P32-Dependent p38 MAPK Activation by Arginase II Downregulation Contributes to Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation in HUVECs.
ABSTRACT: Arginase II reciprocally regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through a p32-dependent Ca2+ control. We investigated the signaling pathway of arginase II-dependent eNOS phosphorylation. Western blot analysis was applied for examining protein activation and [Ca2+]c was analyzed by microscopic and FACS analyses. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions were measured using specific fluorescent dyes under microscopy. NO signaling pathway was tested by measuring vascular tension. Following arginase II downregulation by chemical inhibition or gene knockout (KO, ArgII-/-), increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and decreased phosphorylation at Thr495 was depend on p38 MAPK activation, which induced by CaMKII activation through p32-dependent increase in [Ca2+]c. The protein amount of p32 negatively regulated p38 MAPK activation. p38 MAPK contributed to Akt-induced eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 that resulted in accelerated NO production and reduced reactive oxygen species production in aortic endothelia. In vascular tension assay, p38 MAPK inhibitor decreased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation responses and increased phenylephrine-dependent vasoconstrictive responses. In ApoE-/- mice fed a high cholesterol diet, arginase II inhibition restored p32/CaMKII/p38 MAPK/Akt/eNOS signaling cascade that was attenuated by p38 MAPK inhibition. Here, we demonstrated a novel signaling pathway contributing to understanding of the relationship between arginase II, endothelial dysfunction, and atherogenesis.
Project description:Background Arginase II activity contributes to reciprocal regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase ( eNOS ). We tested the hypotheses that arginase II activity participates in the regulation of Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II / eNOS activation, and this process is dependent on mitochondrial p32. Methods and Results Downregulation of arginase II increased the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) and decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) in microscopic and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses, resulting in augmented eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and decreased eNOS Thr495 phosphorylation through Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II . These changes were observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with small interfering RNA against p32 (sip32). Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, fluorescence immunoassay, and ion chromatography, inhibition of arginase II reduced the amount of spermine, a binding molecule, and the release of Ca2+ from p32. In addition, arginase II gene knockdown using small interfering RNA and knockout arginase II -null mice resulted in reduced p32 protein level. In the aortas of wild-type mice, small interfering RNA against p32 induced eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and enhanced NO -dependent vasorelaxation. Arginase activity, p32 protein expression, spermine amount, and [Ca2+]m were increased in the aortas from apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, and intravenous administration of small interfering RNA against p32 restored Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II -dependent eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and improved endothelial dysfunction. The effects of arginase II downregulation were not associated with elevated NO production when tested in aortic endothelia from eNOS knockout mice. Conclusions These data demonstrate a novel function of arginase II in regulation of Ca2+-dependent eNOS phosphorylation. This novel mechanism drives arginase activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and atherogenesis.
Project description:The p32 protein plays a crucial role in the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]c) that contributes to the Ca2+?dependent signaling cascade. Using an adenovirus and plasmid p32?overexpression system, the aim of the study was to evaluate the role of p32 in the regulation of [Ca2+] and its potential associated with Ca2+?dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in endothelial cells. Using electron and confocal microscopic analysis, p32 overexpression was observed to be localized to mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum and played an important role in Ca2+ translocation, resulting in increased [Ca2+] in these organelles and reducing cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c). This decreased [Ca2+]c following p32 overexpression attenuated the Ca2+?dependent signaling cascade of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/AKT/eNOS phosphorylation. Moreover, in aortic endothelia of wild?type mice intravenously administered adenovirus encoding the p32 gene, increased p32 levels reduced NO production and accelerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In a vascular tension assay, p32 overexpression decreased acetylcholine (Ach)?induced vasorelaxation and augmented phenylephrine (PE)?dependent vasoconstriction. Notably, decreased levels of arginase II (ArgII) protein using siArgII were associated with downregulation of overexpressed p32 protein, which contributed to CaMKII?dependent eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177. These results indicated that increased protein levels of p32 caused endothelial dysfunction through attenuation of the Ca2+?dependent signaling cascade and that ArgII protein participated in the stability of p32. Therefore, p32 may be a novel target for the treatment of vascular diseases associated with endothelial disorders.