Mexican Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale in Physical Education.
ABSTRACT: Basic psychological needs are an energizing state that, if satisfied, will produce an increase in confidence and a healthy motivational orientation that leads to wellness. Frustration of these needs is the opposite concept of satisfaction, which refers to the negative sensation experimented by an individual when he or she perceives that their psychological needs are being actively limited by the actions of the significant other. To date, we have not found instruments validated in Spanish that measure both the satisfaction and the frustration of basic psychological needs in the physical education (PE) context. Therefore, the aims of this study are adapting the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS) to the PE context in Mexico; and examine its psychometric properties, structure, and factorial invariance by gender in a sample of fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students. This study included a total of 1,470 fifth- and sixth-grade students from elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The results support the reliability, validity, structure, and strict invariance of the sixth Mexican version of the BPNSFS in physical education (BPNSFS-PE). The BPNSFS-PE can be used to measure the satisfaction and/or frustration of the basic psychological needs of students in PE class and to perform comparisons between groups of boys and girls.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study aimed to determine how the general course experiences of dental students in Chile and the satisfaction or frustration of their basic psychological needs influenced their passion for studying, and how passion influenced students' study strategies. METHODS:A correlational cross-sectional study was conducted at 3 Chilean dental schools between April and June 2018, in which 935 undergraduate students participated. Students responded to Spanish-language versions of 4 psychological scale tools: the Course Experience Questionnaire, the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfac¬tion and Frustration Scale, the Passion Scale, and the Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Data were analysed with bivariate correlations and structural equation modelling, controlling for age, gender, year of study, and type of university. RESULTS:Students' general course experiences (i.e., good teaching, clear goals and standards, appropriate assessment, and appropriate workload) positively predicted basic need satisfaction and negatively predicted need frustration. Need satisfaction positively predicted passion in students, with stronger scores for harmonious passion. Basic need frustration positively predicted obsessive passion and negatively predicted harmonious passion. Harmonious passion positively predicted deep study strategies and negatively predicted surface study strategies, while obsessive passion positively predicted both deep and surface study strategies. CONCLUSION:Dental students' optimal course experiences positively influenced the satisfaction of their basic psychological needs, which favoured harmonious over obsessive passion. In turn, harmonious over obsessive passion positively influenced deep study strategies. Therefore, efforts should be made to provide course experiences that support students' basic needs and harmonious passion for studying, both in classroom and chair-side teaching.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to provide more insight into how the physical education (PE) context can be better tailored to the diverse motivational demands of secondary school students. Therefore, we examined how different constructs of student motivation in the context of PE combine into distinct motivational profiles, aiming to unveil motivational similarities and differences between students' PE experiences. Participants were 2,562 Dutch secondary school students, aged 12-18, from 24 different schools. Students responded to questionnaires assessing their perception of psychological need satisfaction and frustration, and perceived mastery and performance climate in PE. In order to interpret the emerging profiles additional variables were assessed (i.e. demographic, motivational and PE-related variables). Two-step cluster analysis identified three meaningful profiles labelled as negative perceivers, moderate perceivers and positive perceivers. These three profiles differed significantly with regard to perceived psychological need satisfaction and frustration and their perception of the motivational climate. This study demonstrates that students can be grouped in distinct profiles based on their perceptions of the motivational PE environment. Consequently, the insights obtained could assist PE teachers in designing instructional strategies that target students' differential motivational needs.
Project description:Sports research has been focused on the assessment of basic needs satisfaction, considering its absence as a representation of needs frustration. However, recent findings have suggested needs satisfaction and frustration as asymmetrical factors leading to differentiated outcomes. An accurate measurement of needs poses itself as a crucial aspect, facilitating coaches' understanding of athlete's motivational processes. This study aimed to examine the psychometric proprieties of the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS) in a sample of Portuguese athletes. A multigroup analysis was conducted of gender, sport type, age, and years of sports practice. Additionally, needs satisfaction and needs frustration were tested as predictors of behavioral regulations examining the nomological validity of the BPNSFS. Data from 594 Portuguese athletes (38.6% female; Mage = 15.21; SD = 0.97) that represent two different sports (football and swimming) were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling procedures were followed to test the factor structure and nomological validity of the scale, respectively. Analyses indicated that the six-factor model provided an adequate fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.947, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.936, Standardized Root Mean Square = 0.039, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.048 (CI 90% = 0.043, 0.054)). Moreover, the multigroup analysis suggested invariance in the observed structure across groups. In addition, findings indicated a strong prediction between needs satisfaction and autonomous forms of motivation, whereas needs frustration predicted significantly controlled forms of motivation. The sport-adapted BPNSFS in a sample of Portuguese athletes seemed to be an adequate measure for the assessment of basic psychological needs satisfaction and frustration. Our findings suggested that this scale may be worth testing in future research in the sport context.
