Proportion of Maternal Near-Miss and Its Determinants among Northwest Ethiopian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.
ABSTRACT: Background:Life-threatening situations might arise unexpectedly during pregnancy. Maternal near-miss can be a proxy for maternal death and explained as women who nearly died due to obstetric-related complications. It is recognized as the predictor of level of care and maternal death. Maternal near-miss evaluates life-threatening pregnancy-related complications, and it directs the assessment of the quality of obstetric care. Objective:To determine the proportion and factors associated with maternal near-miss at maternity wards at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019. Methods:A cross-sectional study design was carried out from March 1 to June 20, 2019, using WHO criteria for maternal near-miss at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital. The data are from the interviews and review of 303 systematically selected participants' medical files at maternity wards. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze factors associated with maternal near-miss, including estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals and p value less than 0.05 through SPSS version 20. Result:The study revealed that the proportion of maternal near-miss was found to be 15.8% (95%CI = 11.9%-20.1%). In the adjusted analyses, maternal near-miss was significantly associated with low (?1000 ETB) monthly income (AOR = 399; 95%CI = 1.65, 9.65), seven or more days of hospital stay (AOR = 5.43; 95%CI = 2.49, 11.83), vaginal bleeding (AOR = 2.75, 95%CI = 1.17, 6.47), and pregnancy-induced hypertension (AOR = 5.13; 95%CI = 2.08, 12.6). Conclusion and Recommendation. The near-miss proportion was comparable to that in the region. Associated factors were low monthly income, seven or more days of hospital stay, vaginal bleeding, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Thus, giving attention on early identification and treatment of these potential factors can be the opportunity in the reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality.
Project description:Secondary analysis of World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS) was undertaken among 173,124 multiparous women to assess the association between previous caesarean sections (CS) and pregnancy outcomes. Maternal outcomes included maternal near miss (MNM), maternal death (MD), severe maternal outcomes (SMO), abnormal placentation, and uterine rupture. Neonatal outcomes were stillbirth, early neonatal death, perinatal death, neonatal near miss (NNM), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and preterm birth. Previous CS was associated with increased risks of uterine rupture (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR); 7.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.48, 10.92); morbidly adherent placenta (aOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.98, 3.40), MNM (aOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.59, 2.28), SMO (aOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.52, 2.13), placenta previa (aOR 1.76; 95% CI 1.49, 2.07). For neonatal outcomes, previous CS was associated with increased risks of NICU admission (aOR 1.31; 95% CI 1.23, 1.39), neonatal near miss (aOR 1.19; 95% CI 1.12, 1.26), preterm birth (aOR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01, 1.14), and decreased risk of macerated stillbirth (aOR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67, 0.95). Previous CS was associated with serious morbidity in future pregnancies. However, these findings should be cautiously interpreted due to lacking data on indications of previous CS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria is one of the highest in the world. Near misses occur in larger numbers than maternal deaths hence they allow for a more comprehensive analysis of risk factors and determinants as well as outcomes of life-threatening complications in pregnancy. The study determined the incidence, characteristics, determinants and perinatal outcomes of near misses in a tertiary hospital in South-west Nigeria.<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective case control study was conducted at the maternity units of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife Nigeria between July 2006 and July 2007. Near miss cases were defined based on validated disease-specific criteria which included severe haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, prolonged obstructed labour, infection and severe anemia. Four unmatched controls of pregnant women were selected for every near miss case. Three categories of risk factors (background, proximate, clinical) which derived from a conceptual framework were examined. The perinatal outcomes were also assessed. Bi-variate logistic regressions were used for multivariate analysis of determinants and perinatal outcomes of near miss.<h4>Results</h4>The incidence of near miss was 12%. Severe haemorrhage (41.3%), hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (37.3%), prolonged obstructed labour (23%), septicaemia (18.6%) and severe anaemia (14.6%) were the direct causes of near miss. The significant risk factors with their odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were: chronic hypertension [OR=6.85; 95% CI: (1.96 - 23.93)] having experienced a phase one delay [OR=2.07; 95% CI (1.03 - 4.17)], Emergency caesarian section [OR=3.72; 95% CI: (0.93 - 14.9)], assisted vaginal delivery [OR=2.55; 95% CI: (1.34 - 4.83)]. The protective factors included antenatal care attendance at tertiary facility [OR=0.19; 95% CI: (0.09 - 0.37)], knowledge of pregnancy complications [OR=0.47; 95% CI (0.24 - 0.94)]. Stillbirth [OR=5.4; 95% CI (2.17 - 13.4)] was the most significant adverse perinatal outcomes associated with near miss event.