ZFPM2-AS1 facilitates cell growth in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma via up-regulating TRAF4.
ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence has confirmed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are strongly involved in tumor initiation and development. LncRNA ZFPM2 antisense RNA 1 (ZFPM2-AS1) has been identified as a tumor facilitator in some cancers; nevertheless, its functional significance and regulatory mechanism remain greatly unclear in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here, we detected ZFPM2-AS1 expression in ESCC cell lines using qRT-PCR. ZFPM2-AS1 knockdown models were established for investigating the biological function of ZFPM2-AS1 in ESCC cells. The association between miR-3612 and ZFPM2-AS1 or TRAF4 was assessed by RNA pull-down and luciferase reporter assays. The present study indicated that ZFPM2-AS1 was significantly up-regulated in ESCC cells. Functional assays manifested that ZFPM2-AS1 knockdown restrained cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and facilitated cell apoptosis in ESCC. Mechanistically, ZFPM2-AS1 promoted ESCC cell growth and up-regulated TRAF4 to trigger NF-?B pathway by sequestering miR-3612. Besides, miR-3612 was confirmed to be a tumor inhibitor in ESCC. Through restoration experiments, we observed that TRAF4 overexpression could recover the suppressive effect of ZFPM2-AS1 on ESCC cell growth. Collectively, all the results suggested that ZFPM2-AS1 was an oncogene in ESCC cell growth by up-regulating TRAF4 and activating NF-?B pathway.
Project description:Background:Newly identified lncRNA zinc finger protein, FOG family member 2 antisense RNA 1 (ZFPM2-AS1) is identified as an oncogenic gene. However, the role of ZFPM2-AS1 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is poorly comprehended. Methods:The expression of genes in SCLC tissues and cells was measured by qRT-PCR. Colony formation, EdU, CCK-8, transwell and wound healing as well as in vivo assays revealed the function of ZFPM2-AS1 in SCLC. ChIP, luciferase reporter, RIP and RNA pull down assays demonstrated the binding relation among genes. Results:ZFPM2-AS1 was significantly upregulated in SCLC tissues and cells. ZFPM2-AS1 deficiency attenuated SCLC cell proliferation, invasion and migration. In addition, ZFPM2-AS1 was transcriptionally activated by Yin Yang 1 (YY1) factor. Further, miR-3612 was confirmed as downstream miRNA of ZFPM2-AS1. Moreover, TNF receptor associated factor 4 (TRAF4) was the target gene of miR-3612 in SCLC. ZFPM2-AS1, miR-3612 and TRAF4 jointly constituted a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network in SCLC. Finally, TRAF4 could countervail ZFPM2-AS1 downregulation-mediated function on SCLC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion:Our study elucidated the oncogenic effect of ZFPM2-AS1 in SCLC progression, indicating it may be a therapeutic target for SCLC.
