Nanocomposite based on Poly (para-phenylene)/Chemical Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Platform for Simultaneous Detection of Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid.
ABSTRACT: In this study, an efficient and simple designed nanohybrid created for individual and simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). This nanohybrid is a combination of reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) and redox poly(para-phenylene) (Fc-ac-PP) modified in a lateral position with ferrrocenyl group CRGO/Fc-ac-PPP. The CRGO/Fc-ac-PPP nanohybrid demonstrated a synergistic effect resulting in a large conductivity, surface area and catalytic properties provided by the redox attached ferrocene. Moreover, this nanocomposite is able to detect individually as well as simultaneously AA, DA and UA in a co-existence system with defined and separated redox peaks oxidation. The linear response ranges for AA, DA and UA, when detected simultaneously, are 0.1-10000 ?M, 0.0001-1000 ?M and 0.1-10000 ?M, respectively, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) are 0.046 ?M, 0.2 nM and 0.013 ?M, respectively. The proposed sensor shown satisfactory results when applied to real spiked urine samples for measuring the abnormal high or lowconcentration of AA, DA and UA in vivo.
Project description:Carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotube (CNT) co-doped polyimide (PI) modified glassy carbon electrode (CB-CNT/PI/GCE) was first prepared for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The CB-CNT/PI/GCE exhibited persistent electrochemical behavior and excellent catalytic activities. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used for the simultaneous detection of AA, DA, and UA in their ternary mixture. The peak separations between AA and DA, and DA and UA, are up to 166 mV and 148 mV, respectively. The CB-CNT/PI/GCE exhibited high sensitivity to DA and UA, with the detection limit of 1.9 µM and 3 µM, respectively. In addition, the CB-CNT/PI/GCE showed sufficient selectivity and long-term stability, and was applicable to detect AA, DA, and UA in human urine sample.
Project description:An all PEDOT:PSS Organic Electrochemical Transistor (OECT) has been developed and used for the selective detection of dopamine (DA) in the presence of interfering compounds (ascorbic acid, AA and uric acid, UA). The selective response has been implemented using a potentiodynamic approach, by varying the operating gate voltage and the scan rate. The trans-conductance curves allow to obtain a linear calibration plot for AA, UA and DA and to separate the redox waves associated to each compound; for this purpose, the scan rate is an important parameter to achieve a good resolution. The sensitivities and limits of detection obtained with the OECT have been compared with those obtained by potential step amperometric techniques (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry), employing a PEDOT:PSS working electrode: our results prove that the all-PEDOT:PSS OECT sensitivities and limits of detection are comparable or even better than those obtained by DPV, a technique that employs a sophisticate potential wave and read-out system in order to maximize the performance of electrochemical sensors and that can hardly be considered a viable readout method in practical applications.
Project description:The ultimate aim of this study is to produce a composite of bimetallic platinum-cobalt nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (Pt-Co@rGO) based biosensor for the detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). Those are biologically important molecules with the key functions for the human body. Pt-Co@rGO was synthesized using a microwave-assisted technique and utilized for the production of a highly sensitive and stable electrochemical biosensor. Detailed spectral XPS and Raman analysis, XRD, and TEM/HR-TEM characterization were also studied. Due to the superior activity and excellent conductivity of rGO, well-separated oxidation peaks of these biomolecules is proven by DPV (differential pulse voltammetry) and CV (cyclic voltammetry) measurements. The prepared Pt-Co@rGO-based biosensor showed high electrochemical activity, a broad linear response, high sensitivity, and acceptable limit of detection values for individual and simultaneous determination of AA, DA, and UA, under optimized conditions. The linear range of Pt-Co@rGO was found to be 170-200; 35-1500 and 5-800 µM for AA, DA, and UA, respectively. Moreover, the detection limit of the prepared composite was calculated as 0.345; 0.051; 0.172 µM for AA, DA, and UA, respectively. In the field of electrochemical biosensors, Pt-Co@rGO based sensor is highly promising due to its superior sensitivity and good selectivity properties.
Project description:The biomass-derived activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared with high surface areas up to 793 m(2) g(-1) is by ZnCl2 activation at three different temperatures, viz. AC700, AC800, and AC900. The AC samples were characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopy techniques. The as-synthesized ACs were adopted for the simultaneous electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). For comparison, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was employed for the proposed sensor. The high surface area, modulated pore size and the presence of oxygen surface functional groups like heteroatoms (83.427% C, 1.085% N, 0.383% S, and 0.861% H) in the biomass-derived AC is found to be responsible for the excellent catalytic activities of biomolecules. Fascinatingly, the facile sensor further used to detect biomolecules levels in the snail hemolymph and human blood serum. Notably, the obtained analytical parameters for the biomolecules detection over the AC modified GCE, outperforming several carbon-based modified electrodes in literatures.
Project description:Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were homogeneously electrodeposited on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) to modify a glassy carbon electrode (GCE/N-rGO-Au) in order to improve the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA), and uric acid (UA). N-rGO was prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) and urea at 180 °C for 12 h. AuNPs were subsequently electrodeposited onto the surface of GCE/N-rGO using 1 mM HAuCl4 solution. The morphology and chemical composition of the synthesized materials were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrodes was investigated through cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry measurements. Compared to GCE/rGO-Au, GCE/N-rGO-Au exhibited better electrochemical performance towards the simultaneous detection of the three analytes due to the more homogeneous distribution of the metallic nanoparticles as a result of more efficient anchoring on the N-doped areas of the graphene structure. The GCE/N-rGO-Au-based sensor operated in a wide linear range of DA (3-100 µM), AA (550-1500 µM), and UA (20-1000 µM) concentrations with a detection limit of 2.4, 58, and 8.7 µM, respectively, and exhibited satisfactory peak potential separation values of 0.34 V (AA-DA), 0.20 V, (DA-UA) and 0.54 V (AA-UA). Remarkably, GCE/N-rGO-Au showed a very low detection limit of 385 nM towards DA, not being susceptible to interference, and maintained 90% of its initial electrochemical signal after one month, indicating an excellent long-term stability.