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The analysis of near misses has evolved as a useful tool in the investigation of maternal health especially in life-threatening situations. The significant risk factors identified in this study are amenable to appropriate public health and medical interventions. Adverse perinatal outcomes are clearly attributable to near miss events. Therefore the findings should contribute to Nigeria's effort to achieving MDG 4 and 5.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments.<h4>Methods</h4>In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56-114.6)). The maternal severity index (MSI) model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909-0.993)).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neonatal near miss is a neonate who nearly died but survived from a severe complication occurred during pregnancy, birth or within 0-28?days of extra-uterine life. However, there is no available data that quantifies the magnitude of neonatal near miss (NNM) in Ethiopia where there is high prevalence of neonatal mortality. Therefore, this study is designed to provide information about the magnitude and associated factors of neonatal near miss among women who give a live birth at Hawassa City Governmental hospitals, 2019.<h4>Methods</h4>A facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted on 604 mothers who gave live neonates at Adare General Hospital and Hawassa University Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital from May 9, 2019 to June 7, 2019. Face to face interviewer administered structured questionnaire with a supplementation of maternal and neonatal medical records with checklists were used to collect the data. Data were coded and entered in to Epi data version 3.1 and then exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science IBM version 25 for analysis. Descriptive statistics was run and the data were presented using frequency tables and figure. The bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the possible factors of neonatal near miss. Finally, Adjusted Odds Ratio and 95% Confidence Intervals were used to declare statsticall significance.<h4>Result</h4>Among all 604 selected live births an overall proportion of NNM cases, 202 (33.4%) (95% CI: 29.7-37.1%) was obtained at Hawassa City Government Hospitals. Respiratory distress 158 (94%) and infection or sepsis 138 (84%) were found to be the leading causes of NNM cases in our study. Governmental and non-governmental employed mother (AOR?=?3.05, 95% CI: 1.46-6.44) and Cesarean Section delivery (AOR?=?1.89, (95% CI: 1.25-2.83)) were positively significantly associated with neonatal near miss. Whereas, pregnancy induced Hypertension (AOR?=?0.43, 95%CI: 0.27-0.69) was negatively associated with neonatal near miss.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study revealed relatively high prevalence of NNM in the study areas. Employed women, pregnancy induced hypertension and cesarean section mode of delivery were found to be independent factors affecting the prevalence of NNM cases. Therefore, HUCSH and Adare general Hospitals should focus on proving quality antenatal care and prevention of occupational related problems among pregnant women.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In Morocco, there is little information on the circumstances surrounding maternal near misses. This study aimed to determine the incidence, characteristics, and determinants of maternal near misses in Morocco.<h4>Method</h4>A prospective case-control study was conducted at 3 referral maternity hospitals in the Marrakech region of Morocco between February and July 2012. Near-miss cases included severe hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and prolonged obstructed labor. Three unmatched controls were selected for each near-miss case. Three categories of risk factors (sociodemographics, reproductive history, and delays), as well as perinatal outcomes, were assessed, and bivariate and multivariate analyses of the determinants were performed. A sample of 30 near misses and 30 non-near misses was interviewed.<h4>Results</h4>The incidence of near misses was 12‰ of births. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (45%) and severe hemorrhage (39%) were the most frequent direct causes of near miss. The main risk factors were illiteracy [OR = 2.35; 95% CI: (1.07-5.15)], lack of antenatal care [OR = 3.97; 95% CI: (1.42-11.09)], complications during pregnancy [OR = 2.81; 95% CI:(1.26-6.29)], and having experienced a first phase delay [OR = 8.71; 95% CI: (3.97-19.12)] and a first phase of third delay [OR = 4.03; 95% CI: (1.75-9.25)]. The main reasons for the first delay were lack of a family authority figure who could make a decision, lack of sufficient financial resources, lack of a vehicle, and fear of health facilities. The majority of near misses demonstrated a third delay with many referrals. The women's perceptions of the quality of their care highlighted the importance of information, good communication, and attitude.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Women and newborns with serious obstetric complications have a greater chance of successful outcomes if they are immediately directed to a functioning referral hospital and if the providers are responsive.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Australia has a maternal mortality ratio of 6.8/100000 live births, a rate akin to other developed countries and consistent with the high level care provided within the Australian health care system. With maternal mortality at very low levels assessment of severe maternal morbidity is increasingly being used as an indicator of quality of care and to identify areas for improvement in maternity services. The WHO maternal 'near miss' criteria is a standardised tool has been increasingly used worldwide to assess maternal morbidity and standards of maternity care. The aim of this study was to determine the rate and aetiology of maternal 'near misses' at King Edward Memorial Hospital (KEMH) using the WHO near miss criteria.