Clinical, serological, histopathological and treatment profile of autoimmune hepatitis in the elderly.
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), despite being uncommon, is on the rise in the elderly population. However, no study from India has described the natural history and treatment outcome of AIH in the elderly. The aim was to study the characteristics of AIH in the elderly population and compare them with the younger population. Material and methods:Patients with a diagnosis of AIH based on the revised International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) criteria were recruited from January 2011 to June 2018. Patients were defined as elderly when ? 60 years and young when < 60 years of age. Clinical, serological, histological characteristics and treatment outcome with follow-up until 12 months were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results:Out of 155 patients, 33 (21.29%) were elderly. Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) as the presentation was more common in elderly as compared to young AIH patients (39.4% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.0024). Serum alanine aminotransferases and serum creatinine levels were significantly higher in elderly patients as compared to the younger group (p < 0.05). On histology cirrhosis was significantly more common in the elderly group (75.7% vs. 56.6%, p = 0.045). Response to treatment at the end of 12 months was similar in both groups. Due to co-morbidities immunosuppressant could not be started in 18.2% of elderly and 6.5% of younger patients (p = 0.065). Conclusions:AIH is an important differential diagnosis among the elderly population presenting with ACLF and cirrhosis. When given appropriate immunosuppressants they have a similar outcome as compared to the youngest population.
Project description:Few studies with diverging results and a small sample size have compared autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in the elderly to younger patients.To unbiasedly investigate the role of age in behaviour and treatment outcome of AIH.All patients with probable or definite AIH type 1 in four tertiary academic centres were included in this retrospective-and since 2006 prospective-cohort study. Influence of age on presentation, remission and outcome of AIH were investigated.359 patients were included. Presence of cirrhosis at AIH diagnosis around 30% was independent of age. ALAT was higher at age 30-60 years on AIH diagnosis, and above age 60 there were less acute onset, less jaundice and more concurrent autoimmune disease. Remission was reached in 80.2%, incomplete remission in 18.7%, only 1.1% (all aged 50-65) was treatment-refractory. Age was not an independent predictor of remission, while cirrhosis was. Above age 45 there was more diabetes, above age 60 more loss of remission. Rate of progression to cirrhosis was 10% in the 10 years after diagnosis and unrelated to age at AIH diagnosis. With onset below age 30, there was more development of decompensated cirrhosis over time. With higher age at AIH diagnosis there was a lower survival free of liver-related death or liver transplantation.AIH presents at all ages. Age influences features at diagnosis, but not response to treatment, while survival without liver-related death or liver transplantation decreases with higher age at diagnosis.
Project description:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an autoimmune liver disease and cirrhosis is sometimes complicated with AIH at diagnosis, influencing its prognosis. TNFAIP3 gene encodes A20, an inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B pathway, and is a susceptibility gene for autoimmune diseases. We investigated deleterious variants in the coding regions of TNFAIP3 gene of Japanese AIH patients or those with cirrhosis. The deleterious variants in the coding regions of TNFAIP3 gene were analyzed by the cycle sequencing method and the frequencies of deleterious TNFAIP3 alleles of AIH or AIH with cirrhosis were compared with those of Japanese controls. The deleterious alleles in TNFAIP3 were not associated with AIH. A significant association was shown for the deleterious alleles in TNFAIP3 (P?=?0.0180, odds ratio (OR) 4.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-11.95) with AIH with cirrhosis at presentation. The serum IgM levels in AIH patients with deleterious alleles in TNFAIP3 were tended to be lower than those without (P?=?0.0152, Q?=?0.1216). The frequency of deleterious alleles in TNFAIP3 was higher in the AIH subset without the DRB1 risk alleles than that with (P?=?0.0052, OR 5.10, 95%CI 1.55-16.74). The deleterious alleles in TNFAIP3were associated with AIH with cirrhosis.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells are key participants in the innate immune response. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are involved in the activation and inhibition of NK cells through the recognition of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. We investigated the impact of KIR/HLA combinations on susceptibility and long-term clinical outcome in Japanese patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Methods:A total of 154 cases of AIH were recruited at Shinshu University Hospital between 1974 and 2018. KIR genes and HLA class I and II alleles were genotyped in all patients along with 201 healthy individuals. Associations between KIR/HLA pairs and clinical outcomes (liver decompensation and liver-related death) were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model with stepwise method. Results:After a median follow-up period of 11.1 years, 12% of patients experienced liver decompensation and 8% died from liver disease. KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-80Ile (p = 0.0062) and the HLA-DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01 haplotype (p ?0.001) were significantly associated with AIH. Conversely, significant protective associations were found for KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-80Thr (p = 0.0092) and KIR2DL1/HLA-C2 (p = 0.0025). The KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-positive phenotype was strongly associated with a favorable clinical outcome (liver decompensation: hazard ratio [HR] 0.37, p = 0.037; liver-related death: HR 0.26, p = 0.038). Cirrhosis was detected in 16 (10%) patients at diagnosis and was significantly related to poor survival (HR 17.87, p ?0.001) and progression to liver decompensation (HR 9.00, p ?0.001). Conclusions:This study revealed the impact of specific KIR/HLA pairs in AIH susceptibility and progression in Japanese patients. KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-negative patients with AIH and cirrhosis at diagnosis are at high risk of adverse outcomes and require careful surveillance. Lay summary:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a disease of the liver that can present in acute or chronic hepatitis. We examined whether KIR/HLA pairs were associated with AIH susceptibility or disease progression. KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4 was a novel KIR/HLA pair related to a favorable clinical outcome, while cirrhosis at the initial diagnosis was a risk factor for poor prognosis. Thus, frequent and careful surveillance is advised for KIR3DL1/HLA-B Bw4-negative patients with AIH and cirrhosis.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Decompensated cirrhosis in autoimmune hepatitis has poor prognosis. Besides liver transplant, treatment for this entity is undefined. We explored the outcomes of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)-related decompensated cirrhosis with active disease on treatment with steroids.<h4>Methods</h4>In this retrospective analysis, clinical data, laboratory parameters, and prognostic scores, such as baseline model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores, were compared among patients of AIH with decompensated cirrhosis with mild/no ascites (<i>n</i> = 38), gross ascites (<i>n</i> = 24), and compensated cirrhosis (<i>n</i> = 32) when administered steroids. The primary outcome was transplant-free survival at 12?months. Biochemical remission rates and other adverse events were also assessed and compared between these groups.<h4>Results</h4>Steroids were initiated at lower doses (25?mg/day-mild/no ascites, 20?mg/day-gross ascites) in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and at 40?mg/day in those with compensated cirrhosis. Transplant-free survival was 25.4%, 74.6%, and 96.9% (<i>P</i> = 0.001), and biochemical remission occurred in 5.1%, 49.0%, and 64.1% (<i>P</i> = 0.001) at 12?months in patients with gross ascites, mild/no ascites, and compensated cirrhosis, respectively. Infections were seen more frequently in decompensated cirrhosis, while other adverse events were comparable. Among decompensated cirrhosis, those with mild/no ascites had better prognostic scores, fewer posttreatment infections, and more frequent biochemical remission than those with gross ascites, achieving rates comparable to compensated cirrhosis. On multivariate analysis, the MELD score (subdistributional hazards ratio [sHR]; 95% confidence interval: 1.153 [1.07-1.24]; <i>P</i> = 0.001) and ascites (sHR: 2.556 [1.565-5.65]; <i>P</i> = 0.020) predicted survival.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Type and severity of decompensation affect outcomes in patients with AIH-related cirrhosis. Those with mild/no ascites have comparable outcomes to those with compensated cirrhosis upon treatment with low-dose steroids.
