MRI-Induced Heating of Coils for Microscopic Magnetic Stimulation at 1.5 Tesla: An Initial Study.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proved to be effective in the treatment of movement disorders. However, the direct contact between the metal contacts of the DBS electrode and the brain can cause RF heating in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, due to an increase of local specific absorption rate (SAR). Recently, micro coils (?MS) have demonstrated excitation of neuronal tissue through the electromagnetic induction both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In contrast to electrical stimulation, in ?MS, there is no direct contact between the metal and the biological tissue. Methods:We compared the heating of a ?MS coil with a control case of a metal wire. The heating was induced by RF fields in a 1.5 T MRI head birdcage coil (often used for imaging patients with implants) at 64 MHz, and normalized results to 3.2 W/kg whole head average SAR. Results:The ?MS coil or wire implants were placed inside an anatomically accurate head saline-gel filled phantom inserted in the RF coil, and we observed approximately 1°C initial temperature rise at the ?MS coil, while the wire exhibited a 10°C temperature rise in the proximity of the exposed end. The numerical simulations showed a 32-times increase of local SAR induced at the tips of the metal wire compared to the ?MS. Conclusion:In this work, we show with measurements and electromagnetic numerical simulations that the RF-induced increase in local SAR and induced heating during MRI scanning can be greatly reduced by using magnetic stimulation with the proposed ?MS technology.
Project description:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for patients with movement disorders. Patients receiving chronic DBS provide a unique opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms of DBS using functional MRI. It has been shown that the main safety concern with MRI in these patients is heating at the electrode tips - which can be minimised with strict adherence to a supervised acquisition protocol using a head-transmit/receive coil at 1.5T. MRI using the body-transmit coil with a multi-channel receive head coil has a number of potential advantages including an improved signal-to-noise ratio.We compared the safety of cranial MRI in an in vitro model of bilateral DBS using both head-transmit and body-transmit coils. We performed fibre-optic thermometry at a Medtronic ActivaPC device and Medtronic 3389 electrodes during turbo-spin echo (TSE) MRI using both coil arrangements at 1.5T and 3T, in addition to gradient-echo echo-planar fMRI exposure at 1.5T. Finally, we investigated the effect of transmit-coil choice on DBS stimulus delivery during MRI.Temperature increases were consistently largest at the electrode tips. Changing from head- to body-transmit coil significantly increased the electrode temperature elevation during TSE scans with scanner-reported head SAR 0.2W/kg from 0.45°C to 0.79°C (p<0.001) at 1.5T, and from 1.25°C to 1.44°C (p<0.001) at 3T. The position of the phantom relative to the body coil significantly impacted on electrode heating at 1.5T; however, the greatest heating observed in any position tested remained <1°C at this field strength.We conclude that (1) with our specific hardware and SAR-limited protocol, body-transmit cranial MRI at 1.5T does not produce heating exceeding international guidelines, even in cases of poorly positioned patients, (2) cranial MRI at 3T can readily produce heating exceeding international guidelines, (3) patients with ActivaPC Medtronic systems are safe to be recruited to future fMRI experiments performed under the specific conditions defined by our protocol, with no likelihood of confound by inappropriate stimulus delivery.
Project description:Patients with deep brain stimulation devices highly benefit from postoperative MRI exams, however MRI is not readily accessible to these patients due to safety risks associated with RF heating of the implants. Recently we introduced a patient-adjustable reconfigurable coil technology that substantially reduced local SAR at tips of single isolated DBS leads during MRI at 1.5?T in 9 realistic patient models. This contribution extends our work to higher fields by demonstrating the feasibility of scaling the technology to 3T and assessing its performance in patients with bilateral leads as well as fully implanted systems. We developed patient-derived models of bilateral DBS leads and fully implanted DBS systems from postoperative CT images of 13 patients and performed finite element simulations to calculate SAR amplification at electrode contacts during MRI with a reconfigurable rotating coil at 3T. Compared to a conventional quadrature body coil, the reconfigurable coil system reduced the SAR on average by 83% for unilateral leads and by 59% for bilateral leads. A simple surgical modification in trajectory of implanted leads was demonstrated to increase the SAR reduction efficiency of the rotating coil to >90% in a patient with a fully implanted bilateral DBS system. Thermal analysis of temperature-rise around electrode contacts during typical brain exams showed a 15-fold heating reduction using the rotating coil, generating <1°C temperature rise during ?4-min imaging with high-SAR sequences where a conventional CP coil generated >10°C temperature rise in the tissue for the same flip angle.
