The Cytokine Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT; PBEF; Visfatin) Acts as a Natural Antagonist of C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 5 (CCR5).
ABSTRACT: (1) Background: Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltrasferase (eNAMPT) is released by various cell types with pro-tumoral and pro-inflammatory properties. In cancer, eNAMPT regulates tumor growth through the activation of intracellular pathways, suggesting that it acts through a putative receptor, although its nature is still elusive. It has been shown, using surface plasma resonance, that eNAMPT binds to the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), although the physiological meaning of this finding is unknown. The aim of the present work was to characterize the pharmacodynamics of eNAMPT on CCR5. (2) Methods: HeLa CCR5-overexpressing stable cell line and B16 melanoma cells were used. We focused on some phenotypic effects of CCR5 activation, such as calcium release and migration, to evaluate eNAMPT actions on this receptor. (3) Results: eNAMPT did not induce ERK activation or cytosolic Ca2+-rises alone. Furthermore, eNAMPT prevents CCR5 internalization mediated by Rantes. eNAMPT pretreatment inhibits CCR5-mediated PKC activation and Rantes-dependent calcium signaling. The effect of eNAMPT on CCR5 was specific, as the responses to ATP and carbachol were unaffected. This was strengthened by the observation that eNAMPT inhibited Rantes-induced Ca2+-rises and Rantes-induced migration in a melanoma cell line. (4) Conclusions: Our work shows that eNAMPT binds to CCR5 and acts as a natural antagonist of this receptor.
Project description:Metastatic melanoma carrying BRAF mutations represent a still unmet medical need as success of BRAF inhibitors is limited by development of resistance. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a key enzyme in NAD biosynthesis. An extracellular form (eNAMPT) possesses cytokine-like functions and is up-regulated in inflammatory disorders, including cancer. Here we show that eNAMPT is actively released in culture supernatants of melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, cells that become resistant to BRAF inhibitors (BiR) show a significant increase of eNAMPT levels. Plasma from mice xenografted with BiR cell lines contain higher eNAMPT levels compared to tumor-free animals. Consistently, eNAMPT levels are elevated in 113 patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma compared to 50 with localized disease or to 38 healthy donors, showing a direct correlation with markers of tumor burden, such as LDH, or aggressive disease (such as PD-L1). eNAMPT concentrations decrease in response to therapy with BRAF/MEK inhibitors, but increase again at progression, as inferred from the serial analysis of 50 patients. Lastly, high eNAMPT levels correlate with a significantly shorter overall survival. Our findings suggest that eNAMPT is a novel marker of tumor burden and response to therapy in patients with metastatic melanoma carrying BRAF mutations.
Project description:Visfatin/extracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltranferase-(eNampt) is a multifaceted adipokine enhanced in type-2-diabetes and obesity. Visfatin/eNampt cause in vitro endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation, although whether the same effects are achieved in vivo is unknown. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), a main surface pattern recognition receptor of innate immune system is a potential target for visfatin/eNampt. We studied its capacity to generate vascular dysfunction in vivo, focusing on TLR4 role and downstream activation of nod-like-receptor-protein-3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome. 4 month-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 7 days infusion of visfatin/eNampt, alone or together with FK 866 (Nampt enzymatic inhibitor), CLI 095 (TLR4 blocker), MCC 950 (NLRP3-inflammasome inhibitor), or anakinra (interleukin(IL)-1-receptor antagonist). Endothelial dysfunction was tested in isolated microvessels. In human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC), proteins related to the NLRP3-inflammasome phosphorylated p-65, NLRP3, caspase-1, pro-IL-1?, and mature IL-1? were determined by Western blot, while the inflammasome related apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC-specks) was studied by immunofluorescence. Impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations were observed in isolated mesenteric microvessels from visfatin/eNampt-infused mice. This effect was attenuated by co-treatment with FK 866 or CLI 095, supporting a role for Nampt enzymatic activity and TLR4 activation. Moreover, cultured HUVEC exposed to visfatin/eNampt showed higher expression and activation of NLRP3-inflammasome. Again, this effect relied on Nampt enzymatic activity and TLR4 activation, and it was abrogated by the inflammasome assembly blockade with MCC 950. The endothelial dysfunction evoked by visfatin/eNampt infusion in vivo was also sensitive to both MCC 950 and anakinra treatments, suggesting that the NLRP3-inflammasome-driven tissular release of IL-1? is the final mediator of endothelial damage. We conclude that Visfatin/eNampt produces in vivo vascular dysfunction in mice by a Nampt-dependent TLR4-mediated pathway, involving NLRP3-inflammasome and paracrine IL-1?. Thus, those targets may become therapeutic strategies for attenuating the adipokine-mediated vascular dysfunction associated to obesity and/or type-2-diabetes.