Project description:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) are liver-specific autoimmune conditions that are characterized by chronic hepatic damage and often lead to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. Specifically, the protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22) gene encodes the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase, which acts as a negative regulator of T-cell receptor signaling. A missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs2476601) in PTPN22 has been linked to numerous autoimmune diseases in Caucasians. In the present series, nine SNPs in the PTPN22 gene were analyzed in 166 patients with AIH, 262 patients with PBC, and 322 healthy controls in the Japanese population using TaqMan assays. Although the functional rs3996649 and rs2476601 were non-polymorphic in all subject groups, the frequencies of the minor alleles at rs1217412, rs1217388, rs1217407, and rs2488458 were significantly decreased in AIH patients as compared with controls (all Pc?<?0.05). There were no significant relationships with PTPN22 SNPs in PBC patients. Interestingly, the AAGTCCC haplotype was significantly associated with resistance to both AIH (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.58, P?=?0.0067) and PBC (OR?=?0.58, P?=?0.0048). SNPs in the PTPN22 gene may therefore play key roles in the genetic resistance to autoimmune liver disease in the Japanese.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a liver disease characterized by the autoimmune-induced injury of hepatocytes which can lead to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The diagnosis and disease management of AIH patients remain challenging due to the diversity of clinical phenotypes and the presence of confounders such as alcohol and viruses. Recently, EN-RAGE and sRAGEs have been implicated in inflammatory-immune response. Nonetheless, their natural behaviour and relationship to disease activity as well as clinical predictive values in AIH development or therapy-induced remission have not been reported. METHODS:Sixty-seven AIH patients and thirty gender- and age-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. The serum concentrations of EN-RAGE, sRAGE and their ratio (EN-RAGE/sRAGE) in these subjects were measured by ELISA. Besides, the correlations of three parameters with clinical features and therapeutic response were analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, their potential predictive values for monitoring the AIH progression and therapeutic response were also evaluated. RESULTS:Higher serum EN-RAGE, lower sRAGE and higher EN-RAGE/sRAGE value were observed in AIH patients. EN-RAGE and sRAGE as well as EN-RAGE/sRAGE were correlated with liver necroinflammation parameters, cirrhosis occurrence and therapeutic response. In addition, we identified that EN-RAGE/sRAGE, EN-RAGE and sRAGE had valuable predicting power for AIH patients, AIH patients with normal ALT and cirrhosis incidence, respectively. More importantly, EN-RAGE/sRAGE also exerted predicting power for the remission in AIH patients. CONCLUSIONS:AIH patients rendered distinct patterns of serum EN-RAGE, sRAGE or EN-RAGE/sRAGE compared to healthy controls. Moreover, these three parameters exhibited potentials as novel biomarkers for AIH diagnosis and prognosis evaluation.
Project description:Previous studies have found that the polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-? induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) were associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, the role of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms in type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-1) remained unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the association of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms with AIH-1 risk in a Chinese Han population. The TaqMan SNP genotyping assay was used to determine the distribution of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms in 432 AIH-1 patients and 500 healthy controls. The association of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms and clinical characteristic was further evaluated. Five TNFAIP3 polymorphisms (rs2230926, rs5029939, rs10499194, rs6920220, rs582757) were analyzed in the present study. No significant association could be observed between rs2230926, rs5029939, rs6920220, rs582757 and the susceptibility to AIH-1 in Chinese Han population. Compared with wild-type genotype CC at rs10499194, individuals carrying CT genotype had a significantly increased risk for developing AIH-1 (OR = 2.32, 95%CI 1.44-3.74). Under a dominant model, CT/TT carriers have a 140% increased risk of AIH-1 than CC carriers (OR = 2.40, 95%CI 1.50-3.87). The rs10499194 T allele was also found to be significantly associated with AIH-1 risk (OR = 2.41, 95%CI 1.51-3.82). In addition, higher serum ALT, AST levels and more common cirrhosis were observed in AIH-1 patients with T allele (CT/TT) than those with CC genotype. In conclusion, TNFAIP3 rs10499194 T allele and CT genotype were associated with an increased risk for AIH-1, suggesting rs10499194 polymorphism as a candidate of susceptibility locus to AIH-1.