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests a selective up-regulation of arginase I in diabetes causing coronary artery disease; however, the mechanisms behind this up-regulation are still unknown. Activated p38 MAPK has been reported to increase arginase II in various cardiovascular diseases. We therefore tested the role of p38 MAPK in the regulation of arginase I and II expression and its effect on endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.Endothelial function was determined in septal coronary (SCA), left anterior descending coronary (LAD) and mesenteric (MA) arteries from healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats by wire myographs. Arginase activity and protein levels of arginase I, II, phospho-p38 MAPK and phospho-endothelial NOS (eNOS) (Ser(1177) ) were determined in these arteries from diabetic and healthy rats treated with a p38 MAPK inhibitor in vivo.Diabetic SCA and MA displayed impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by arginase and p38 MAPK inhibition while LAD relaxation was not affected. Arginase I, phospho-p38 MAPK and eNOS protein expression was increased in diabetic coronary arteries. In diabetic MA, however, increased expression of arginase II and phospho-p38 MAPK, increased arginase activity and decreased expression of eNOS were observed. All these effects were reversed by p38 MAPK inhibition.Diabetes-induced activation of p38 MAPK causes endothelial dysfunction via selective up-regulation of arginase I expression in coronary arteries and arginase II expression in MA. Therefore, regional differences appear to exist in the arginase isoforms contributing to endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Arginase inhibition exhibits beneficial effects in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs), native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) induced the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) that is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we examined the effect of arginase inhibition on IL-8 production and the underlying mechanism. In hAoSMCs, reverse transcription-PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry with MitoTracker confirmed that arginase II was confined predominantly to mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester. The MMP decreased upon nLDL stimulation but was restored upon arginase inhibition. MMP loss caused by nLDL was prevented by treatment with the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM. In mitochondrial Ca2+ measurements using Rhod-2 AM, increased mitochondrial Ca2+ levels by nLDL were inhibited upon preincubation with an arginase inhibitor. Among the polyamines, spermine, an arginase activity-dependent product, caused mitochondrial Ca2+ movement. The nLDL-induced MMP change resulted in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and IL-8 production and was prevented by the arginase inhibitors BAPTA and ruthenium 360. In isolated AoSMCs from ApoE-/- mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, arginase activity, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, spermine and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) production were increased compared with wild-type (WT) mice. However, in AoSMCs isolated from arginase II-null mice, increases in MMP and decreases in mitochondrial Ca2+ levels were noted compared with WT and were associated with p38 MAPK activation and IL-8 production. These data suggest that arginase activity regulates the change in MMP through Ca2+ uptake that is essential for p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IL-8 production.
Project description:Although arginase II (ArgII) is abundant in mitochondria, Ca2+-accumulating organelles, the relationship between ArgII activity and Ca2+ translocation into mitochondria and the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ signaling are completely unknown. We investigated the effects of ArgII activity on mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake through mitochondrial p32 protein (p32m) and on CaMKII-dependent vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction. Native low-density lipoprotein stimulation induced an increase in [Ca2+]m as measured by CoCl2-quenched calcein-AM fluorescence, which was prevented by Arg inhibition in hAoSMCs and reduced in mAoSMCs from ArgII-/- mice. Conversely, [Ca2+]c analyzed with Fluo-4 AM was increased by Arg inhibition and ArgII gene knockout. The increased [Ca2+]c resulted in CaMKII and MLC 20 phosphorylation, which was associated with enhanced vasoconstriction activity to phenylephrine (PE) in the vascular tension assay. Cy5-tagged siRNA against mitochondrial p32 mRNA (sip32m) abolished mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and induced activation of CaMKII. Spermine, a polyamine, induced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and dephosphorylation of CaMKII and was completely inhibited by sip32m incubation. In mAoSMCs from ApoE-null mice fed a high-cholesterol diet (ApoE-/- +HCD), Arg activity was increased, and spermine concentration was higher than that of wild-type mice. Furthermore, [Ca2+]m and p32m levels were elevated, and CaMKII phosphorylation was reduced in mAoSMCs from ApoE-/- +HCD. In vascular tension experiments, an attenuated response to vasoconstrictors in de-endothelialized aorta from ApoE-/- +HCD was recovered by incubation of sip32m. ArgII activity-dependent production of spermine augments Ca2+ transition from the cytosol to the mitochondria in a p32m-dependent manner and regulates CaMKII-dependent constriction in VSMCs.
Project description:The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a serine/threonine kinase important in transducing intracellular Ca2+ signals. While in vitro data regarding the role of CaMKII in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are contradictory, its role in endothelial function in vivo remains unknown. Using two novel transgenic models to express CaMKII inhibitor peptides selectively in endothelium, we examined the effect of CaMKII on eNOS activation, NO production, vasomotor tone and blood pressure. Under baseline conditions, CaMKII activation was low in the aortic wall. Consistently, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma NO levels were unaltered by endothelial CaMKII inhibition. Moreover, endothelial CaMKII inhibition had no significant effect on NO-dependent vasodilation. These results were confirmed in studies of aortic rings transduced with adenovirus expressing a CaMKII inhibitor peptide. In cultured endothelial cells, bradykinin treatment produced the anticipated rapid influx of Ca2+ and transient CaMKII and eNOS activation, whereas CaMKII inhibition blocked eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1179 and dephosphorylation at Thr-497. Ca2+/CaM binding to eNOS and resultant NO production in vitro were decreased under CaMKII inhibition. Our results demonstrate that CaMKII plays an important role in transient bradykinin-driven eNOS activation in vitro, but does not regulate NO production, vasorelaxation or blood pressure in vivo under baseline conditions.
