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Ribonucleic Acid Engineering of Dendritic Cells for Therapeutic Vaccination: Ready 'N Able to Improve Clinical Outcome?

ABSTRACT: Targeting and exploiting the immune system has become a valid alternative to conventional options for treating cancer and infectious disease. Dendritic cells (DCs) take a central place given their role as key orchestrators of immunity. Therapeutic vaccination with autologous DCs aims to stimulate the patient's own immune system to specifically target his/her disease and has proven to be an effective form of immunotherapy with very little toxicity. A great amount of research in this field has concentrated on engineering these DCs through ribonucleic acid (RNA) to improve vaccine efficacy and thereby the historically low response rates. We reviewed in depth the 52 clinical trials that have been published on RNA-engineered DC vaccination, spanning from 2001 to date and reporting on 696 different vaccinated patients. While ambiguity prevents reliable quantification of effects, these trials do provide evidence that RNA-modified DC vaccination can induce objective clinical responses and survival benefit in cancer patients through stimulation of anti-cancer immunity, without significant toxicity. Succinct background knowledge of RNA engineering strategies and concise conclusions from available clinical and recent preclinical evidence will help guide future research in the larger domain of DC immunotherapy.

SUBMITTER: Willemen Y 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7072269 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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