<h4>Methods</h4>Cases of maternal 'near miss' were prospectively identified at KEMH using the WHO near miss criteria over a period of 6 months (1st December 2014 to 31st May 2015). A descriptive analysis of the results was undertaken.<h4>Results</h4>During the study there were 2773 live births with 19 women who had 'near miss' presentations. There were no maternal deaths. The maternal 'near miss' index rate was 7/1000 live births. The main causes of obstetric 'near miss' were obstetric haemorrhage, pre-eclampsia and early pregnancy complications.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The rate of maternal 'near miss' at KEMH was 7/1000 live births and post-partum haemorrhage was identified as the most common aetiology, consistent with other studies in developed countries. Further research comparing currently utilised local, state and national morbidity systems would allow further validation of the WHO near miss criteria in Australian settings. The study presented in this publication was undertaken at King Edward Memorial Hospital, 374 Bagot Rd., Subiaco WA 6008.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a commonly reported maternal morbidity that negatively impacts the well-being of women during pregnancy and extends long term into the post-partum period. The burden of maternal morbidity; including pregnancy-related PGP; has been overlooked in Ethiopia to date. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and identify factors associated with pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy in North West Ethiopia. METHODS:A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women visiting the antenatal care clinic in Obstetrics 'outpatient department at the University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital in Gondar. Data were collected by interview method using structured questionnaires, patient medical record reviews, and physical measurements. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression model analyses were used to identify factors associated with PGP. RESULTS:A total of 424 participants with gestational ages ranging from 6 to 39?weeks participated in this study. The age of the study participants ranged from 18 to 44?years with a mean age of (27?±?4.6?years). The overall cumulative prevalence of pelvic girdle pain among pregnant women was 103 (24.3%),95% CI (20.3, 28.8). The major associated factors with pelvic girdle pain were previous history of pelvic girdle pain (AOR 16.08; 95% CI, 8.47-30.51), previous history of back pain (AOR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.5-4.24) and having children (AOR 1.42; 95% CI, 1.29-3.76). CONCLUSION:One-quarter of pregnant Ethiopian women reported pelvic girdle pain. PGP must be considered as major pregnancy-related morbidity, and progress in the intervention of PGP is vital to enhance the quality of life in this population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A maternal near-miss (MNM) refers to when a gravely ill woman survives a complication as a result of the standard of care she receives or by chance during gestation, childbirth, or within 42 days of the termination of pregnancy. Rescuers of near-miss events share several features with mothers who have died and identifying MNM determinants will aid in improving the capacity of the health system to reduce severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Ethiopia is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with high maternal mortality and morbidity, but there is little evidence on determinants of a MNM based on a WHO criteria. Hence, this study aimed at identifying determinants of MNM among women admitted to tertiary hospitals in southern Ethiopia, 2020.<h4>Methods</h4>A facilities-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in five selected tertiary hospitals found in central southern Ethiopia from February 1 to June 1, 2020. A total of 322 (81 cases and 241 controls) study participants were included in the study. At the time of their discharge, cases were recruited consecutively, while controls were selected using a systematic sampling method. The cases were women admitted to hospitals during pregnancy, childbirth, or 42 days following termination of pregnancy who met at least one of the WHO near-miss criteria. Whereas the controls comprised of women who were admitted during pregnancy, childbirth, or 42 days following termination of pregnancy and discharged without severe obstetric complications. Data collection was conducted using the interviewer-administered structured questionnaire and data abstraction tool. The data was coded and entered into Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 23 for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted and determinants of MNM were established at p-value<0.05.<h4>Results</h4>Severe postpartum hemorrhage (50.6%) and sepsis (23.4%) were the most common reasons for admission of cases. Lack of ANC [AOR = 3.25; 95%CI: 2.21,7.69], prior history of Cesarean section [AOR = 3.53; 95%CI:1.79,6.98], delaying more than 60 minute to access final place of care [AOR = 3.21; 95%CI:1.61,6.39], poor practice of Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) [AOR = 3.31; 95%CI:1.50,7.29], and history of preexisting medical disorders [AOR = 2.79; 95%CI:1.45,5.37] were identified as significantly determinants of maternal near miss.<h4>Conclusion and recommendation</h4>Stakeholders need to enhance their efforts for improving access to roads and transportations. Besides, women who have a prior history of Caesarean section, chronic medical conditions, and no ANC need special attention from their families and health care providers to proactively mitigate the occurrence of serious obstetric complications. More attention has to be paid to birth preparedness and complication readiness activities.