Project description:Excessive alcohol consumption impairs brain function and has been associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of alcohol, has been speculated to mediate the neurotoxicity induced by alcohol abuse. However, the precise mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity remain elusive. In this study, it was found that acetaldehyde treatment induced excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, impaired mitochondrial function and caused cytotoxicity in cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. Further analyses showed that acetaldehyde induced the phosphorylation of mitochondrial fission related protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) at Ser616 and promoted its translocation to mitochondria. The elevation of Drp1 phosphorylation was partly dependent on the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment inhibited the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK while attenuating Drp1 phosphorylation in acetaldehyde-treated cells. In addition, acetaldehyde treatment elevated intracellular Ca2+ level and activated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Pretreatment of CaMKII inhibitor prevented Drp1 phosphorylation in acetaldehyde-treated cells and ameliorated acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting that CaMKII was a key effector mediating acetaldehyde-induced Drp1 phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, acetaldehyde induced cytotoxicity by promoting excessive Drp1 phosphorylation and mitochondrial fragmentation. Both ROS and Ca2+-mediated signaling pathways played important roles in acetaldehyde-induced Drp1 phosphorylation. The results also suggested that prevention of oxidative stress by antioxidants might be beneficial for preventing neurotoxicity associated with acetaldehyde and alcohol abuse.
Project description:The mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a pivotal component in cytokine- and stress-induced apoptosis. It also regulates cell differentiation and survival through p38 MAP kinase activation. Here we show that Ca2+ signalling regulates the ASK1-p38 MAP kinase cascade. Ca2+ influx evoked by membrane depolarization in primary neurons and synaptosomes induced activation of p38, which was impaired in those derived from ASK1-deficient mice. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) activated ASK1 by phosphorylation. Moreover, p38 activation induced by the expression of constitutively active CaMKII required endogenous ASK1. Thus, ASK1 is a critical intermediate of Ca2+ signalling between CaMKII and p38 MAP kinase.
Project description:Elevated levels of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) contribute to insulin resistance and correlate with increased prevalence of hypertension and myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lowering RBP4 would improve blood pressure (BP) and protect against obesity- or angiotensin (Ang)-II-induced hypertension. Systolic and diastolic BP were lower in the RBP4-knockout (RBP4-KO) mice and higher in the RBP4-overexpressing (RBP4-Tg) mice compared with BP in the wild-type (WT) littermates. Carbachol-induced vasodilatation was increased in arteries from the RBP4-KO compared with the WT mice and was impaired in the RBP4-Tg mice. Aortic eNOS(Ser1177) phosphorylation was enhanced ?50% in the RBP4-KO mice, with no change in total eNOS protein. Feeding a high-fat diet increased BP in the RBP4-KO mice only to the level in the WT mice fed chow and had no effect on aortic eNOS(Ser1177) phosphorylation. Ang-II infusion resulted in 22 mmHg lower systolic BP in the RBP4-KO than in the WT mice, although the relative BP increase over saline infusion was ?30% in both. Ang-II treatment decreased aortic eNOS(Ser1177) phosphorylation in the WT and RBP4-KO mice, but phosphorylation remained higher in the RBP4-KO mice. Cardiac hypertrophy with Ang-II treatment was diminished by 56% in the RBP4-KO mice. Thus, elevated serum RBP4 raises BP and lack of RBP4 reduces it, with commensurate changes in aortic eNOS(Ser1177) phosphorylation. Lowering RBP4 may reduce BP through enhanced eNOS-mediated vasodilatation and may be a novel therapeutic approach for hypertension.
Project description:Atherosclerosis is one of the most reported diseases worldwide, and extensive research and trials are focused on the discovery and utilizing for novel therapeutics. Nitric oxide (NO) is produced mainly by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and it plays a key role in regulating vascular function including systemic blood pressure and vascular inflammation in vascular endothelium. In this study hypothesized that Impressic acid (IPA), a component isolated from Acanthopanax koreanum, acts as an enhancer of eNOS activity and NO production. IPA treatment induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production, which was correlated with eNOS phosphorylation via the activation of JNK1/2, p38 MAPK, AMPK, and CaMKII. In addition, the induction of eNOS phosphorylation by IPA was attenuated by pharmacological inhibitor of MAPKs, AMPK, and CaMKII. Finally, IPA treatment prevented the adhesion of TNF-?-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-?-stimulated ICAM-1 expression via activation of NF-?B, while treatment with L-NAME, the NOS inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of IPA on TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 expression via activation of NF-?B. Taken together, these findings show that IPA protects against TNF-?-induced vascular endothelium dysfunction through attenuation of the NF-?B pathway by activating eNOS/NO pathway in endothelial cells.