Korean Traditional Medicine in Treating Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Case Series.
ABSTRACT: In Korea, patients with mild cognitive impairment can choose to receive treatment of Korean medicine, and Korean medicine hospitals provide specialized medical care for the prevention and management of cognitive disorders. The aim of the study is to explore the role of Korean medicine therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment in a real clinical setting. Fifteen patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were enrolled in this prospective observational study in three Korean medicine hospitals. Korean medicine treatments were delivered by experienced professionals and not restricted to standardized treatment. Outcome measures were prospectively planned to examine the Korean-Montreal Cognitive Assessment (K-MoCA), Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), and other detailed neuropsychological assessment at the baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. Korean medicine treatment for MCI treatment in the real-world clinical setting included herbal medicine and acupuncture. The most frequently used herbs in herbal decoctions were Acori Graminei Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, and Poria Sclerotium Cum Pini Radix. The herbal medicine formulae used in this study were classified into three categories: tonifying Qi (33.3%), tonifying kidney (46.7%), and calming liver (20%) formulae. In the cognitive ability assessment, the K-MoCA score significantly improved after treatment (mean difference 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.9, p=0.001). The K-MMSE score slightly increased after treatment; however, the improvement was not statistically significant (mean difference 0.8; 95% CI: -0.5 to 2.0, p=0.195). In detailed neuropsychological assessment, the cognitive domains of executive functions and memory after the treatment were distinctively improved. In this prospective observational case series, we could see the real clinical environments of treating patients with mild cognitive impairment in Korean medicine hospitals. Patients treated with Korean medicine showed improved results in the neuropsychological assessment after 12 and 24 weeks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate phase between normal aging and dementia. Since a majority of amnestic MCI (aMCI) cases progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is considered the prodromal stage of AD and, therefore, a treatment target for the prevention of further cognitive decline. However, there is no approved treatment for MCI at present. Kami Guibi-tang (KGT) is a herbal drug used in Korean medicine to treat amnesia, insomnia, loss of appetite, and depression. We will explore the effectiveness and safety of KGT in amnestic MCI in this trial. METHODS/DESIGN:The study will be a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Eligible participants diagnosed with amnestic MCI will be randomly allocated to a treatment or control group. Participants will take KGT or placebo granules, three times a day, for 24 weeks. The primary outcomes will be changes in Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) scores, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements including those of brain metabolites, neurotransmitters, and cerebral blood flow. The secondary outcomes will include the safety assessment, measured by changes in blood chemistry, changes in blood protein and cholesterol levels related to AD pathology, and a comparison of MRI changes between the two groups, using age and genotype as covariates. DISCUSSION:This study will be the first clinical trial to identify the therapeutic potential of Kami Guibi-tang for amnestic MCI. The findings will provide insight into the feasibility of large-scale trials to gather evidence for KGT as a treatment for MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Korean Clinical Trial Registry, ID: KCT0002407 . Registered on 30 March 2017.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is known as a transitional status between normal cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are considered to be beneficial to patients with cognitive impairment. However, it is still unknown whether the combination of the two therapies could optimize the therapeutic effect for MCI. This trial is aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of acupuncture and the herbal formula Yishen Granule (YSG) for elderly patients with MCI. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a multi-sited, patient-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Two hundred and forty eligible patients will be randomly divided into four groups: A. acupuncture with YSG, B. acupuncture with placebo herbal medicine, C. sham acupuncture with YSG or D. sham acupuncture with placebo herbal medicine. Acupuncture treatment will be given twice a week for 8 weeks and then once a week for 4 weeks. The herbal treatment patients will be given granules daily for 12 weeks, 8 weeks of standard-dose followed by 4 weeks of mid-dose. The primary outcome is scored by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The secondary outcomes will be scored by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and event-related potential (ERP). All the assessments will be conducted at baseline, and at the eighth and 12th week after intervention starts. The follow-up assessments will be performed with the MoCA in the 12th, 24th, and 36th weeks after intervention ends. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis will be used in this RCT. DISCUSSION:This RCT will provide us information on the effect of treating MCI patients with only acupuncture, herbal formula as well as the combination of both. The additive effect or synergistic effect of acupuncture and Chinese herbal formula will then be analyzed. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial is registered with ChiCTR-INR-17011569 on 5 June 2017, and has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2017SHL-KY-05).