Project description:Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the key NAD(+) biosynthetic enzyme, has two different forms, intra- and extracellular (iNAMPT and eNAMPT), in mammals. However, the significance of eNAMPT secretion remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that deacetylation of iNAMPT by the mammalian NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 predisposes the protein to secretion in adipocytes. NAMPT mutants reveal that SIRT1 deacetylates lysine 53 (K53) and enhances eNAMPT activity and secretion. Adipose tissue-specific Nampt knockout and knockin (ANKO and ANKI) mice show reciprocal changes in circulating eNAMPT, affecting hypothalamic NAD(+)/SIRT1 signaling and physical activity accordingly. The defect in physical activity observed in ANKO mice is ameliorated by nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Furthermore, administration of a NAMPT-neutralizing antibody decreases hypothalamic NAD(+) production, and treating ex vivo hypothalamic explants with purified eNAMPT enhances NAD(+), SIRT1 activity, and neural activation. Thus, our findings indicate a critical role of adipose tissue as a modulator for the regulation of NAD(+) biosynthesis at a systemic level.
Project description:Aging is a significant risk factor for impaired tissue functions and chronic diseases. Age-associated decline in systemic NAD+ availability plays a critical role in regulating the aging process across many species. Here, we show that the circulating levels of extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) significantly decline with age in mice and humans. Increasing circulating eNAMPT levels in aged mice by adipose-tissue-specific overexpression of NAMPT increases NAD+ levels in multiple tissues, thereby enhancing their functions and extending healthspan in female mice. Interestingly, eNAMPT is carried in extracellular vesicles (EVs) through systemic circulation in mice and humans. EV-contained eNAMPT is internalized into cells and enhances NAD+ biosynthesis. Supplementing eNAMPT-containing EVs isolated from young mice significantly improves wheel-running activity and extends lifespan in aged mice. Our findings have revealed a novel EV-mediated delivery mechanism for eNAMPT, which promotes systemic NAD+ biosynthesis and counteracts aging, suggesting a potential avenue for anti-aging intervention in humans.
Project description:The chemokine receptor CCR5 is a cofactor for the entry of R5 tropic strains of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV)-1 and -2 and simian immunodeficiency virus. Cells susceptible to infection by these viruses can be protected by treatment with the CCR5 ligands regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta. A major component of the mechanism through which chemokines protect cells from HIV infection is by inducing endocytosis of the chemokine receptor. Aminooxypentane (AOP)-RANTES, an NH(2)-terminal modified form of RANTES, is a potent inhibitor of infection by R5 HIV strains. AOP-RANTES efficiently downmodulates the cell surface expression of CCR5 and, in contrast with RANTES, appears to prevent recycling of CCR5 to the cell surface. Here, we investigate the cellular basis of this effect. Using CHO cells expressing human CCR5, we show that both RANTES and AOP-RANTES induce rapid internalization of CCR5. In the absence of ligand, CCR5 shows constitutive turnover with a half-time of 6-9 h. Addition of RANTES or AOP-RANTES has little effect on the rate of CCR5 turnover. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy show that most of the CCR5 internalized after RANTES or AOP-RANTES treatment accumulates in small membrane-bound vesicles and tubules clustered in the perinuclear region of the cell. Colocalization with transferrin receptors in the same clusters of vesicles indicates that CCR5 accumulates in recycling endosomes. After the removal of RANTES, internalized CCR5 recycles to the cell surface and is sensitive to further rounds of RANTES-induced endocytosis. In contrast, after the removal of AOP-RANTES, most CCR5 remains intracellular. We show that these CCR5 molecules do recycle to the cell surface, with kinetics equivalent to those of receptors in RANTES-treated cells. However, these recycled CCR5 molecules are rapidly reinternalized. Our results indicate that AOP-RANTES-induced changes in CCR5 alter the steady-state distribution of the receptor and provide the first evidence for G protein-coupled receptor trafficking through the recycling endosome compartment.