Project description:Background:This study investigates the frequency of near-miss events and compares correlates in the world's newest nation. Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out to audit near-miss events and their causes. A total of 1,041 mothers were sampled. Data were gathered using World Health Organization near-miss evaluation tools according to morbidity and organ failure-based criteria. Intensive care unit admission criteria were not used (as there is no functional intensive care unit in Juba Teaching Hospital). Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze the data. The study adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki. Results:Nearly half (49.7%) of the clients were young pregnant women (aged 15-24 years), with a mean age of 25.07±5.65 years. During the study period, there were 994 deliveries, 94 near-misses, and 10 maternal deaths. This resulted in maternal near-miss and mortality rates of 94.1 per 1,000 and 1,007 per 100,000 live births, respectively. Severe maternal outcome and maternal near-miss rates were 10.47 per 1,000 (morbidity-based criteria) and 41.3 per 1,000 (organ failure-based criteria), respectively. The likelihood of mortality was 25% (95% CI 10%-51%) for a ruptured uterus, 9% (95% CI 4%-17%) for severe postpartum hemorrhage, and 11% (95% CI 3%-30%) for eclampsia. Anemia, hemorrhage, and dystocia were the highest contributory factors in the occurrence of maternal near-misses. Conclusion:The near-miss rate was high. Contributing factors were lack of resources, low quality of primary health care, and delays in care. All near-misses should be regarded as opportunities to improve the quality of maternity care. Health institutes should address delays in conducting interventions, referral barriers, and personnel gaps. Fully functional intensive-care units must be created in all facilities, including Juba Teaching Hospital and other hospitals. Notification policies for all near-miss cases should be in place in all health care units, with a "no shame, no blame" approach.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Prenatal alcohol consumption is a serious public health concern that is considered as one of the preventable risk factors for neonatal and childhood morbidity and several adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to determine the individual- and community-level predictors of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women in Gondar town from 13 June to 24 August 2019. A cluster random sampling technique was used to select 1237 pregnant women. Data collection was carried out using the AUDIT-C pretested standard questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses were computed to identify predictors of alcohol consumption using the odds ratio, 95% CI, and p-value < 0.05.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy was found to be 30.26% (95% CI: 27.74%, 32.91%). The study revealed that pregnant women who have a low knowledge level on harmful effect of alcohol consumption (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.9, 5.4), positive attitude towards alcohol consumption (AOR = 7.5; 95% 5, 11), history of pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption (AOR = 4.8; 95% CI: 3.4, 6.9), whose partner consume alcohol (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.5, 6), a perception that alcohol consumption is culturally or socially acceptable (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI: 2.4, 5.3), who were encouraged by their partners to consume alcohol (AOR = 4; 95% CI: 1.9, 8) were significantly associated with pregnancy alcohol consumption. Concerning the community-level characteristics, who had not ever heard/media exposure about the risk of alcohol drinking during pregnancy (AOR = 3; 95% CI: 1.7, 5.5), and who were from low community women's education attainment (AOR = 4; 95% CI: 2.2, 7.7) were statistically significant predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study revealed that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is prevalent in Gondar town. Both individual- and community-level predictors were found to be associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Policymakers may take into account these predictors for individual and community-based interventions to which our results appear to point.