Efficacy of antiseptics in a novel 3-dimensional human plasma biofilm model (hpBIOM).
ABSTRACT: The increasing incidence of non-healing wounds constitutes a pivotal socio-economic burden. 60-80% of chronic wounds are colonized by pathogenic microorganisms within a protective extracellular polymeric substance, bearing a great challenge in wound management. Human plasma was used to prepare the biofilm model (hpBIOM), adding pathogens to the plasma and forming Coagula-like discs with integrated pathogens were produced. The antiseptics Octenisept and Lavasorb were tested regarding their antibacterial properties on clinically relevant biofilm-growing bacteria (MRSA, P. aeruginosa) in the hpBIOM. Biofilm-typical glycocalyx-formation was confirmed using immunohistochemical staining. Treatment of a 12 h-maturated biofilm with Octenisept resulted in complete eradication of P. aeruginosa and MRSA after 48?h. Lavasorb proved less effective than Octenisept in this setting. In more mature biofilms (24?h), both antiseptics showed a delayed, partially decreased efficacy. Summarized, the hpBIOM provides essential factors for a translational research approach to be used for detailed human biofilm analyses and evaluation of antimicrobial/-biofilm properties of established and novel therapeutic strategies and products. Octenisept and Lavasorb showed an attenuated efficacy in the hpBIOM compared to planktonic conditions and previously published biofilm-studies, prompting the question for the necessity of introducing new international standards and pre-admission requirements on a translational base.
Project description:Chronic wounds complicated with biofilm formed by pathogens remain one of the most significant challenges of contemporary medicine. The application of topical antiseptic solutions against wound biofilm has been gaining increasing interest among clinical practitioners and scientific researchers. This paper compares the activity of polyhexanide-, octenidine- and hypochlorite/hypochlorous acid-based antiseptics against biofilm formed by clinical strains of <i>Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. The analyses included both standard techniques utilizing polystyrene plates and self-designed biocellulose-based models in which a biofilm formed by pathogens was formed on an elastic, fibrinous surface covered with a fibroblast layer. The obtained results show high antibiofilm activity of polihexanide- and octenidine-based antiseptics and lack or weak antibiofilm activity of hypochlorite-based antiseptic of total chlorine content equal to 80 parts per million. The data presented in this paper indicate that polihexanide- or octenidine-based antiseptics are highly useful in the treatment of biofilm, while hypochlorite-based antiseptics with low chlorine content may be applied for wound rinsing but not when specific antibiofilm activity is required.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus often cause chronic, recalcitrant infections in large part due to their ability to form biofilms. The biofilm mode of growth enables these organisms to withstand antibacterial insults that would effectively eliminate their planktonic counterparts. We found that P. aeruginosa supernatant increased the sensitivity of S. aureus biofilms to multiple antimicrobial compounds, including fluoroquinolones and membrane-targeting antibacterial agents, including the antiseptic chloroxylenol. Treatment of S. aureus with the antiseptic chloroxylenol alone did not decrease biofilm cell viability; however, the combination of chloroxylenol and P. aeruginosa supernatant led to a 4-log reduction in S. aureus biofilm viability compared to exposure to chloroxylenol alone. We found that the P. aeruginosa-produced small molecule 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) is responsible for the observed heightened sensitivity of S. aureus to chloroxylenol. Similarly, HQNO increased the susceptibility of S. aureus biofilms to other compounds, including both traditional and nontraditional antibiotics, which permeabilize bacterial membranes. Genetic and phenotypic studies support a model whereby HQNO causes an increase in S. aureus membrane fluidity, thereby improving the efficacy of membrane-targeting antiseptics and antibiotics. Importantly, our data show that P. aeruginosa exoproducts can enhance the ability of various antimicrobial agents to kill biofilm populations of S. aureus that are typically difficult to eradicate. Finally, our discovery that altering membrane fluidity shifts antimicrobial sensitivity profiles of bacterial biofilms may guide new approaches to target persistent infections, such as those commonly found in respiratory tract infections and in chronic wounds.IMPORTANCE The thick mucus in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients predisposes them to frequent, polymicrobial respiratory infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are frequently coisolated from the airways of individuals with CF, as well as from diabetic foot ulcers and other wounds. Both organisms form biofilms, which are notoriously difficult to eradicate and promote chronic infection. In this study, we have shown that P. aeruginosa-secreted factors can increase the efficacy of compounds that alone have little or no bactericidal activity against S. aureus biofilms. In particular, we discovered that P. aeruginosa exoproducts can potentiate the antistaphylococcal activity of phenol-based antiseptics and other membrane-active drugs. Our findings illustrate that polymicrobial interactions can dramatically increase antibacterial efficacy in vitro and suggest that altering membrane physiology promotes the ability of certain drugs to kill bacterial biofilms-knowledge that may provide a path for the discovery of new biofilm-targeting antimicrobial strategies.
