Gut Mucosal and Fecal Microbiota Profiling Combined to Intestinal Immune System in Neonates Affected by Intestinal Ischemic Injuries.
ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: Early life microbiota plays a crucial role in human health by acting as a barrier from pathogens' invasion and maintaining the intestinal immune homoeostasis. Altered fecal microbiota (FM) ecology was reported in newborns affected by intestinal ischemia. Our purpose was to describe, in these patients, the FM, the mucosal microbiota (MM) and the mucosal immunity. Methods: Fourteen newborns underwent intestinal resection because of intestinal ischemia. FM and MM were determined through targeted-metagenomics, diversity assignment and Kruskal-Wallis analyses of Operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The mucosal immune cells were analyzed through cytofluorimetry. Results and Conclusion: Based on the severity intestinal injueris we identified two groups: extensive (EII) and focal intestinal ischemia (FII). FM and MM varied in EII and FII groups, showing in the EII group the predominance of Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and the reduction of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia for both microbiota. The MM was characterized by a statistically significant reduction of Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and by a higher diversity in the EII compared to FII group. FM showed a prevalence of Proteobacteria, while the Shannon index was lower in the EII compared to FII group. An overall increment in B- and T-lymphocytes and Natural killer (NK) T-like cells was found for EII mucosal samples associated to an increment of TNF-? and INF-? expressing cells, compared to FII group. FM and MM carry specific signatures of intestinal ischemic lesions. Further research may be crucial to address the role of specific taxa in EII, expecially with reference to inflammation grade and ischemia extension.
Project description:Fecal sampling is widely utilized to define small intestinal tissue-level microbial communities in healthy and diseased newborns. However, this approach may lead to inaccurate assessments of disease or therapeutics in newborns because of the assumption that the taxa in the fecal microbiota are representative of the taxa present throughout the gastrointestinal tract. To assess the stratification of microbes in the newborn gut and to evaluate the probable shortcoming of fecal sampling in place of tissue sampling, we simultaneously compared intestinal mucosa and fecal microbial communities in 15 neonates undergoing intestinal resections. We report three key results. First, when the site of fecal and mucosal samples are further apart, their microbial communities are more distinct, as indicated by low mean Sørensen similarity indices for each patient's fecal and tissue microbiota. Second, two distinct niches (intestinal mucosa and fecal microbiota) are evident by principal component analyses, demonstrating the critical role of sample source in defining microbial composition. Finally, in contrast to adult studies, intestinal bacterial diversity was higher in tissue than in fecal samples. This study represents an unprecedented map of the infant microbiota from intestinal mucosa and establishes discernable biogeography throughout the neonatal gastrointestinal tract. Our results question the reliance on fecal microbiota as a proxy for the developing intestinal microbiota. Additionally, the robust intestinal tissue-level bacterial diversity we detected at these early ages may contribute to the maturation of mucosal immunity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with intestinal microbial dysbiosis. The "gut-liver axis" closely links gut function and liver function in health and disease. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been proven to reduce I/R injury in the surgery. This study aims to explore the effect of IPC on intestinal microbiota and to analyze characteristics of microbial structure shift following liver transplantation (LT). METHODS:The LT animal models of liver and gut IPC were established. Hepatic graft function was assessed by histology and serum ALT/AST. Intestinal barrier function was evaluated by mucosal ultrastructure, serum endotoxin, bacterial translocation, fecal sIgA content and serum TNF-?. Intestinal bacterial populations were determined by quantitative PCR. Microbial composition was characterized by DGGE and specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Liver IPC improved hepatic graft function expressed as ameliorated graft structure and reduced ALT/AST levels. After administration of liver IPC, intestinal mucosal ultrastructure improved, serum endotoxin and bacterial translocation mildly decreased, fecal sIgA content increased, and serum TNF-? decreased. Moreover, liver IPC promoted microbial restorations mainly through restoring Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium clusters XI and Clostridium cluster XIVab on bacterial genus level. DGGE profiles indicated that liver IPC increased microbial diversity and species richness, and cluster analysis demonstrated that microbial structures were similar and clustered together between the NC group and Liver-IPC group. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree of band sequences showed key bacteria corresponding to 10 key band classes of microbial structure shift induced by liver IPC, most of which were assigned to Bacteroidetes phylum. CONCLUSION:Liver IPC cannot only improve hepatic graft function and intestinal barrier function, but also promote restorations of intestinal microbiota following LT, which may further benefit hepatic graft by positive feedback of the "gut-liver axis".
