Immobilization of Cofactor Self-Sufficient Recombinant Escherichia coli for Enantioselective Biosynthesis of (R)-1-Phenyl-1,2-Ethanediol.
ABSTRACT: (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol is an important synthon for the preparation of ?-adrenergic blocking agents. This study identified a (2R,3R)-butanediol dehydrogenase (KgBDH) from Kurthia gibsonii SC0312, which showed high enantioselectivity for production of (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol by reduction of 2-hydroxyacetophenone. KgBDH was expressed in a recombinant engineered strain, purified, and characterized. It showed good catalytic activity at pH 6-8 and better stability in alkaline (pH 7.5-8) than an acidic environment (pH 6.0-7.0), providing approximately 73 and 88% of residual activity after 96 h at pH 7.5 and 8.0, respectively. The maximum catalytic activity was obtained at 45°C; nevertheless, poor thermal stability was observed at >30°C. Additionally, the examined metal ions did not activate the catalytic activity of KgBDH. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain coexpressing KgBDH and glucose dehydrogenase (GHD) was constructed and immobilized via entrapment with a mixture of activated carbon and calcium alginate via entrapment. The immobilized cells had 1.8-fold higher catalytic activity than that of cells immobilized by calcium alginate alone. The maximum catalytic activity of the immobilized cells was achieved at pH 7.5, and favorable pH stability was observed at pH 6.0-9.0. Moreover, the immobilized cells showed favorable thermal stability at 25-30°C and better operational stability than free cells, retaining approximately 55% of the initial catalytic activity after four cycles. Finally, 81% yields (195 mM product) and >99% enantiomeric excess (ee) of (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol were produced within 12 h through a fed-batch strategy with the immobilized cells (25 mg/ml wet cells) at 35°C and 180 rpm, with a productivity of approximately 54 g/L per day.
Project description:A thermostable β-glucosidase was effectively immobilized on alginate by the method of gel entrapment. After optimization of immobilized conditions, recovered enzyme activity was 60%. Optimum pH, temperature, kinetic parameters, thermal and pH stability, reusability, and storage stability were investigated. The K m and V max for immobilized β-glucosidase were estimated to be 5.0 mM and 0.64 U/ml, respectively. When comparing, free and immobilized enzyme, change was observed in optimum pH and temperature from 5.0 to 6.0 and 60°C to 80°C, respectively. Immobilized enzyme showed an increase in pH stability over the studied pH range (3.0-10.0) and stability at temperature up to 80°C. The storage stability and reusability of the immobilized β-glucosidase were improved significantly, with 12.09% activity retention at 30°C after being stored for 25 d and 17.85% residual activity after being repeatedly used for 4 times. The effect of both free and immobilized β-glucosidase enzyme on physicochemical properties of sugarcane juice was also analyzed.
Project description:A novel short-chain (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol dehydrogenase (SCR) from Candida parapsilosis exhibits coenzyme specificity for NADPH over NADH. It catalyzes an anti-Prelog type reaction to reduce 2-hydroxyacetophenone into (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol. The coding gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was crystallized. The crystal structure of the apo-form was solved to 2.7 A resolution. This protein forms a homo-tetramer with a broken 2-2-2 symmetry. The overall fold of each SCR subunit is similar to that of the known structures of other homologous alcohol dehydrogenases, although the latter usually form tetramers with perfect 2-2-2 symmetries. Additionally, in the apo-SCR structure, the entrance of the NADPH pocket is blocked by a surface loop. In order to understand the structure-function relationship of SCR, we carried out a number of mutagenesis-enzymatic analyses based on the new structural information. First, mutations of the putative catalytic Ser-Tyr-Lys triad confirmed their functional role. Second, truncation of an N-terminal 31-residue peptide indicated its role in oligomerization, but not in catalytic activity. Similarly, a V270D point mutation rendered the SCR as a dimer, rather than a tetramer, without affecting the enzymatic activity. Moreover, the S67D/H68D double-point mutation inside the coenzyme-binding pocket resulted in a nearly 10-fold increase and a 20-fold decrease in the k(cat) /K(M) value when NADH and NADPH were used as cofactors, respectively, with k(cat) remaining essentially the same. This latter result provides a new example of a protein engineering approach to modify the coenzyme specificity in SCR and short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in general.
Project description:This study reports the synthesis of polymeric matrices based on N-isopropylacrylamide and itaconic acid and its application for immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa. The lipase was immobilized by entrapment method. Free and immobilized lipase activities, pH and temperature optima, and storage stability were investigated. The optimum temperature for free and entrapped lipase was found to be 40 and 45 °C, while the optimum pH was observed at pH 7 and 8, respectively. Both hydrolytic activity in an aqueous medium and esterolytic activity in an organic medium have been evaluated. Maximum reaction rate (V max) and Michaelis-Menten constants (K m ) were also determined for immobilized lipase. Storage stability of lipase was increased as a result of immobilization process. Furthermore, the operational stability and reusability of the immobilized lipase in esterification reaction have been studied, and it was observed that after 10 cycles, the residual activity for entrapped lipase was as high as 50%, implying that the developed hydrogel and immobilized system could provide a promising solution for the flavor ester synthesis at the industrial scale.
