Bowel ultrasound measurements in healthy children - systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Ultrasound (US) is a noninvasive method of assessing the bowel that can be used to screen for bowel pathology, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, in children. Knowledge about US findings of the bowel in healthy children is important for interpreting US results in cases where disease is suspected. OBJECTIVE:To assess the bowel wall thickness in different bowel segments in healthy children and to assess differences in bowel wall thickness among pediatric age categories. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We conducted a systematic search in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases for studies describing bowel wall thickness measured by transabdominal US in healthy children. We excluded studies using contrast agent. We calculated the pooled mean and standard deviation scores and assessed differences among age categories (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-18 years), first with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and further with subsequent Student's t-tests for independent samples, corrected for multiple testing. RESULTS:We identified 191 studies and included 7 of these studies in the systematic review. Reported bowel wall thickness values ranged from 0.8 mm to 1.9 mm in the small bowel and from 1.0 mm to 1.9 mm in the colon. The mean colonic bowel wall thickness is larger in children ages 15-19 years compared to 0-4 years (range in difference: 0.3-0.5 mm [corrected P<0.02]). CONCLUSION:The reported upper limit of bowel wall thickness in healthy children is 1.9 mm in the small bowel and the colon, and mean thickness increases slightly with age in jejunum and colon. These values can be used as guidance when screening for bowel-related pathology in children.
Project description:A full-thickness biopsy of the bowel wall is required to evaluate the enteric nervous system. A patient with aggravating gastrointestinal symptoms underwent a laparoscopic full-thickness biopsy of the ileum and, 1 year later, an endoscopic full-thickness biopsy of the sigmoid colon. Both samples showed enteric neuropathy characterized by vacuolated and enlarged neurons. The length of the myenteric plexus was greater in the endoscopic (23 mm) compared to the laparoscopic (11 mm) biopsy, with fewer tissue artefacts in the endoscopic approach [corrected]. Clinical deterioration was paralleled by enteric neuropathy with an increase in the percentage of vacuolated and enlarged enteric neurons from 24 to 35%.
Project description:Ultrasonographic appearance of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of equine neonates has not been completely described.To describe (1) sonographic characteristics of the GI segments in normal nonsedated equine neonates, (2) intra- and interobserver variation in wall thickness, and (3) the sonographic appearance of asymptomatic intussusceptions, and (4) to compare age and sonographic findings of foals with and without asymptomatic intussusceptions.Eighteen healthy Standardbred foals ?5 days of age.Prospective, cross-sectional blinded study. Gastrointestinal sonograms were performed stall-side. Intraobserver variability in wall thickness measurements was determined by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). The Bland-Altman method was used to assess interobserver bias. Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test were used to test the association among presence of intussusceptions, age, and selected sonographic findings.The reference ranges (95% predictive interval) for wall thickness were 1.6-3.6 mm for the stomach, 1.9-3.2 mm for the duodenum, 1.9-3.1 mm for the jejunum, 1.3-2.2 mm for the colon, and 0.8-2.7 mm for the cecum. Intraobserver wall thickness CV ranged from 8 to 21% for the 2 observers for 5 gastrointestinal segments. The interobserver bias for wall thickness measurements was not significant except for the stomach (0.14 mm, P < .05) and duodenum (0.29 mm, P < .05). Diagnostic images of mural blood flow could not be obtained. Asymptomatic intussusceptions were found in 10/18 neonates. Associations between sonographic variables or age and the presence of intussusceptions were not found.Sonographic characteristics of the GI tract of normal Standardbred neonates can be useful in evaluating ill foals. Asymptomatic small intestinal intussusceptions occur in normal Standardbred neonates.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:It is a challenge to predict how patients with small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) will respond to intensified medical therapy. We aimed to identify factors that predicted surgery within 2 years of hospitalization for CD, to guide medical versus surgical management decisions. METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of adults hospitalized for small bowel CD from 2004 through 2012 at a single academic referral center. Subjects underwent abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging within 3 weeks of hospitalization. Imaging characteristics of small bowel dilation, bowel wall thickness, and disease activity were assessed by a single, blinded radiologist. Multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression techniques was used to generate a prediction model of intestinal resection within 2 years. RESULTS:A total of 221 subjects met selection criteria, with 32.6% undergoing surgery within 2 years of index admission. Bivariate analysis showed high-dose steroid use (>40 mg), ongoing treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents at admission, platelet count, platelet:albumin ratio, small bowel dilation (?35 mm), and bowel wall thickness to predict surgery (P ? .01). Multivariate modeling demonstrated small bowel dilation >35 mm (hazard ratio, 2.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-4.94) and a platelet:albumin ratio ?125 (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.95) to predict surgery. Treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents at admission conferred a nonsignificant increased trend for risk of surgery (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.994-2.65). CONCLUSIONS:Small bowel dilation >35 mm and high platelet:albumin ratios are independent and synergistic risk factors for future surgery in patients with structuring small bowel CD. Platelet:albumin ratios may capture the relationship between acute inflammation and cumulative damage and serve as markers of intestinal disease that cannot be salvaged with medical therapy.