Project description:Grounded in self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between autonomy-supportive teaching, mindfulness, and basic psychological need satisfaction/frustration. Secondary school students (n = 390, Mage = 15) responded to a survey form measuring psychological constructs pertaining to the research purpose. A series of multiple regression analysis showed that autonomy-supportive teaching and mindfulness positively predicted need satisfaction and negatively predicted need frustration. In addition, the associations between autonomy-supportive teaching and need satisfaction/frustration were moderated by mindfulness. Students higher in mindfulness were more likely to feel need satisfaction and less likely to experience need frustration, even in a low autonomy-supportive teaching environment. These results speak to the relevance of creating autonomy-supportive teaching environments and highlight mindfulness as a potential pathway to basic psychological need satisfaction in educational settings.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical activity-based intervention conducted during recess time for Spanish students with special needs. The intervention was designed to utilize an autonomy-supportive motivational style to promote feelings of autonomy and to contribute to increased physical activity involvement in these students. Participants were 62 students in the fifth and sixth year of elementary school, with ages between 10 and 12 years (M = 10.75 years, SD = 0.80 years). Students' perceptions of autonomy support, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, sport and physical activity motivation and actual physical activity level were assessed. A quasi-experimental design was employed with two intervention groups (autonomy-supportive and controlling styles), as well as a control group. Results indicated that students in the autonomy-supportive condition demonstrated a significant increase in feelings of autonomy and increased their physical activity levels while demonstrating a significant decrease in extrinsic motivation over the course of the intervention. The results provide support for the expectation that well-designed and theoretically based physical activity interventions can optimize learning and motivational outcomes for students in inclusive physical education settings.
Project description:Happiness can be pursued based on hedonic motives (i.e., seeking pleasure and comfort) and/or eudaimonic motives (i.e., seeking to develop and make the best use of the self). Substantial studies have found that hedonic and eudaimonic motives relate to well-being outcomes in different ways. However, these findings were predominantly based on Western samples, while study about the relationship between happiness motives and well-being outcomes in Eastern cultures is scanty. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie these associations. To address these gaps, we conducted two studies based on Chinese college students. In study 1 (N = 301), structural equation modeling demonstrated that eudaimonic motives were positively associated with life satisfaction and meaning in life, but hedonic motives were not significantly associated with either indicator of well-being. In study 2 (N = 526), structural equation modeling showed that (1) hedonic motives had an indirect effect on life satisfaction through need frustration and (2) eudaimonic motives had indirect effects on life satisfaction and meaning in life through need satisfaction and need frustration. These findings highlight the important roles that the satisfaction and the frustration of basic psychological needs play in translating happiness motives into well-being outcomes.
Project description:Background:The frustration of basic psychological needs can be detrimental to people's health. To date, a scale developed specifically for measuring such perceived negative experiences, derived from a need thwarting environment in the physical activity context, is lacking. The present research attempted to develop and validate the Psychological Need Frustration Scale for Physical Activity (PNFS-PA) grounded in self-determination theory via multiple studies. Method:In Study 1, an item pool was created, and its face and content validity were established. In Study 2, the factor structure of the scale was demonstrated using exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM). In Study 3, its factor structure was cross-validated. Also, the nomological validity, reliability and measurement invariance of the scale were established. Result:Taken together, the research suggests the newly developed PNFS-PA is valid and reliable and can be applied to assess psychological needs frustration experiences in the physical activity context.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to validate and adapt to the Spanish context of Physical Education, the Spanish version of the Scale of Basic Psychological Needs in the context of physical exercise, with the incorporation of novelty to the scale. The sample that took part in the study was 2372 people from 16 to 48 years old from the province of Almeria. In order to analyze the psychometric properties of the scale, several analyses have been carried out. The results have offered support both for the eight-factor structure and for the higher-order double model where the eight subscales are joined into two constructs called frustration and satisfaction. The structure of both models was invariant with respect to gender and age. Cronbach's alpha values were above 0.70 in the subscales and scales; and adequate levels of temporal stability. In addition, the subfactors pertaining to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs positively predicted the intrinsic motivation for physical activity, while each of the subfactors of the frustration of psychological needs predicted it negatively. The results of this study provide evidence of the reliability and validity of the BPNS in the Spanish context of physical activity.
Project description:In recent years, novelty has been proposed as a potential fourth basic psychological need. In the present study, the behavior of novelty resulting from support from the Physical Education teacher was evaluated in 723 students with an average age of 13.30 years old. The first objective was to validate the Support for Basic Psychological Needs-4 (SBPN-4) in Physical Education questionnaire, which included support for the novelty factor. The second objective was to test the mediation model in order to confirm the effect of support for novelty in relation to basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results obtained show that the Support for Basic Psychological Needs-4 (SBPN-4) questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool. On the other hand, support for novelty predicts satisfaction of basic psychological needs, particularly novelty satisfaction, which in turn predicts intrinsic motivation. These results show how the students are capable of perceiving the teacher's support for novelty and how this positively influences their intrinsic motivation. Further investigations are required to continue developing our knowledge of the role of novelty as a basic psychological need.
Project description:In the present study, a trans-contextual model was applied to examine the relations between students' perceptions of controlling behavior from teachers, frustration over their basic psychological needs, autonomous motivation toward physical activity in a physical education context, autonomous motivation toward physical activity in an out-of-school context, beliefs and intentions toward future physical activity, and actual participation in physical activity outside of school. We adopted a three-wave prospective study design in which 234 students aged 11-19 years first completed measures of perceived controlling behavior from teachers, frustration over their basic psychological needs, and autonomous motivation toward physical activity in physical education. One week later, their autonomous motivation, beliefs, and intentions toward physical activity outside of school were measured. Students' self-reported engagement in physical activity outside of school was assessed another five weeks later. Results of the path analysis revealed a significant and negative indirect effect of perceived controlling behavior from physical education teachers on students' intention toward physical activity outside of school via the proposed motivational sequence of the trans-contextual model. There was also a significant and negative indirect effect of perceived controlling behavior from physical education teachers on students' self-reported engagement in physical activity outside of school, mediated by the frustration over their need for competence in physical education. Findings emphasize the importance of decreasing controlling behaviors from teachers in a physical education context so as not to inhibit students' physical activity behavior in an out-of-school context.