Project description:Local administration of antiseptics is required to prevent and fight against biofilm-based infections of chronic wounds. One of the methods used for delivering antiseptics to infected wounds is the application of dressings chemisorbed with antimicrobials. Dressings made of bacterial cellulose (BC) display several features, making them suitable for such a purpose. This work aimed to compare the activity of commonly used antiseptic molecules: octenidine, polyhexanide, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, ethacridine lactate, and hypochlorous solutions and to evaluate their usefulness as active substances of BC dressings against 48 bacterial strains (8 species) and 6 yeast strains (1 species). A silver dressing was applied as a control material of proven antimicrobial activity. The methodology applied included the assessment of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC), the modified disc-diffusion method, and the modified antibiofilm dressing activity measurement (A.D.A.M.) method. While in 96-well plate-based methods (MIC and MBEC assessment), the highest antimicrobial activity was recorded for chlorhexidine, in the modified disc-diffusion method and in the modified A.D.A.M test, povidone-iodine performed the best. In an in vitro setting simulating chronic wound conditions, BC dressings chemisorbed with polyhexanide, octenidine, or povidone-iodine displayed a similar or even higher antibiofilm activity than the control dressing containing silver molecules. If translated into clinical conditions, the obtained results suggest high applicability of BC dressings chemisorbed with antiseptics to eradicate biofilm from chronic wounds.
Project description:Biofilms pose a relevant factor for wound healing impairment in chronic wounds. With 78% of all chronic wounds being affected by biofilms, research in this area is of high priority, especially since data for evidence-based selection of appropriate antimicrobials and antiseptics is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm efficacy of commercially available hypochlorous wound irrigation solutions compared to established antimicrobials. Using an innovative complex in-vitro human plasma biofilm model (hpBIOM), quantitative reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) biofilms by three hypochlorous irrigation solutions [two <0.08% and one 0.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)] was compared to a 0.04% polyhexanide (PHMB) irrigation solution and 0.1% octenidine-dihydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OCT/PE). Efficacy was compared to a non-challenged planktonic approach, as well as with increased substance volume over a prolonged exposure (up to 72 h). Qualitative visualization of biofilms was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both reference agents (OCT/PE and PHMB) induced significant biofilm reductions within 72 h, whereby high volume OCT/PE even managed complete eradication of P. aeruginosa and MRSA biofilms after 72 h. The tested hypochlorous wound irrigation solutions achieved no relevant penetration and eradication of biofilms despite increased volume and exposure. Only 0.2% NaClO managed a low reduction under prolonged exposure. The results demonstrate that low-dosed hypochlorous wound irrigation solutions are significantly less effective than PHMB-based irrigation solution and OCT/PE, thus unsuitable for biofilm eradication on their own. The used complex hpBIOM thereby mimics the highly challenging clinical wound micro-environment, providing a more profound base for future clinical translation.
Project description:Infective complications are a major factor contributing to wound chronicity and can be associated with significant morbidity or mortality. Wound bacteria are protected in biofilm communities and are highly resistant to immune system components and to antimicrobials used in wound therapy. There is an urgent medical need to more effectively eradicate wound biofilm pathogens. In the present work, we tested the impact of such commonly used antibiotics and antiseptics as gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, octenidine, chlorhexidine, polihexanidine, and ethacridine lactate delivered to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the presence of rotating magnetic fields (RMFs) of 10-50?Hz frequency and produced by a customized RMF generator. Fifty percent greater reduction in biofilm growth and biomass was observed after exposure to RMF as compared to biofilms not exposed to RMF. Our results suggest that RMF as an adjunct to antiseptic wound care can significantly improve antibiofilm activity, which has important translational potential for clinical applications.