Project description:Background:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is pandemic and has caused illness to many people worldwide. This review aimed to summarize and analyze the herbal formulae provided by the guidelines for their pattern identifications (PIs) and compositions of herbs to treat patients with COVID-19. Methods:We searched 7 data sources for eligible traditional medicine guidelines up to March 6, 2020 and found a total of 28 traditional medicine guidelines that provide treatment measures for COVID-19. Results:Of the 28 guidelines, there were 26 government-issued Chinese guidelines and 2 Korean guidelines. After standardizing the terminology of the PIs and herbal formulae, there were 8 PIs and 23 herbal formulae for the mild stage, 11 PIs and 31 herbal formulae for the moderate stage, 8 PIs and 21 herbal formulae for the severe stage, and 6 PIs and 23 herbal formulae for the recovery stage in the Chinese guidelines. In the Korean guidelines, there were 4 PIs and 15 herbal formulae for the mild stage, 3 PIs and 3 herbal formulae for the severe stage, and 2 PIs and 2 herbal formulae for the recovery stage. In the frequency analysis of herbs, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was found to be the herb with the highest frequency of usage in the Chinese guidelines. Conclusion:This review can be used as guidance for the traditional medicine treatment of COVID-19. Clinical evidence is needed in the future to evaluate the efficacy of traditional medicine.
Project description:We investigated the efficacy of donepezil for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI). This was a prospective, non-randomized, open-label, two-arm study. Eighty PD-MCI patients were assigned to either a treatment or control group. The treatment group received donepezil for 48 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Exam and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. Secondary outcome measures were the Clinical Dementia Rating, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, Clinical Global Impression scores. Progression of dementia was assessed at 48-week. Comprehensive neuropsychological tests and electroencephalography (EEG) were performed at baseline and after 48 weeks. The spectral power ratio of the theta to beta2 band (TB2R) in the electroencephalogram was analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary and secondary outcome measures between the two groups. However, the treatment group showed a significant decrease in TB2R at bilateral frontotemporoparietal channels compared to the control group. Although we could not demonstrate improvements in the cognitive functions, donepezil treatment had a modulatory effect on the EEG in PD-MCI patients. EEG might be a sensitive biomarker for detecting changes in PD-MCI after donepezil treatment.
Project description:Fatigue and cognitive impairment are common in HIV+ adults and may occur independently or be causally linked. This study examined whether alleviation of fatigue with armodafinil in a placebo-controlled double-blind 4-week trial had an effect on cognitive function among those with and without mild neuropsychological impairment at baseline. Sixty-one patients completed a standard battery of neuropsychological tests at study entry and Week 4: A total of 33 were randomized to armodafinil and 28 to placebo. While there was a significant effect of active medication on fatigue, cognitive performance measured by a global change score did not differ between treatment groups, or in those on active treatment with or without mild neuropsychological impairment.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is widely expressed in the mammalian brain and acts to regulate neuronal survival and influence cognitive processes. The present study measured serum BDNF levels to investigate the associations of the BDNF Val66Met and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms with cognitive function in elderly Korean individuals.<h4>Methods</h4>Over 60 years, a total of 834 subjects were recruited for the present study. The subjects were classified into groups based on the degree of cognitive impairment (age-associated cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease) and compared with normal controls in terms of a neuropsychological assessment and a clinical evaluation.<h4>Results</h4>Of the initial 834 study participants, 165 (59 controls and 106 subjects with cognitive impairments) completed the study. There was a significant increase in serum BDNF levels in subjects with cognitive impairments relative to the control group and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was significantly associated with cognitive function but not serum BDNF levels. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism did not have any associations with cognitive impairment or serum BDNF levels.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The present findings suggest that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may be an important factor in the susceptibility to these age-related deficits.
Project description:The herbal product Ginkgo biloba is taken frequently with the intention of improving cognitive health in aging. However, evidence from adequately powered clinical trials is lacking regarding its effect on long-term cognitive functioning.To determine whether G. biloba slows the rates of global or domain-specific cognitive decline in older adults.The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 3069 community-dwelling participants aged 72 to 96 years, conducted in 6 academic medical centers in the United States between 2000 and 2008, with a median follow-up of 6.1 years.Twice-daily dose of 120-mg extract of G. biloba (n = 1545) or identical-appearing placebo (n = 1524).Rates of change over time in the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), in the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), and in neuropsychological domains of memory, attention, visual-spatial construction, language, and executive functions, based on sums of z scores of individual tests.Annual rates of decline in z scores did not differ between G. biloba and placebo groups in any domains, including memory (0.043; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.034-0.051 vs 0.041; 95% CI, 0.032-0.050), attention (0.043; 95% CI, 0.037-0.050 vs 0.048; 95% CI, 0.041-0.054), visuospatial abilities (0.107; 95% CI, 0.097-0.117 vs 0.118; 95% CI, 0.108-0.128), language (0.045; 95% CI, 0.037-0.054 vs 0.041; 95% CI, 0.033-0.048), and executive functions (0.092; 95% CI, 0.086-0.099 vs 0.089; 95% CI, 0.082-0.096). For the 3MSE and ADAS-Cog, rates of change varied by baseline cognitive status (mild cognitive impairment), but there were no differences in rates of change between treatment groups (for 3MSE, P = .71; for ADAS-Cog, P = .97). There was no significant effect modification of treatment on rate of decline by age, sex, race, education, APOE*E4 allele, or baseline mild cognitive impairment (P > .05).Compared with placebo, the use of G. biloba, 120 mg twice daily, did not result in less cognitive decline in older adults with normal cognition or with mild cognitive impairment.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00010803.