Project description:Progression of atherosclerosis is associated with a greater risk for adverse outcomes. Angiotensin II plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the effects of angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockade with Valsartan on carotid wall atherosclerosis, with the hypothesis that Valsartan will reduce progression of atherosclerosis.Subjects (n = 120) with carotid intima-media thickness >0.65 mm by ultrasound were randomized (2:1) in a double-blind manner to receive either Valsartan or placebo for 2 years. Bilateral T2-weighted black-blood carotid magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Changes in the carotid bulb vessel wall area and wall thickness were primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints included changes in carotid plaque thickness, plasma levels of aminothiols, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular function.Over 2 years, the carotid bulb vessel wall area decreased with Valsartan (-6.7, 95% CI [-11.6, -1.9] mm(2)) but not with placebo (3.4, 95% CI [-2.8, 9.6] mm(2)), P = .01 between groups. Similarly, mean wall thickness decreased with Valsartan (-0.18, 95% CI [-0.30, -0.06] mm), but not with placebo (0.08, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.23] mm), P = .009 between groups. Furthermore, plaque thickness decreased with Valsartan (-0.35, 95% CI [-0.63, -0.08] mm) but was unchanged with placebo (+0.28, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.69] mm), P = .01 between groups. These findings were unaffected by statin therapy or changes in blood pressure. Notably, there were significant improvements in the aminothiol cysteineglutathione disulfide, and trends to improvements in fibrinogen levels and endothelium-independent vascular function.In subjects with carotid wall thickening, angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockade was associated with regression in carotid atherosclerosis. Whether these effects translate into improved outcomes in subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis warrants investigation.
Project description:Partial volume averaging and tilt relative to the scan plane on transverse images limit the accuracy of airway wall thickness measurements on CT scan, confounding assessment of the relationship between airway remodeling and clinical status in COPD. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of partial volume averaging and tilt corrections on airway wall thickness measurement accuracy and on relationships between airway wall thickening and clinical status in COPD.Airway wall thickness measurements in 80 heavy smokers were obtained on transverse images from low-dose CT scan using the open-source program Airway Inspector. Measurements were corrected for partial volume averaging and tilt effects using an attenuation- and geometry-based algorithm and compared with functional status.The algorithm reduced wall thickness measurements of smaller airways to a greater degree than larger airways, increasing the overall range. When restricted to analyses of airways with an inner diameter < 3.0 mm, for a theoretical airway of 2.0 mm inner diameter, the wall thickness decreased from 1.07 ± 0.07 to 0.29 ± 0.10 mm, and the square root of the wall area decreased from 3.34 ± 0.15 to 1.58 ± 0.29 mm, comparable to histologic measurement studies. Corrected measurements had higher correlation with FEV₁, differed more between BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index scores, and explained a greater proportion of FEV1 variability in multivariate models.Correcting for partial volume averaging improves accuracy of airway wall thickness estimation, allowing direct measurement of the small airways to better define their role in COPD.