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study evaluated the effects of partial substitution of dietary fishmeal (FM) with either fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) or autolysed dried yeast (HiCell®, Biorigin, Brazil) on intestinal microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). A total number of 720 fish of 122.18?±?6.22?g were fed for 92?days with three different diets in triplicate (3 tanks/diet). A diet based on FM/vegetable meal was used as control. The other two diets were formulated by replacing FM with 5% of either FPH or HiCell®. To analyze the gut microbiota associated to autochthonous and allochthonous microbial communities, the Illumina MiSeq platform for sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and QIIME pipeline were used. RESULTS:A total number of 102 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at 97% identity were identified in fish gut samples collected at the end of feeding trial. Fourteen OTUs constituted the core gut microbiota, i.e. those OTUs found in at least nine out of fifteen samples per group and shared regardless of the diet. Eight OTUs were assigned to Firmicutes represented by Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Bacillus genera, and six to Proteobacteria phylum. Dietary dried yeast autolysate modulated the intestinal microbiota by promoting the growth of some beneficial bacteria. At order level, fish fed yeast showed an enrichment in Bacillales and Clostridiales as compared to the control group, whereas fish fed FPH showed a significantly lower amount of bacteria belonging to Alteromonadales and Enterobacteriales than the other two feeding groups. Although we did not observe any effect of 5% FM replacement with alternative nitrogen sources at phylum level, at lower taxonomical levels, the composition of gut microbiota, in terms of relative abundance of specific taxa, was significantly influenced by the dietary treatment. CONCLUSIONS:The metabarcoding analysis revealed a clearly intestinal microbiota modulation in response to dietary autolyzed yeast. The abundance of some beneficial bacteria, i.e. indigestible carbohydrate degrading- and SCFA producing bacteria, was positively affected. Autolysed dried yeast obtained by the fermentation of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be a valid alternative protein source to FM as well as a valid functional ingredient for aquafeed production [corrected].
Project description:Intestinal ischemic injury results sloughing of the mucosal epithelium leading to host sepsis and death unless the mucosal barrier is rapidly restored. Volvulus and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants have been associated with intestinal ischemia, sepsis and high mortality rates. We have characterized intestinal ischemia/repair using a highly translatable porcine model in which juvenile (6-8-week-old) pigs completely and efficiently restore barrier function by way of rapid epithelial restitution and tight junction re-assembly. In contrast, separate studies showed that younger neonatal (2-week-old) pigs exhibited less robust recovery of barrier function, which may model an important cause of high mortality rates in human infants with ischemic intestinal disease. Therefore, we aimed to further refine our repair model and characterize defects in neonatal barrier repair. Here we examine the defect in neonatal mucosal repair that we hypothesize is associated with hypomaturity of the epithelial and subepithelial compartments. Following jejunal ischemia in neonatal and juvenile pigs, injured mucosa was stripped from seromuscular layers and recovered ex vivo while monitoring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and 3H-mannitol flux as measures of barrier function. While ischemia-injured juvenile mucosa restored TEER above control levels, reduced flux over the recovery period and showed 93±4.7% wound closure, neonates exhibited no change in TEER, increased flux, and a 11±23.3% increase in epithelial wound size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed enterocytes at the wound margins of neonates failed to assume the restituting phenotype seen in restituting enterocytes of juveniles. To attempt rescue of injured neonatal mucosa, neonatal experiments were repeated with the addition of exogenous prostaglandins during ex vivo recovery, ex vivo recovery with full thickness intestine, in vivo recovery and direct application of injured mucosal homogenate from neonates or juveniles. Neither exogenous prostaglandins, intact seromuscular intestinal layers, nor in vivo recovery enhanced TEER or restitution in ischemia-injured neonatal mucosa. However, ex vivo exogenous application of injured juvenile mucosal homogenate produced a significant increase in TEER and enhanced histological restitution to 80±4.4% epithelial coverage in injured neonatal mucosa. Thus, neonatal mucosal repair can be rescued through direct contact with the cellular and non-cellular milieu of ischemia-injured mucosa from juvenile pigs. These findings support the hypothesis that a defect in mucosal repair in neonates is due to immature repair mechanisms within the mucosal compartment. Future studies to identify and rescue specific defects in neonatal intestinal repair mechanisms will drive development of novel clinical interventions to reduce mortality in infants affected by intestinal ischemic injury.