Project description:Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) are two of the most common household antiseptics, but show weaker efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria as well as against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, relative to other S.?aureus strains. We prepared 28 novel quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) that represent a hybrid of these two structures, using 1- to 2-step synthetic sequences. The biscationic (bisQAC) species prepared show uniformly potent activity against six bacterial strains tested, with nine novel antiseptics displaying single-digit micromolar activity across the board. Effects of unequal chain lengths of two installed side chains had less impact than the overall number of side chain carbon atoms present, which was optimal at 22-25 carbons. This is further indication that simple refinements to multiQAC architectures can show improvement over current household antiseptics.
Project description:Twenty-one mono- and biscationic quaternary ammonium amphiphiles (monoQACs and bisQACs) were rapidly prepared in order to investigate the effects of rigidity of a diamine core structure on antiseptic activity. As anticipated, the bioactivity against a panel of six bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains was strong for bisQAC structures, and is clearly correlated with the length of non-polar side chains. Modest advantages were noted for amide-containing side chains, as compared with straight-chained alkyl substituents. Surprisingly, antiseptics with more rigidly disposed side chains, such as those in DABCO-12,12, showed the highest level of antimicrobial activity, with single-digit MIC values or better against the entire bacterial panel, including sub-micromolar activity against an MRSA strain.
Project description:Biofilms in chronic wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers, pose a major challenge to wound management. Herein, we report a Janus-type antimicrobial dressing for eradication of biofilms in chronic wounds. The dressing consists of electrospun nanofiber membranes coupled with dissolvable microneedle arrays to enable effective delivery of a database-designed antimicrobial peptide to both inside and outside biofilms. This antimicrobial dressing exhibited high efficacy against a broad spectrum of resistant pathogens <i>in vitro</i>. Importantly, such a dressing was able to eradicate methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) biofilms in both an <i>ex vivo</i> human skin wound infection model and a type II diabetic mouse wound infection model after daily treatment without applying surgical debridement. Most importantly, the dressing can also completely remove the <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> and MRSA, dual-species biofilm in an <i>ex vivo</i> human skin infection model. In addition, our computational simulations also suggested that microneedles were more effective in the delivery of peptides to the biofilms than free drugs. Our results indicate that the Janus-type antimicrobial dressings may provide an effective treatment and management of chronic wound polymicrobial infections.
Project description:Thirty-six biscationic quaternary ammonium compounds were efficiently synthesized in one step to examine the effect of molecular geometry of two-carbon linkers on antimicrobial activity. The synthesized compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity against a panel of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While the linker geometry showed only a modest correlation with antimicrobial activity, several of the synthesized bisQACs are promising potential antiseptics due to good antimicrobial activity (MIC≤2 μM) and their higher therapeutic indices compared to previously reported QACs.
Project description:Although chemical antiseptics are the most basic measure to control wound infection and frequently come into contact with subcutaneous adipose tissue, no studies have evaluated their toxicity on adipose tissue and its cell fractions. In the present study, the effects of five different antiseptics on adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated.Human adipose-derived stem cells were harvested from healthy donors. Adipose-derived stem cell viability was measured after treatment with different concentrations of antiseptics over 5 days. Furthermore, the effect on the proliferation, adipogenic differentiation, and apoptosis/necrosis of adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed. Finally, the mRNA expression of the stem cell markers CD29, CD34, CD73, CD90, and CD105 was detected.Octenisept and Betaisodona significantly reduced cell proliferation and differentiation and led to considerable adipose-derived stem cell necrosis. Octenisept decreased stem cell viability at the lowest concentrations tested, and all stem cell markers were down-regulated by Octeniseptr and Betaisodona. Lavasept and Prontosan both led to reduced stem cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation, and increased apoptosis/necrosis, although the effects were less pronounced compared with Octenisept and Betaisodona. Adipose-derived stem cells survived treatment with mafenide acetate even at high concentrations, and mafenide acetate showed minimal negative effects on their proliferation, adipogenic differentiation, cell death, and stem cell marker expression.Mafenide acetate may be regarded as a feasible antiseptic for the treatment of wounds with exposed adipose tissue because of its low adipose-derived stem cell toxicity. Lavasept and Prontosan are possible alternatives to mafenide acetate. Octenisept and Betaisodona, by contrast, may be used only in highly diluted solutions.Therapeutic, V.