, and cortical neural stem cells from rats were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to induce ischemic stroke cell model. The animal model of ischemic stroke was validated by Bederson and Zea-Longa neurological deficit scores and rotarod test. TAOK1 expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescent staining both in vivo and in vitro. RESULT:Compared with sham animals, the MCAO rats showed a significant increase in the neurological scores, and obvious motor behavioral deficits. Meanwhile, there was increased apoptosis and inflammatory response in the model group. TAOK1 overexpression reversed the OGD-induced cell injury, while TAOK1 knockdown exhibited the opposing effects. On the mechanism, the OGD-induced suppression of PI3K/AKT, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were abolished by TAOK1 overexpression, and aggravated by TAOK1 knockdown in vitro. Moreover, we proved that the inhibitory effect of TAOK1 on OGD-induced apoptosis was dependent on the intracellular kinase activity. CONCLUSION:TAOK1 protected MCAO-induced cerebral ischemic stroke by decreasing the pro-inflammatory factors and apoptosis via PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways.
Project description:Aberrant production of nitric oxide following inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression has been implicated in cell death and contributes to ischemic brain injury. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of NOS activity. Herein, we evaluated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), a guanosine 5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO) and investigated the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Experimental groups were subjected to 1.5?h transient MCAO. T2-weighted imaging was performed to evaluate brain edema lesions in the stroke rats. Infarct volume was estimated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining after 24?h reperfusion. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect iNOS, caspase-3, Bcl-2, COX-2, and TNF-? protein expressions. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. T2 hyperintensity changes were observed in primary ischemic region. DAHP pretreatment significantly suppressed iNOS overexpression, caspase-3, and TNF-?. There was also attenuation of neuronal apoptosis with decrement in proteins Bcl-2 and COX-2 expressions. On the basis of our results, we hypothesize DAHP to have a neuroprotective function against focal cerebral ischemia and might attenuate brain injury by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, subsequently inhibiting apoptosis.
Project description:Introduction:Ischemic stroke-induced inflammation and inflammasome-dependent pyroptotic neural death cause serious neurological injury. Nano-sized plasma exosomes have exhibited therapeutic potential against ischemia and reperfusion injury by ameliorating inflammation. To enhance its therapeutic potential in patients with ischemic injury, we isolated exosomes from melatonin-treated rat plasma and assessed the neurological protective effect in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Methods:Basal plasma exosomes and melatonin-treated plasma exosomes were isolated and intravenously injected into a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Neurological recovery was evaluated by determining the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), infarct volume, and brain water content. Pyroptosis in the ischemic cortex was detected through dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage. NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and global inflammatory cytokine secretion were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot assay. In immunized Sprague-Dawley rats, microglia pyroptosis was determined through a positive percentage of IBA1+ and caspase-1 (p20)+ cells. Finally, the microRNA (miRNA) profiles in melatonin-treated plasma exosomes were analyzed by exosome miRNA microarray analysis. Results:Melatonin treatment enhanced plasma exosome therapeutic effects against ischemia-induced inflammatory responses and inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis. In addition, we confirmed that ischemic stroke-induced pyroptotic cell death occurred in the microglia and neuron, while the administration of melatonin-treated exosomes further effectively decreased the infarct volume and improved recovery of function via regulation of the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway. Finally, the altered miRNA profiles in the melatonin-treated plasma exosomes demonstrated the regulatory mechanisms involved in neurological recovery after ischemic injury. Conclusion:This study suggests that nano-sized plasma exosomes with melatonin pretreatment might be a more effective strategy for patients with ischemic brain injury. Further exploration of key molecules in the plasma exosome may provide increased therapeutic value for cerebral ischemic injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inflammatory response has been recognized as a pivotal pathophysiological process during cerebral ischemic stroke. NLRP3 inflammasome, involved in the regulation of inflammatory cascade, can simultaneously lead to GSDMD-executed pyroptosis in cerebral ischemia. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), responsible for cholesterol uptake, was noted to exert potential anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Nevertheless, the role of LDLR in neuroinflammation mobilized by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) has not been investigated. METHODS:Ischemic stroke mice model was accomplished by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Oxygen-glucose deprivation was employed after primary cortical neuron was extracted and cultured. A pharmacological inhibitor of NLRP3 (CY-09) was administered to suppress NLPR3 activation. Histological and biochemical analysis were performed to assess the neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, neurological deficits and behavioral deterioration were evaluated in mice. RESULTS:The expression of LDLR was downregulated following cerebral I/R injury. Genetic knockout of Ldlr enhanced caspase-1-dependent cleavage of GSDMD and resulted in severe neuronal pyroptosis. LDLR deficiency contributed to excessive NLRP3-mediated maturation and release of IL-1? and IL-18 under in vitro and in vivo ischemic conditions. These influences ultimately led to aggravated neurological deficits and long-term cognitive dysfunction. Blockade of NLRP3 substantially retarded neuronal pyroptosis in Ldlr-/- mice and cultured Ldlr-/- neuron after experimental stroke. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrated that LDLR modulates NLRP3-mediated neuronal pyroptosis and neuroinflammation following ischemic stroke. Our findings characterize a novel role for LDLR as a potential therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory responses to acute cerebral ischemic injury.