Project description:The effect of rebamipide, a mucosal protective drug, on small intestinal mucosal injury caused by indomethacin was examined using a rat model. Indomethacin administration (10 mg/kg, p.o.) induced intestinal mucosal injury was accompanied by an increase in the numbers of intestinal bacteria particularly Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum and ileum. Rebamipide (30 and 100 mg/kg, p.o., given 5 times) was shown to inhibit the indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury and decreased the number of Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunal mucosa to normal levels. It was also shown that the detection rate of segmented filamentous bacteria was increased by rebamipide. PCR array analysis of genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress and wound healing showed that indomethacin induced upregulation and downregulation of 14 and 3 genes, respectively in the rat jejunal mucosa by more than 5-fold compared to that of normal rats. Rebamipide suppressed the upregulated gene expression of TNF? and Duox2 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study confirmed that disturbance of intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury, and suggests that rebamipide could be used as prophylaxis against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs -induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury, by modulating microbiota and suppressing mucosal inflammation in the small intestine.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> The bidirectional interaction between the gut and brain after stroke through the immune-mediated pathway has been studied. However, the long-term effects of gut microbiota and systemic immune homeostasis after cerebral ischemia remain unclear. We examined long-term changes in the gut microbiota and systemic inflammatory cytokines after cerebral infarction in cynomolgus monkeys. <b>Methods:</b> Twelve monkeys underwent successful distal M1 segment of the left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were randomly and equally assigned to the MCAO-1.5 m, MCAO-6 m, and MCAO-12 m groups, which were sacrificed 1.5, 6, and 12 months after cerebral infarction induction, respectively. Four monkeys that underwent a sham operation were sacrificed 12 months later. The gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing and gas chromatography mass spectrometry, respectively. Histological examinations of the transverse colon were performed. Plasma D-lactate, zonulin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), interferon (IFN)-?, and interleukin (IL)-6 were detected by immunoassay kits. <b>Results:</b> The levels of the Bacteroidetes phylum and <i>Prevotella</i> genus were significantly increased, while the Firmicutes phylum as well as the <i>Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira</i>, and <i>Lactobacillus</i> genera were decreased after cerebral infarction. Gut-originating SCFAs were significantly decreased 6 and 12 months after cerebral infarction (<i>P</i> < 0.05). We observed intestinal mucosal damage, evaluated by Chiu's score. Plasma D-lactate, zonulin, LPS, TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-6 were significantly increased after cerebral infarction (<i>P</i> < 0.05). Additionally, the increases in plasma LPS, TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-6 after cerebral infarction coincided with overgrowth of the Bacteroidetes phylum (<i>P</i> < 0.001). <b>Conclusion:</b> Cerebral infarction induces persistent host gut microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal mucosal damage, and chronic systemic inflammation in cynomolgus monkeys.