Project description:Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), a histological subclass of non-small-cell lung cancer, is globally the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as cancer regulators. Zinc finger protein multitype 2 antisense RNA 1 (ZFPM2-AS1) is an oncogene in gastric cancer, but its functions have not been investigated in LUAD. We showed that ZFPM2-AS1 expression is high in LUAD samples based on GEPIA database (http://gepia.cancer-pku.cn/) and validated ZFPM2-AS1 upregulation in LUAD cell lines. Functionally, ZFPM2-AS1 facilitated proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of LUAD cells. Thereafter, we found that ZFPM2 was negatively regulated by ZFPM2-AS1, and identified the suppressive effect of ZFPM2 regulation by ZFPM2-AS1 on LUAD progression. Mechanistically, we showed that ZFPM2-AS1 interacted with up-frameshift 1 (UPF1) to regulate mRNA decay of ZFPM2. Rescue assays in vitro and in vivo confirmed that ZFPM2-AS1 regulated LUAD progression and tumor growth through ZFPM2. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a role for the ZFPM2-AS1-UPF1-ZFPM2 axis in LUAD progression, suggesting ZFPM2-AS1 as a new potential target for LUAD treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Emerging evidence has shown that dysregulated expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is implicated in liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role and molecular mechanism of differentially expressed lncRNAs in HCC has not been fully explained. METHODS:The expression profiles of lncRNAs in HCC samples were derived from microarrays analysis or downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and their correlation with prognosis and clinical characteristics were further analyzed. Silencing of lncRNA ZFPM2-AS1 was conducted to assess the effect of ZFPM2-AS1 in vitro. The miRcode and Target Scan databases were used to determine the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA interactions. The biological functions were demonstrated by luciferase reporter assay, western blotting, PCR and rescue experiments. RESULTS:The expression level of lncRNA ZFPM2-AS1 was significantly higher in HCC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues, and higher ZFPM2-AS1 was remarkably related to poor survival. Functionally, silencing of lncRNA ZFPM2-AS1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and promoted cell apoptosis in vitro. Bioinformatics analysis based on the miRcode and TargetScan databases showed that lncRNA ZFPM2-AS1 regulated GDF10 expression by competitively binding to miR-139. miR-139 and downregulated GDF10 reversed cell phenotypes caused by lncRNA ZFPM2-AS1 by rescue analysis. CONCLUSIONS:ZFPM2-AS1, an upregulated lncRNA in HCC, was associated with malignant tumor phenotypes and worse patient survival. ZFPM2-AS1 regulated the progression of HCC by acting as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to competitively bind to miR-139 and regulate GDF10 expression. Our study provides new insight into the posttranscriptional regulation mechanism of lncRNA ZFPM2-AS1 and suggests that ZFPM2-AS1/miR-139/GDF10 may act as a potential therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for HCC.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated to be involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. Herein we report on our discovery of a novel lncRNA, ZFPM2 antisense RNA 1 (ZFPM2-AS1), and its critical role in gastric carcinogenesis. ZFPM2-AS1 expression in gastric cancer specimens was analyzed using Gene Expression Omnibus data set and validated in 73 paired gastric tumor and normal adjacent gastric tissue specimens using qRT-PCR. The effect of ZFPM2-AS1 expression on proliferation and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells was assessed by altering its expression in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigation was carried out using cell and molecular biological approaches. ZFPM2-AS1 expression was higher in gastric tumors than in normal gastric tissue. Also, increased ZFPM2-AS1 expression in gastric cancer specimens was associated with tumor size, depth of tumor invasion, differentiation grade, and TNM stage. High ZFPM2-AS1 expression predicted markedly reduced overall and disease-free survival in gastric cancer patients. Functional experiments demonstrated that ZFPM2-AS1 expression promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and promoted tumor growth in vivo. This effect is associated with attenuated nuclear translocation of p53. Mechanistic experiments demonstrated that tumor-activated ZFPM2-AS1 could bind to and protect the degradation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a potent destabilizer of p53. Knockdown of MIF expression diminished ZFPM2-AS1's impact on p53 expression in gastric cancer cells. Our findings demonstrated that ZFPM2-AS1 regulates gastric cancer progression and revealed a novel ZFPM2-AS1/MIF/p53 signaling axis, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumorigenicity of certain malignant gastric cells.