Project description:A rapid increase in the number of patients with dementia has emerged as a global health challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that early diagnosis and timely intervention can delay cognitive decline. The diagnosis of dementia is commonly performed using neuropsychological tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), administered by trained examiners. While these traditional neuropsychological tests are valid and reliable, they are neither simple nor sufficiently short as routine screening tools for dementia. Here, we developed a brief cognitive assessment utilizing an eye-tracking technology. The subject views a series of short (178 s) task movies and pictures displayed on a monitor while their gaze points are recorded by the eye-tracking device, and the cognitive scores are determined from the gaze plots data. The cognitive scores were measured by both an eye tracking-based assessment and neuropsychological tests in 80 participants, including 27 cognitively healthy controls (HC), 26 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 27 patients with dementia. The eye tracking-based cognitive scores correlated well with the scores from the neuropsychological tests, and they showed a good diagnostic performance in detecting patients with MCI and dementia. Rapid cognitive assessment using eye-tracking technology can enable quantitative scoring and the sensitive detection of cognitive impairment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as an intermediate stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and early and easily available interventions to delay the progress of MCI to AD are necessary. Feasible complementary and alternative therapies such as electroacupuncture (EA), exercise, and cognitive training have shown some beneficial effects on MCI and AD. Here we report the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of EA combined with computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (EA-CCR) for the treatment of MCI. METHODS:The study will be a prospective, outcome assessor-blinded, parallel-arm, single-center (DongShin University Gwangju Korean Medicine Hospital, Republic of Korea), pilot randomized controlled clinical trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Participants with MCI will be randomized to a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (CCR) or an EA-CCR group (n = 18 each). The CCR group will receive RehaCom cognitive rehabilitation once (30 min) a day, 3 days per week (excluding Saturday and Sunday) for 8 weeks. The EA-CCR group will receive EA at Baihui (GV20), Sishencong (EX-HN1), Fengchi (GB20), and Shenting (GV24) in addition to RehaCom cognitive rehabilitation once (EA:30 min, CCR:30 min) a day, 3 days per week (excluding Saturday and Sunday) for 8 weeks. The primary outcome will be an improvement in cognitive function assessed using the Korean version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale. Scores for the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Korean Activities of Daily Living scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, and European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level Scale will be recorded as secondary outcome measures. All scores will be recorded at baseline (before intervention), 8 weeks after the first intervention (i.e., at the end of the intervention), and 12 weeks after completion of the intervention. DISCUSSION:The study is expected to provide preliminary evidence regarding the efficacy, safety, and usefulness of EA-CCR for the treatment of MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Korea Clinical Information Service, cris.nih.go.kr, KCT0003415 . Registered on 4 January 2019. Retrospectively registered, http://cris.nih.go.kr .
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease, which is the world's most common form of dementia. It is important to identify early and easily available interventions to delay the progression of MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Acupuncture has been reported to improve the clinical outcomes of MCI treatment. Acupuncture is a complex intervention, involving both specific and non-specific factors associated with therapeutic benefits. Therefore, we intend to obtain basic data for developing an optimal acupuncture treatment for MCI by comparing the effects of different acupuncture treatment methods on cognitive function in MCI patients. METHODS:This study will be a prospective, outcome-assessor-blinded, parallel-arm, single-center (DongShin University Gwangju Korean Medicine Hospital, Republic of Korea), randomized controlled clinical trial. Thirty-two participants with MCI will be randomized in equal numbers to four groups (basic acupuncture (BA), acupoint specificity (AS), needle duration (ND), or electroacupuncture (EA)) and receive acupuncture treatment once per day, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The BA and ND groups will receive acupuncture treatment for 30 and 20 min, respectively, at Baihui (GV20), Sishencong (EX-HN1), Fengchi (GB20), and Shenting (GV24). The EA group will receive electroacupuncture treatment at the same acupoints for 30 min. The AS group will receive acupuncture treatment at GV20, EX-HN1, GB20, GV24, and Taixi (KI3) for 30 min. The outcome measured will be scores on the Korean version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, the Korean Activities of Daily Living scale, the Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, and the European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level scale. All scores will be recorded before intervention, 8 weeks after the first intervention, and 12 weeks after completing the intervention. DISCUSSION:Four acupuncture protocols will be assessed and compared as potential MCI treatments. This study is expected to provide data to be used in developing an optimal acupuncture method for MCI treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Research Information Service, KCT0003430 . Registered on 16 January 2019. http://cris.nih.go.kr ).