Project description:Using starch as the carbon precursor and different-sized ZnO naoparticles as the hard template, a series of porous carbon materials for electrochemical sensing were prepared. Experiments of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms reveal that the particle size of ZnO has big impacts on the porous morphology and surface area of the resulting carbon materials. Through ultrasonic dispersion of porous carbon and subsequent solvent evaporation, different sensing interfaces were constructed on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) were studied. On the surface of porous carbon materials, the accumulation efficiency and electron transfer ability of AA, DA and UA are improved, and consequently their oxidation signals enhance greatly. Moreover, the interface enhancement effects of porous carbon are also controlled by the particle size of hard template. The constructed porous carbon interface displays strong signal amplification ability and holds great promise in constructing a sensitive platform for the simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA.
Project description:A novel, simple and selective electrochemical method was investigated for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) on a poly(l-lysine)/graphene oxide (GO) modified glassy carbon electrode (PLL/GO/GCE) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The electrochemically prepared PLL/GO sensory platform toward the oxidation of UA and DA exhibited several advantages, including high effective surface area, more active sites and enhanced electrochemical activity. Compared to the PLL-modified GCE (PLL/GCE), GO-modified GCE and bare GCE, the PLL/GO/GCE exhibited an increase in the anodic potential difference and a remarkable enhancement in the current responses for both UA and DA. For the simultaneous detection of DA and UA, the detection limits of 0.021 and 0.074 ?M were obtained, while 0.031 and 0.018 ?M were obtained as the detection limits for the selective detection of UA and DA, using DPV in the linear concentration ranges of 0.5 to 20.0 and 0.5 to 35 ?M, respectively. In addition, the PLL/GO/GCE demonstrated good reproducibility, long-term stability, excellent selectivity and negligible interference of ascorbic acid (AA). The proposed modified electrode was successfully implemented in the simultaneous detection of DA and UA in human blood serum, urine and dopamine hydrochloride injection with satisfactory results.
Project description:Copper nanowires (Cu NWs) were modified with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets to obtain a sensor for simultaneous voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AC). The nanocomposite was obtained via sonication, and its structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical oxidation activity of the materials (placed on a glassy carbon electrode) was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the synergistic effect of Cu NWs and GO, the specific surface, electrochemical oxidation performance and conductivity are improved when compared to each individual component. The peaks for AA (-0.08 V), DA (+0.16 V), and AC (+0.38 V) are well separated. The sensor has wide linear ranges which are from 1-60 μM, 1-100 μM, and 1-100 μM for AA, DA, and AC, respectively, when operated in the differential pulse voltammetric mode. The detection limits are 50, 410 and 40 nM, respectively. Potential interferences by uric acid (20 μM), glucose (10 mM), NaCl (1 mM), and KCl (1 mM) were tested for AA (1 μΜ), DA (1 μΜ), and AC (1 μΜ) and were found to be insignificant. The method was successfully applied to the quantification of AA, DA, and AC in spiked serum samples.
Project description:Amide-functionalized materials have emerged as promising nonprecious catalysts for electrochemical sensing and catalysis. The covalent immobilization of chitosan (CS) onto graphene sheet (GS) (denoted as CS-GS) has been done via higher degree of amidation reaction to develop an electrochemical sensing matrix for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The enhanced amidation between CS and GS has not been reported previously. However, electrochemical results have revealed that the CS-GS enhances the electrocatalytic performance in terms of the oxidation potential and peak current due to the higher degree of amide functionalization compared to that of CS/GS, which has a lower amidation. Differential pulse voltammetry-based studies have indicated that the CS-GS matrix works at a lower detection limit (0.14 and 0.17 ?M) (S/N = 3) and over a longer linear range (1-700 and 1-800 ?M), with a comparatively higher sensitivity (2.5 and 2.0 ?A ?M-1 cm-2), for DA and UA, respectively. In addition, the CS-GS matrix demonstrates good selectivity toward the detection of DA and UA in the presence of a 10-fold higher concentration of AA and glucose. The as-prepared three-dimensional porous CS-GS also endows selective determination toward DA and UA in various real samples.
Project description:The development of electrochemical biosensors for the simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), tryptophan (Trp), and nitrite ([Formula: see text]) in human serum is reported in this work. Free-standing graphene nanosheets were fabricated on Ta wire using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. CVD graphene, which here served as a sensing platform, provided a highly sensitive and selective option, with detection limits of AA, DA, UA, Trp, and [Formula: see text] of 1.58, 0.06, 0.09, 0.10, and 6.45??M (S/N?=?3), respectively. The high selectivity of the electrode is here explained by a relationship between the bandgap energy of analyte and the Fermi level of graphene. The high sensitivity in the oxidation current was determined by analyzing the influence of the high surface area and chemical structure of free-standing graphene nanosheets on analyte adsorption capacity. This finding strongly indicates that the CVD graphene electrode can be used as a biosensor to detect five analytes in human serum.