Project description:Purpose:Recent studies have determined that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are potential prognostic biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). The purpose of this study was to analyze the function and associated pathways of zinc finger protein multitype 2 antisense RNA 1 (ZFPM2-AS1) in NSCLC cells. Methods:We used qRT-PCR to analyze ZFPM2-AS1's transcription level. Its proliferation, migration, and invasion capacities were determined using MTT, colony forming, wound healing, and transwell assays. We additionally analyzed the correlation between ZFPM2 and immune infiltration using the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database, and the protein expression levels using Western blots. Results:We found that ZFPM2-AS1 expression in NSCLC specimens and cell lines was elevated compared to the control group. ZFPM2-AS1 is an oncogene and independent prognostic predictor of poor survival in NSCLCs, and its expression had a positive correlation with tumor size and lymph node metastasis in our clinical data. MTT, colony forming, wound healing, and transwell assays showed a positive correlation between ZFPM2-AS1 expression and the proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells in the presence and absence of interferon- (IFN-?). Using the TIMER database, we hypothesized that ZFPM2 was negatively correlated with ZFPM2-AS1 expression, as well as the immune infiltration levels in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Finally, we found that ZFPM2-AS1 negatively regulated ZFPM2 expression, and had a positive correlation with PD-L1 expression through the JAK-STAT and AKT pathways. Conclusion:Our study confirmed that ZFPM2-AS1 promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells via the JAK-STAT and AKT pathways. Further research on the ZFPM2-AS1 pathway regulation mechanism is needed.
Project description:Bone fracture is a common medical condition, which may occur due to traumatic injury or disease-related conditions. Evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate osteoblast differentiation and function. In this study, we explored the effects and mechanism of miR-221 on the growth and migration of osteoblasts using MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression levels of miR-221 in the different groups were measured by qRT-PCR. Then, miR-221 mimic and inhibitor were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells, and cell viability and migration were measured using the CCK-8 assay and the Transwell migration assay. Additionally, the expression levels of differentiation-related factors (Runx2 and Ocn) and ZFPM2 were measured by qRT-PCR. Western blot was used to measure the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins, ZFPM2, and Wnt/Notch, and Smad signaling pathway proteins. miR-221 was significantly up-regulated in the patients with lumbar compression fracture (LCM) and trochanteric fracture (TF). miR-221 promoted ALP, Runx2, and OPN expressions in MC3T3-E1 cells. miR-221 overexpression significantly increased cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and matrix mineralization, whereas suppression of miR-221 reversed these effects. Additionally, the results displayed that ZFPM2 was a direct target gene of miR-221, and overexpression of ZFPM2 reversed the promoting effects of miR-221 overexpression on osteoblasts. Mechanistic study revealed that overexpression of miR-221 inactivated the Wnt/Notch and Smad signaling pathways by regulating ZFPM2 expression. We drew the conclusions that miR-221 overexpression promoted osteoblast proliferation, migration, and differentiation by regulation of ZFPM2 expression and deactivating the Wnt/Notch and Smad signaling pathways.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized as key regulators of tumorigenesis and progression. Serum miR-302c-3p expression is prominently deregulated in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the expression of miR-302c-3p and its functional role in HBV-related HCC are rarely investigated. In this study, we found that the expression levels of miR-302c-3p were prominently down-regulated in HCC tissues compared to matched tumor-adjacent tissues. Moreover, miR-302c-3p under-expression was detected in HCC cell lines compared to a normal hepatic cell line LO2. Low miR-302c-3p expression was positively correlated with multiple tumor nodes, venous infiltration and advanced TNM tumor stage of HCC patients. Notably, our follow up data and TCGA data demonstrated that low miR-302c-3p expression predicted a poor survival of HCC patients. Functionally, miR-302c-3p overexpression inhibited migration and invasion of MHCC97H cells in vitro. Additionally, miR-302c-3p knockdown showed an opposite effect on these metastatic behaviors of HepG2 cells. MiR-302c-3p negatively regulated tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 4 (TRAF4) abundance by directly targeting 3'-UTR of TRAF4 mRNA. The expression of TRAF4 was up-regulated in HCC tissues. The level of TRAF4 mRNA was inversely correlated with miR-302c-3p expression in HCC specimens. Mechanistically, miR-302c-3p restrained AKT-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells. Importantly, TRAF4 restoration reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-302c-3p on AKT-induced EMT and HCC cell metastasis. MK2206, an AKT inhibitor, inhibited miR-302c-3p knockdown-induced EMT in HepG2 cells. In summary, these results indicate that miR-302c-3p exhibits a tumor suppressive role in HCC by targeting TRAF4. Inhibition of miR-302c-3p/TRAF4 axis may serve as a therapeutic target for HCC.