Project description:Access to MRI is limited for patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) implants due to safety hazards, including radiofrequency (RF) heating of tissue surrounding the leads. Computational models provide an exquisite tool to explore the multi-variate problem of RF heating and help better understand the interaction of electromagnetic fields and biological tissues. This paper presents a computational approach to assess RF-induced heating, in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR) in the tissue, around the tip of bilateral DBS leads during MRI at 64MHz/1.5?T and 127?MHz/3T. Patient-specific realistic lead models were constructed from post-operative CT images of nine patients operated for sub-thalamic nucleus DBS. Finite element method was applied to calculate the SAR at the tip of left and right DBS contact electrodes. Both transmit head coils and transmit body coils were analyzed. We found a substantial difference between the SAR and temperature rise at the tip of right and left DBS leads, with the lead contralateral to the implanted pulse generator (IPG) exhibiting up to 7 times higher SAR in simulations, and up to 10 times higher temperature rise during measurements. The orientation of incident electric field with respect to lead trajectories was explored and a metric to predict local SAR amplification was introduced. Modification of the lead trajectory was shown to substantially reduce the heating in phantom experiments using both conductive wires and commercially available DBS leads. Finally, the surgical feasibility of implementing the modified trajectories was demonstrated in a patient operated for bilateral DBS.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of injury from radiofrequency (RF) heating of metallic dental devices in use during 3.0 T MRI. METHODS: The whole-body specific absorption rate (WB-SAR) was calculated on the basis of saline temperature elevation under the maximum RF irradiation for 15 min to determine the operation parameters for the heating test. The temperature changes of three types of three-unit bridges, a full-arch fixed dental prosthesis and an orthodontic appliance in use during MRI with a 3.0 T MR system (Magnetom(®) Verio; Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) were then tested in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials F2182-09 standardized procedure under the maximum RF heating during 15 min RF irradiation. RESULTS: The system console-predicted WB-SAR was approximately 1.4 W kg(-1) and that measured with a saline phantom was 2.1 W kg(-1). In the assessment of RF heating, the highest temperature increase was +1.80 °C in the bridges, +1.59 °C in the full-arch fixed dental prosthesis and +2.61 °C in the orthodontic appliance. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively minor RF heating of dental casting material-based prostheses in Magnetom Verio systems in the normal operating mode should not pose a risk to patients. However, orthodontic appliances may exhibit RF heating above the industrial standard (CENELEC standard prEN45502-2-3); therefore, the wire should be removed from the bracket or a spacer should be used between the appliance and the oral mucosa during MRI.
Project description:PURPOSE: To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT) of turbo-spin-echo (TSE) and echo-planar-imaging (EPI) with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF) burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR) for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL) and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. RESULTS: Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen's kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection ?CAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of ?LES = 0.82). CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (p<0.001). Mean SAR differences between TSE and CAT were 29.0 (± 5.7) % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (± 21.9) % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations). Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. CONCLUSION: T2-/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning.
Project description:This study investigates radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating in a head model with a 256-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) cap during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nine computational models were implemented each with different EEG lead electrical conductivity, ranging from 1 to 5.8 × 107 S/m. The peak values of specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over different volumes were calculated for each lead conductivity. Experimental measurements were also performed at 3-T MRI with a Gracilaria Lichenoides (GL) phantom with and without a low-conductive EEG lead cap ("InkNet"). The simulation results showed that SAR was a nonlinear function of the EEG lead conductivity. The experimental results were in line with the numerical simulations. Specifically, there was a ?T of 1.7 °C in the GL phantom without leads compared to ?T of 1.8 °C calculated with the simulations. Additionally, there was a ?T of 1.5 °C in the GL phantom with the InkNet compared to a ?T of 1.7 °C in the simulations with a cap of similar conductivity. The results showed that SAR is affected by specific location, number of electrodes, and the volume of tissue considered. As such, SAR averaged over the whole head, or even SAR averaged over volumes of 1 or 0.1 g, may conceal significant heating effects and local analysis of RF heating (in terms of peak SAR and temperature) is needed.
Project description:The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters.An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B1) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects.A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole-body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average independent of the imaging subject, albeit with fluctuations.Our 3T RF dosimeter and transducers accurately measure RF exposure in body-equivalent loads and provide scanner-independent assessments of whole-body RF power deposition for establishing safety compliance useful for MRI sequence and device testing.
Project description:Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the need for high-resolution detailed anatomical modeling to correctly estimate radio-frequency (RF) safety during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RF-induced heating near metallic implanted devices depends on the electric field tangential to the device (Etan ). Etan and specific absorption rate (SAR) were analyzed in blood vessels of an anatomical model to understand if a standard gel phantom accurately represents the potential heating in tissues due to passive vascular implants such as stents. Methods: A numerical model of an RF birdcage body coil and an anatomically realistic virtual patient with a native spatial resolution of 1 mm3 were used to simulate the in vivo electric field at 64 MHz (1.5 T MRI system). Maximum values of SAR inside the blood vessels were calculated and compared with peaks in a numerical model of the ASTM gel phantom to see if the results from the simplified and homogeneous gel phantom were comparable to the results from the anatomical model. Etan values were also calculated in selected stent trajectories inside blood vessels and compared with the ASTM result. Results: Peak SAR values in blood vessels were up to ten times higher than those found in the ASTM standard gel phantom. Peaks were found in clinically significant anatomical locations, where stents are implanted as per intended use. Furthermore, Etan results showed that volume-averaged SAR values might not be sufficient to assess RF safety. Conclusion: Computational modeling with a high-resolution anatomical model indicated higher values of the incident electric field compared to the standard testing approach. Further investigation will help develop a robust safety testing method which reflects clinically realistic conditions.
Project description:Elongated conductors, such as pacemaker leads, neurostimulator leads, and conductive guidewires used for interventional procedures can couple to the MRI radiofrequency (RF) transmit field, potentially causing dangerous tissue heating. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using parallel transmit to control induced RF currents in elongated conductors, thereby reducing the RF heating hazard.Phantom experiments were performed on a four-channel parallel transmit system at 1.5T. Parallel transmit "null mode" excitations that induce minimal wire current were designed using coupling measurements derived from axial B1 (+) maps. The resulting current reduction performance was evaluated with B1 (+) maps, current sensor measurements, and fluoroptic temperature probe measurements.Null mode excitations reduced the maximum coupling mode current by factors ranging from 2 to 80. For the straight wire experiment, a current null imposed at a single wire location was sufficient to reduce tip heating below detectable levels. For longer insertion lengths and a curved geometry, imposing current nulls at two wire locations resulted in more distributed current reduction along the wire length.Parallel transmit can be used to create excitations that induce minimal RF current in elongated conductors, thereby decreasing the RF heating risk, while still allowing visualization of the surrounding volume.