Project description:The establishment of a healthy gastrointestinal milieu may not only offer an opportunity to reduce swine production costs but could also open the way for a lifetime of human health improvement. This study investigates the effects of feeding soluble fibre from flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM) and insoluble fibre from oat hulls-containing diet (OH) on histomorphological characteristics, digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota and their associations with metabolites in pig intestines. In comparison with the control (CON) and OH diets, the consumption of FM increased (P?<?0.001) the jejunal villi height (VH) and the ratio of VH to crypt depths. The PERMANOVA analyses showed distinct (P?<?0.05) microbial communities in ileal digesta and mucosa, and caecal mucosa in CON and FM-diets fed pigs compared to the OH diet-fed pigs. The predicted functional metagenomes indicated that amino acids and butanoate metabolism, lysine degradation, bile acids biosynthesis, and apoptosis were selectively enhanced at more than 2.2 log-folds in intestinal microbiota of pigs fed the FM diet. Taken together, flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation in growing pigs' diets altered the gastrointestinal development, as well as the composition and function of microbial communities, depending on the intestinal segment and physicochemical property of the dietary fibre source.
Project description:Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapy, despite some reports of adverse side effects. Bacterial consortia transplantation (BCT) for targeted restoration of the intestinal ecosystem is considered a relatively safe and simple procedure. However, no systematic research has assessed the effects of FMT and BCT on immune responses of intestinal mucosal barrier in patients. We conducted complementary studies in animal models on the effects of FMT and BCT, and provide recommendations for improving the clinical outcomes of these treatments. To establish the dysbiosis model, male BALB/c mice were treated with ceftriaxone intra-gastrically for 7 days. After that, FMT and BCT were performed on ceftriaxone-treated mice for 3 consecutive days to rebuild the intestinal ecosystem. Post-FMT and post-BCT changes of the intestinal microbial community and mucosal barrier functions were investigated and compared. Disruption of intestinal microbial homeostasis impacted the integrity of mucosal epithelial layer, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. These outcomes were accompanied by overexpression of Muc2, significant decrease of SIgA secretion, and overproduction of defensins and inflammatory cytokines. After FMT and BCT, the intestinal microbiota recovered quickly, this was associated with better reconstruction of mucosal barriers and re-establishment of immune networks compared with spontaneous recovery (SR). Although based on a short-term study, our results suggest that FMT and BCT promote the re-establishment of intestinal microbial communities in mice with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, and contribute to the temporal and spatial interactions between microbiota and mucosal barriers. The effects of BCT are comparable to that of FMT, especially in normalizing the intestinal levels of Muc2, SIgA, and defensins.
Project description:Resident microbiota activate regulatory cells that modulate intestinal inflammation and promote and maintain intestinal homeostasis. IL-10 is a key mediator of immune regulatory function. Our studies described the functional importance and mechanisms by which gut microbiota and specific microbial components influenced the development of intestinal IL-10-producing B cells. We used fecal transplant to germ-free (GF) Il10+/EGFP reporter and Il10-/- mice to demonstrate that microbiota from specific pathogen-free mice primarily stimulated IL-10-producing colon-specific B cells and T regulatory-1 cells in ex-GF mice. IL-10 in turn down-regulated microbiota-activated mucosal inflammatory cytokines. TLR2/9 ligands and enteric bacterial lysates preferentially induced IL-10 production and regulatory capacity of intestinal B cells. Analysis of Il10+/EGFP mice crossed with additional gene-deficient strains and B cell co-transfer studies demonstrated that microbiota-induced IL-10-producing intestinal B cells ameliorated chronic T cell-mediated colitis in a TLR2, MyD88 and PI3K-dependent fashion. In vitro studies implicated PI3Kp110? and AKT downstream signaling. These studies demonstrated that resident enteric bacteria activated intestinal IL-10-producing B cells through TLR2, MyD88 and PI3K pathways. These B cells reduced colonic T cell activation and maintained mucosal homeostasis in response to intestinal microbiota.
Project description:Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The intestinal mucosa comprises the inner lining of the intestinal tract and maintains close proximity with commensal microbes that reside within the intestinal lumen. Recent advances have significantly improved our understanding of the interactions between the intestinal mucosa and the enteric microbiota. Changes in host mucosal tissue and commensals posttransplant have been actively investigated, and provocative insights into mucosal immunity and the enteric microbiota are now being translated into clinical trials of novel approaches for preventing and treating acute GVHD. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to aspects of the intestinal mucosa during acute GVHD.