Project description:Background:LncRNA dysregulation is implicated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) progression; However, the precise role and function of lncRNA MAFG-AS1 in ESCC remains unknown. Materials and Methods:Expressions of MAFG-AS1, miR-765, PDX1, GLUT1 and LDH-A were detected via qRT-PCR or/and Western blot in ESCC tissues and cell lines. CCK-8, transwell and glycolysis assays were used to investigate the effects of MAFG-AS1 on ESCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and aerobic glycolysis after knockdown or overexpression of MAFG-AS1, and bioinformatics analyses, RNA pull-down and dual luciferase reporter systems were applied to investigate the interaction between MAFG-AS1, miR-765 and PDX1. Results:MAFG-AS1 was significantly up-modulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines. MAFG-AS1 significantly accelerated ESCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and aerobic glycolysis. MAFG-AS1 competitively adsorbed miR-765, while miR-765 negatively modulated the expression of PDX1. miR-765 and PDX1 participated in the promotive effects of MAFG-AS1 on cell migration, invasion and aerobic glycolysis in ESCC cells. Conclusion:Our research indicates that the MAFG-AS1/miR-765/PDX1 axis accelerates ESCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and aerobic glycolysis.
Project description:Robust proliferation and apoptosis inhibition of tumor cells are responsible for the high mortality and poor outcome of patients with high-grade gliomas. miR-29a/b/c have been reported to be important suppressors in several human tumor types. However, their exact roles in gliomagenesis and their relevance to patient prognosis remain unclear. In this study, using 187 human glioma specimens and 20 nontumoral brain tissues, we demonstrated that the expression of miR-29a/b/c decreased progressively as the grade of glioma and the Ki-67 index increased. However, the expression of TRAF4, the functional target of miR-29a/b/c, exhibited the inverse trend, and its level was inversely correlated with the levels of miR-29a/b/c. A Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the miR-29a/b/c and TRAF4 levels were closely associated with patient survival even in patients with the same tumor grade and identical IDH gene status. A functional study verified that miR-29a/b/c induced apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation of glioma cells by directly targeting TRAF4. An investigation of the mechanism revealed that miR-29a/b/c promoted apoptosis through the TRAF4/AKT/MDM2 pathway in a p53-dependent manner, while miR-29a/b/c induced G1 arrest and inhibited tumor cell proliferation by blocking the phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3?, and the expression of cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Furthermore, TRAF4-knockdown perfectly simulated the anti-glioma effects of miR-29a/b/c. These findings enrich our understanding of gliomagenesis, highlight the prognostic value of miR-29a/b/c and TRAF4, and imply their potential therapeutic roles in malignant gliomas.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are closely related to tumor resistance and tumor recurrence in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The lack of specific biomarkers to identify and isolate CSCs has led to the slow progression of research on CSCs in ESCC. Here, we established a method to identify and isolate CSCs in ESCC using fluorescence-activated cell sorting with combined surface biomarkers including CD71, CD271, and CD338. CD71-/CD271⁺/CD338⁺ subpopulation cells possessed more stem cell properties in proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, metastasis, drug resistance, and tumorigenesis. We further explored possible roles that microRNAs played in stem cells. Using microarrays, we identified that has-miR-21-3p was highly expressed in positive sorted cells, and further functional and Luciferase reporter assays verified that has-miR-21-3p promoted proliferation and anti-apoptosis by regulating TRAF4. We further analyzed the relationship between hsa-miR-21-3p and ESCC in 137 patients with ESCC. Statistical analysis showed that up-regulation of hsa-miR-21-3p was associated with a high risk of ESCC. Collectively, we identified surface biomarkers of stem cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and discovered thathsa-miR-21-3p may be involved in stemness maintenance by regulating TRAF4.