Project description:Individuals with long-term human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at risk for premature vasculopathy and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated coronary vessel wall thickening, coronary plaque, and epicardial fat in patients infected with HIV early in life compared with healthy controls.This is a prospective cross-sectional study of 35 young adults who acquired HIV in early life and 11 healthy controls, free of CVD. Time resolved phase-sensitive dual inversion recovery black-blood vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (TRAPD) was used to measure proximal right coronary artery (RCA) wall thickness, and multidetector computed tomography (CT) angiography was used to quantify coronary plaque and epicardial fat.RCA vessel wall thickness was significantly increased in HIV-infected patients compared with sex- and race-matched controls (1.32 ± 0.21 mm vs 1.09 ± 0.14 mm, P = .002). No subject had discrete plaque on CT sufficient to cause luminal narrowing, and plaque was not related to RCA wall thickness. In multivariate regression analyses, smoking pack-years (P = .004) and HIV infection (P = .007) were independently associated with thicker RCA vessel walls. Epicardial fat did not differ between groups. Among the HIV-infected group, duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P = .02), duration of stavudine exposure (P < .01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .04), and smoking pack-years (P < .01) were positively correlated with RCA wall thickness.This investigation provides evidence of subclinical coronary vascular disease among individuals infected with HIV in early life. Increased duration of ART, hyperlipidemia, and smoking contributed to proximal RCA thickening, independent of atherosclerotic plaque quantified by CT. These modifiable risk factors appear to influence early atherogenesis as measured by coronary wall thickness and may be important targets for CVD risk reduction.
Project description:AIMS:Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in aortic stenosis (AS) varies widely before and after aortic valve replacement (AVR), and deeper phenotyping beyond traditional global measures may improve risk stratification. We hypothesized that machine learning derived 3D LV models may provide a more sensitive assessment of remodelling and sex-related differences in AS than conventional measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS:One hundred and sixteen patients with severe, symptomatic AS (54% male, 70?±?10?years) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance pre-AVR and 1 year post-AVR. Computational analysis produced co-registered 3D models of wall thickness, which were compared with 40 propensity-matched healthy controls. Preoperative regional wall thickness and post-operative percentage wall thickness regression were analysed, stratified by sex. AS hypertrophy and regression post-AVR was non-uniform-greatest in the septum with more pronounced changes in males than females (wall thickness regression: -13?±?3.6 vs. -6?±?1.9%, respectively, P?<?0.05). Even patients without LVH (16% with normal indexed LV mass, 79% female) had greater septal and inferior wall thickness compared with controls (8.8?±?1.6 vs. 6.6?±?1.2?mm, P?<?0.05), which regressed post-AVR. These differences were not detectable by global measures of remodelling. Changes to clinical parameters post-AVR were also greater in males: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [-37 (interquartile range -88 to -2) vs. -1 (-24 to 11) ng/L, P?=?0.008], and systolic blood pressure (12.9?±?23 vs. 2.1?±?17?mmHg, P?=?0.009), with changes in NT-proBNP correlating with percentage LV mass regression in males only (ß 0.32, P?=?0.02). CONCLUSION:In patients with severe AS, including those without overt LVH, LV remodelling is most plastic in the septum, and greater in males, both pre-AVR and post-AVR. Three-dimensional machine learning is more sensitive than conventional analysis to these changes, potentially enhancing risk stratification. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:Regression of myocardial fibrosis after aortic valve replacement (RELIEF-AS); NCT02174471. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02174471.