Project description:Serum extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) concentrations are elevated in type 2 diabetes. However, the relationship between abnormally elevated serum eNAMPT and type 2 diabetes pathophysiology is unclear. eNAMPT circulates in functionally and structurally distinct monomeric and dimeric forms. Dimeric eNAMPT promotes NAD biosynthesis. The role of eNAMPT-monomer is unclear but it may have NAD-independent proinflammatory effects. However, studies of eNAMPT in type 2 diabetes have not distinguished between monomeric and dimeric forms. Since type 2 diabetes is characterised by chronic inflammation, we hypothesised a selective NAD-independent role for eNAMPT-monomer in type 2 diabetes.Two mouse models were used to examine the role of eNAMPT-monomer in type 2 diabetes; (1) a mouse model of diabetes fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks received i.p. injections with an anti-monomeric-eNAMPT antibody; and (2) lean non-diabetic mice received i.p. injections with recombinant monomeric eNAMPT daily for 14 days.Serum monomeric eNAMPT levels were elevated in HFD-fed mouse models of diabetes, whilst eNAMPT-dimer levels were unchanged. eNAMPT-monomer neutralisation in HFD-fed mice resulted in lower blood glucose levels, amelioration of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and whole-body insulin resistance, improved pancreatic islet function, and reduced inflammation. These effects were maintained for at least 3 weeks post-treatment. eNAMPT-monomer administration induced a diabetic phenotype in mice, characterised by elevated blood glucose, IGT, impaired pancreatic insulin secretion and the presence of systemic and tissue inflammation, without changes in NAD levels.We demonstrate that elevation of monomeric-eNAMPT plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diet-induced diabetes via proinflammatory mechanisms. These data provide proof-of-concept evidence that the eNAMPT-monomer represents a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There remains a serious need to prevent the progression of invasive prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that secreted extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) is a multifunctional innate immunity regulator via TLR4 ligation which has been implicated in PCa progression. Here we investigate the role of eNAMPT as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target in the progression of PCa. METHODS:Tumor NAMPT expression and plasma eNAMPT level were evaluated in human subjects with various PCa tumor stages and high risk subjects followed-up clinically for PCa. The genetic regulation of NAMPT expression in PCa cells and the role of eNAMPT in PCa invasion were investigated utilizing in vitro and in vivo models. FINDINGS:Marked NAMPT expression was detected in human extraprostatic-invasive PCa tissues compared to minimal expression of organ-confined PCa. Plasma eNAMPT levels were significantly elevated in PCa subjects compared to male controls, and significantly greater in subjects with extraprostatic-invasive PCa compared to subjects with organ-confined PCa. Plasma eNAMPT levels showed significant predictive value for diagnosing PCa. NAMPT expression and eNAMPT secretion were highly upregulated in human PCa cells in response to hypoxia-inducible factors and EGF. In vitro cell culture and in vivo preclinical mouse model studies confirmed eNAMPT-mediated enhancement of PCa invasiveness into muscle tissues and dramatic attenuation of PCa invasion by weekly treatment with an eNAMPT-neutralizing polyclonal antibody. INTERPRETATION:This study suggests that eNAMPT is a potential biomarker for PCa, especially invasive PCa. Neutralization of eNAMPT may be an effective therapeutic approach to prevent PCa invasion and progression.