Project description:Maltase from Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE-IB4 was immobilized within calcium alginate beads using entrapment technique. Immobilized maltase showed maximum immobilization yield with 4% sodium alginate and 0.2 M calcium chloride within 90.0 min of curing time. Entrapment increases the enzyme-substrate reaction time and temperature from 5.0 to 10.0 min and 45 °C to 50 °C, respectively as compared to its free counterpart. However, pH optima remained same for maltose hydrolysis. Diffusional limitation of substrate (maltose) caused a declined in Vmax of immobilized enzyme from 8411.0 to 4919.0 U ml-1 min-1 whereas, Km apparently increased from 1.71 to 3.17 mM ml-1. Immobilization also increased the stability of free maltase against a broad temperature range and enzyme retained 45% and 32% activity at 55 °C and 60 °C, respectively after 90.0 min. Immobilized enzyme also exhibited recycling efficiency more than six cycles and retained 17% of its initial activity even after 6th cycles. Immobilized enzyme showed relatively better storage stability at 4 °C and 30 °C after 60.0 days as compared to free enzyme.
Project description:C-1027 is a chromoprotein enediyne antitumor antibiotic, consisting of the CagA apoprotein and the C-1027 chromophore. The C-1027 chromophore features a nine-membered enediyne core appended with three peripheral moieties, including an ( S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-?-tyrosine. In a convergent biosynthesis of the C-1027 chromophore, the ( S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-?-tyrosine moiety is appended to the enediyne core by the free-standing condensation enzyme SgcC5. Unlike canonical condensation domains from the modular nonribosomal peptide synthetases that catalyze amide-bond formation, SgcC5 catalyzes ester-bond formation, as demonstrated in vitro, between SgcC2-tethered ( S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-?-tyrosine and ( R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol, a mimic of the enediyne core as an acceptor substrate. Here, we report that (i) genes encoding SgcC5 homologues are widespread among both experimentally confirmed and bioinformatically predicted enediyne biosynthetic gene clusters, forming a new clade of condensation enzymes, (ii) SgcC5 shares a similar overall structure with the canonical condensation domains but forms a homodimer in solution, the active site of which is located in a cavity rather than a tunnel typically seen in condensation domains, and (iii) the catalytic histidine of SgcC5 activates the 2-hydroxyl group, while a hydrogen-bond network in SgcC5 prefers the R-enantiomer of the acceptor substrate, accounting for the regio- and stereospecific ester-bond formation between SgcC2-tethered ( S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-?-tyrosine and ( R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol upon acid-base catalysis. These findings expand the catalytic repertoire and reveal new insights into the structure and mechanism of condensation enzymes.
Project description:An alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 was characterized along with its biochemical activity and structural gene. The amino acid sequence shows similarity to those of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases but no overall identity to known proteins. This enzyme with unusual stereospecificity catalyzes an anti-Prelog reduction of 2-hydroxyacetophenone to (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol.
Project description:Neocarzinostatin (1) biosynthesis is proposed to involve a vicinal diol intermediate. It is reported that NcsF2, one of two epoxide hydrolases encoded by the NCS gene cluster, catalyzes regiospecific addition of H(2)O to C-2 of both (R)- and (S)-styrene oxides to afford (R)- and (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediols, respectively, supporting its proposed role in 1 biosynthesis. (R)-1-Phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (87% yield and 99% ee) was obtained from (+/-)-styrene oxide hydrolysis by cocatalysis using NcsF2 and SgcF, the complementary epoxide hydrolase from the C-1027 biosynthetic pathway.
Project description:The NADH-dependent (R)-carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (RCR) catalyzes the asymmetric reduction of 2-hydroxyacetophenone (HAP) to produce (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol [(R)-PED], which is used as a versatile building block for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. To gain insight into the catalytic mechanism, the structures of complexes of RCR with ligands, including the coenzyme, are important. Here, the recombinant RCR protein was expressed and purified in Escherichia coli and was crystallized in the presence of NAD+. The crystals, which belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with unit-cell parameters a=85.64, b=106.11, c=145.55?Å, were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.15?Å resolution. Initial model building indicates that RCR forms a homotetramer, consistent with previous reports of medium-chain-type alcohol dehydrogenases.
Project description:The immobilization of catalase onto chitosan and chitosan-bentonite was investigated and immobilization yield of 95.91 and 95.26 was obtained respectively. The optimum pH and temperature were found as 7.5 and 8.0 at 40?°C for free and immobilized enzyme. The value of Vmax decreased by 33,000-26,300, 24,500??mol (min?mg protein)-1 and Km increased by 12.5-25 and 20?mM for free and immobilized on chitosan and chitosan-bentonite respectively. The thermal stability, half life, FTIR analyses of the beads was also performed in order to characterise the structural differences. The remaining immobilized catalase onto chitosan and chitosan-bentonite activity was 50% and 70% after 20 cycles respectively. The storage stability were found as 22%, 60%, and 70% from its original activity in case of free enzyme and immobilization of chitosan, chitosan-bentonite beads respectively after 60 days.
Project description:The SgcC5 condensation enzyme catalyzes the attachment of SgcC2-tethered (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-?-tyrosine (2) to the enediyne core in C-1027 (1) biosynthesis. It is reported that SgcC5 (i) exhibits high stereospecificity toward the (S)-enantiomers of SgcC2-tethered ?-tyrosine and analogues as donors, (ii) prefers the (R)-enantiomers of 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (3) and analogues, mimicking the enediyne core, as acceptors, and (iii) can recognize a variety of donor and acceptor substrates to catalyze their regio- and stereospecific ester bond formations.