Project description:It is important to understand the distribution of 2-dimensional strain values in normal population. We performed a multicenter trial to measure normal echocardiographic values in the Korean population.This was a substudy of the Normal echOcardiogRaphic Measurements in KoreAn popuLation (NORMAL) study. Echocardiographic specialists measured frequently used echocardiographic indices in healthy people according to a standardized method at 23 different university hospitals. The strain values were analyzed from digitally stored images.Of a total of 1003 healthy participants in NORMAL study, 2-dimensional strain values were measured in 501 subjects (265 females, mean age 47 ± 15 years old) with echocardiographic images only by GE echocardiographic machines. Interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, systolic and diastolic LV dimensions, and LV ejection fraction were 7.5 ± 1.0 mm, 7.4 ± 1.0 mm, 29.9 ± 2.8 mm, 48.9 ± 3.6 mm, and 62 ± 4%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain (LS) values of apical 4-chamber (A4C) view, apical 3-chamber (A3C) view, apical 2-chamber (A2C) view, and LV global LS (LVGLS) were -20.1 ± 2.3, -19.9 ± 2.7, -21.2 ± 2.6, and -20.4 ± 2.2%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (LVLSR) values of the A4C view, A3C view, A2C view, and LV global LSR (LVGLSR) were -1.18 ± 0.18, -1.20 ± 0.21, -1.25 ± 0.21, and -1.21 ± 0.21-s, respectively. Females had lower LVGLS (-21.2 ± 2.2% vs. -19.5 ± 1.9%, p < 0.001) and LVGLSR (-1.25 ± 0.18-s vs. -1.17 ± 0.15-s, p < 0.001) values than males.We measured LV longitudinal strain and strain rate values in the normal Korean population. Since considerable gender differences were observed, normal echocardiographic cutoff values should be differentially applied based on sex.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypoxia and low pulmonary arterial (PA) blood flow stimulate the development of systemic-to-pulmonary collateral blood vessels, which can be an adverse factor when performing the Fontan operation. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to elucidate the morphological changes in PA vasculature after creation of a bidirectional cavopulmonary connection (BCPC) in children. METHODS:This prospective study evaluated PA wall thickness and development of PA vasa vasorum (VV) in the distal PA of eight patients (BCPC group, 1.3 ± 0.3 years) and 20 age-matched children with normal pulmonary artery hemodynamics and morphology (Control group, 1.4 ± 0.3 years). VV development was defined by the VV area ratio, defined as the VV area divided by the adventitial area in cross-sectional images. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in PA wall thickness between the BCPC and control groups (0.12 ± 0.03 mm vs. 0.12 ± 0.02 mm, respectively). The VV area ratio was significantly greater in the BCPC group than in the Control group (14.5 ± 3.5% vs. 5.3 ± 1.6%, respectively; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION:OCT is a promising new tool for evaluating PA pathology, including the development of VV in patients after BCPC.
Project description:To determine the extent of thickening of the carotid arterial walls that may be accommodated by outward remodeling.Institutional review board approval was obtained at each participating site, and informed consent was obtained from each participant. All study sites conducted this study in compliance with HIPAA requirements. A total of 2066 participants (age range, 60-85 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study were enrolled in the ARIC Carotid MRI Study. Maximum wall thickness and luminal area were measured with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in both common carotid arteries (CCAs) and in one internal carotid artery (ICA) 2 mm above the flow divider. Complete data were available for 1064 ICAs and 3348 CCAs. The association of maximum wall thickness with lumen area was evaluated with linear regression, and adjustments were made for participant age, sex, race, height, and height squared.In the ICA, lumen area was relatively constant across patients with a wall thickness of 1.38 mm or less. In patients with a wall thickness of more than 1.38 mm, however, lumen area decreased linearly as wall thickness increased. Wall area represented a median of 61.9% of the area circumscribed by the vessel at a maximum wall thickness of 1.50 mm +/- 0.05 (standard deviation) and 75.4% at a maximum wall thickness of 4.0 mm +/- 0.10. In the CCA, lumen area was preserved across wall thicknesses less than 2.06 mm, representing 99% of vessels.Atherosclerotic thickening in the ICA appears to be accommodated for vessels with a maximum wall thickness of less than 1.5 mm. Beyond this threshold, greater thickness is associated with a smaller lumen. The CCA appears to accommodate a wall thickness of less than 2.0 mm. These estimates indicate that the carotid arteries are able to compensate for a greater degree of thickening than are the coronary arteries.