Project description:The beta-chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) suppresses the infection of susceptible host cells by macrophage tropic strains of HIV-1. This effect is attributed to interactions of this chemokine with a 7-transmembrane domain receptor, CCR5, that is required for virus-cell fusion and entry. Here we identify domains of RANTES that contribute to its biological activities through structure-function studies using a new monoclonal antibody, mAb 4A12, isolated from mice immunized with recombinant human RANTES. This monoclonal antibody (mAb) blocked the antiviral activity of RANTES in infectivity assays with HIV-1Bal, and inhibited the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ elicited by RANTES, yet recognized this chemokine bound to cell surfaces. Epitope mapping using limited proteolysis, reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry suggest that residues 55-66 of RANTES, which include the COOH-terminal alpha-helical region implicated as the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding domain, overlap the determinant recognized by mAb 4A12. This is supported by affinity chromatography studies, which showed that RANTES could be eluted specifically by heparin from a mAb 4A12 immunoaffinity matrix. Removal of cell surface GAGs by enzymatic digestion greatly reduced the ability of mAb 4A12 to detect RANTES passively bound on cell surfaces and abrogated the ability of RANTES to elicit an intracellular Ca2+ signal. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the COOH-terminal alpha-helical region of RANTES plays a key role in GAG-binding, antiviral activity, and intracellular Ca2+ signaling and support a model in which GAGs play a key role in the biological activities of this chemokine.
Project description:CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the major HIV coreceptor, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in cell activation and migration in response to chemokines. Blockade of CCR5 is an effective anti-HIV strategy, and potent anti-HIV chemokine analogs such as PSC-RANTES have been developed. These inhibitors act by interfering with receptor trafficking, thereby inducing prolonged intracellular sequestration of CCR5. Like many GPCRs, CCR5 is desensitized following agonist activation. The initial steps in this process are well understood, but later stages, including where CCR5 is sequestered during desensitization, and how anti-HIV chemokine analogs intervene to achieve prolonged sequestration, have yet to be elucidated in detail. In this study we demonstrate that CCR5 cycles to and from the cell surface via the endosome recycling compartment and the trans-Golgi network during desensitization, accumulating in the trans-Golgi network following internalization by both PSC-RANTES and CCL5, the native ligand from which it was derived. In addition, we show that unlike CCR5 sequestered by CCL5, CCR5 sequestered by PSC-RANTES cannot be induced to return to the cell surface by addition of the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, TAK-779, and that association of PSC-RANTES with CCR5 is more durable than that of native CCL5 during desensitization. Our findings reconcile the previously conflicting descriptions of the location of sequestered CCR5 during desensitization, as well as providing more general insights into potential trafficking routes for endocytosed GPCRs and further elucidation of the unusual inhibitory mechanism of chemokine analogs with potent anti-HIV activity.
Project description:Recently, we identified a lung adenocarcinoma signature that segregated tumors into three clades distinguished by histological invasiveness. Among the genes differentially expressed was the type II transforming growth factor-beta receptor (TGFbetaRII), which was lower in adenocarcinoma mixed subtype and solid invasive subtype tumors compared with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. We used a tumor cell invasion system to identify the chemokine CCL5 (RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted) as a potential downstream mediator of TGF-beta signaling important for lung adenocarcinoma invasion. We specifically hypothesized that RANTES is required for lung cancer invasion and progression in TGFbetaRII-repressed cells. We examined invasion in TGFbetaRII-deficient cells treated with two inhibitors of RANTES activity, Met-RANTES and a CCR5 receptor-blocking antibody. Both treatments blocked invasion induced by TGFbetaRII knockdown. In addition, we examined the clinical relevance of the RANTES-CCR5 pathway by establishing an association of RANTES and CCR5 immunostaining with invasion and outcome in human lung adenocarcinoma specimens. Moderate or high expression of both RANTES and CCR5 was associated with an increased risk for death, P=0.014 and 0.002, respectively. In conclusion, our studies indicate RANTES signaling is required for invasion in TGFbetaRII-deficient cells and suggest a role for CCR5 inhibition in lung adenocarcinoma prevention and treatment.