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated that micro (mi)RNA molecules can be detected in the circulation and can serve as potential biomarkers of various diseases. This study used microarray analysis to identify aberrantly expressed circulating miRNAs in patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) compared with healthy controls. Patients with well-documented and untreated AIH were selected from the National Hospital Organization (NHO)-AIH-liver-network database. They underwent blood sampling and liver biopsy with inflammation grading and fibrosis staging before receiving treatment. To further confirm the microarray data, circulating expression levels of miR-21 and miR-122 were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 46 AIH patients, 40 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and 15 healthy controls. Consistent with the microarray data, serum levels of miR-21 were significantly elevated in AIH patients compared with CHC patients and healthy controls. miR-21 and miR-122 serum levels correlated with alanine aminotransferase levels. Circulating levels of miR-21 and miR-122 were significantly reduced in AIH patients with liver cirrhosis, and were inversely correlated with increased stages of fibrosis. By contrast, levels of circulating miR-21 showed a significant correlation with the histological grades of inflammation in AIH. We postulate that aberrantly expressed serum miRNAs are potential biomarkers of AIH and could be implicated in AIH pathogenesis. Alternations of miR-21 and miR-122 serum levels could reflect their putative roles in the mediation of inflammatory processes in AIH. Case-control study, steroid treatment
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated that micro (mi)RNA molecules can be detected in the circulation and can serve as potential biomarkers of various diseases. This study used microarray analysis to identify aberrantly expressed circulating miRNAs in patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) compared with healthy controls. Patients with well-documented and untreated AIH were selected from the National Hospital Organization (NHO)-AIH-liver-network database. They underwent blood sampling and liver biopsy with inflammation grading and fibrosis staging before receiving treatment. To further confirm the microarray data, circulating expression levels of miR-21 and miR-122 were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 46 AIH patients, 40 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and 15 healthy controls. Consistent with the microarray data, serum levels of miR-21 were significantly elevated in AIH patients compared with CHC patients and healthy controls. miR-21 and miR-122 serum levels correlated with alanine aminotransferase levels. Circulating levels of miR-21 and miR-122 were significantly reduced in AIH patients with liver cirrhosis, and were inversely correlated with increased stages of fibrosis. By contrast, levels of circulating miR-21 showed a significant correlation with the histological grades of inflammation in AIH. We postulate that aberrantly expressed serum miRNAs are potential biomarkers of AIH and could be implicated in AIH pathogenesis. Alternations of miR-21 and miR-122 serum levels could reflect their putative roles in the mediation of inflammatory processes in AIH. Overall design: Case-control study, steroid treatment
Project description:Preceding viral infections have mostly been described in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in single cases. We aimed to identify viral infections that potentially trigger AIH, as suggested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections. Therefore, antibodies against hepatitis A (HAV), B, C and E viruses; hepatotropic herpesviruses; and parvovirus B19 (PVB19) were analyzed retrospectively in 219 AIH patients at diagnosis, 356 patients with other liver diseases and 89 children from our center. Untreated adult AIH (aAIH) patients showed higher anti-HEV seroprevalences at diagnosis than patients with other liver diseases. Untreated aAIH patients had no increased incidence of previous hepatitis A, B or C. Antibodies against hepatotropic herpesviruses in untreated AIH were in the range published for the normal population. Untreated pediatric AIH (pAIH) patients had evidence of more previous HAV and PVB19 infections than local age-matched controls. The genetic AIH risk factor HLA DRB1*03:01 was more frequent in younger patients, and DRB1*04:01 was more frequent in middle-aged patients without an obvious link to virus seropositivities. Pediatric and adult AIH seem to be distinct in terms of genetic risk factors and preceding viral infections. While associations cannot prove causal relations, the results suggest that hepatotropic virus infections could be involved in AIH pathogenesis.