Predictive modeling of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 pharmacokinetics for the study of Sjogren's syndrome.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the salivary glands leading to secretory dysfunction. Previous studies demonstrated that aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) reduces inflammation and restores tissue integrity in salivary glands. Specifically, progression of SS-like features in NOD/ShiLtJ mice can be systemically halted using AT-RvD1 prior or after disease onset to downregulate proinflammatory cytokines, upregulate anti-inflammatory molecules, and restore saliva production. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to create a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to offer a reasonable starting point for required total AT-RvD1 dosage to be administered in future mice and humans thereby eliminating the need for excessive use of animals and humans in preclinical and clinical trials, respectively. Likewise, PBPK modeling was employed to increase the range of testable scenarios for elucidating the mechanisms under consideration. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Pharmacokinetics following intravenous administration of a 0.1 mg/kg dose of AT-RvD1 in NOD/ShiLtJ were predicted in both plasma and saliva using PBPK modeling with PK-Sim® and MoBi® Version 7.4 software. RESULTS:The model provides high-value pathways for future validation via in vivo studies in NOD/ShiLtJ to corroborate the findings themselves while also establishing this method as a means to better target drug development and clinical study design. CONCLUSIONS:Clinical and basic research would benefit from knowledge of the potential offered by computer modeling. Specifically, short-term utility of these pharmacokinetic modeling findings involves improved targeting of in vivo studies as well as longer term prospects for drug development and/or better designs for clinical trials.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease with no effective treatment options. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) belongs to a class of lipid-based specialized pro-resolving mediators that showed efficacy in preclinical models of SS. We developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of RvD1 in mice and optimized the model using plasma and salivary gland pharmacokinetic (PK) studies performed in NOD/ShiLtJ mice with SS-like features. The predictive performance of the PBPK model was also evaluated with two external datasets from the literature reporting RvD1 PKs. The PBPK model adequately captured the observed concentrations of RvD1 administered at different doses and in different species. The PKs of RvD1 in virtual humans were predicted using the verified PBPK model at various doses (0.01-10 mg/kg). The first-in-human predictions of RvD1 will be useful for the clinical trial design and translation of RvD1 as an effective treatment strategy for SS.
Project description:Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its aspirin-triggered epimeric form (AT-RvD1) are endogenous lipid mediators (derived from docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) that control the duration and magnitude of inflammation in models of complex diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated that RvD1-mediated signaling pathways are expressed and active in salivary glands from rodents and humans. Furthermore, treatment of salivary cells with RvD1 blocked TNF-?-mediated inflammatory signals and improved epithelial integrity. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of treatment with AT-RvD1 versus dexamethasone (DEX) on inflammation (i.e., lymphocytic infiltration, cytokine expression and apoptosis) observed in submandibular glands (SMG) from the NOD/ShiLtJ Sjögren's syndrome (SS) mouse model before experimenting with a larger population. NOD/ShiLtJ mice were treated intravenously with NaCl (0.9%, negative control), AT-RvD1 (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) or DEX (4.125-8.25 mg/kg) twice a week for 14 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age. At 18 weeks of age, SMG were collected for pathological analysis and detection of SS-associated inflammatory genes. The AT-RvD1 treatment alone did not affect lymphocytic infiltration seen in NOD/ShiLtJ mice while DEX partially prevented lymphocytic infiltration. Interestingly, both AT-RvD1 and DEX caused downregulation of SS-associated inflammatory genes and reduction of apoptosis. Results from this pilot study suggest that a systemic treatment with AT-RvD1 and DEX alone attenuated inflammatory responses observed in the NOD/ShiLtJ mice; therefore, they may be considered as potential therapeutic tools in treating SS patients when used alone or in combination.
Project description:Our previous results showed that the specialized pro-resolving mediator (SPM) Resolvin D1 (RvD1) promotes resolution of inflammation in salivary glands in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/ShiLtJ, a mouse model for Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Additionally, mice lacking the RvD1 receptor ALX/FPR2 show defective innate and adaptive immune responses in salivary glands. Particularly, ALX/FPR2 KO mice exhibit exacerbated inflammation in their salivary glands in response to systemic LPS treatment. Moreover, female ALX/FPR2 KO mice show increased autoantibody production and loss of salivary gland function with age. Together, these studies suggest that an underlying SPM dysregulation could be contributing to SS progression. Therefore, we investigated whether SPM production is altered in NOD/ShiLtJ using metabololipidomics and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results demonstrate that SPM levels were broadly elevated in plasma collected from NOD/ShiLtJ female mice after disease onset, whereas these drastic changes did not occur in male mice. Moreover, gene expression of enzymes involved in SPM biosynthesis were altered in submandibular glands (SMG) from NOD/ShiLtJ female mice after disease onset, with 5-LOX and 12/15-LOX being downregulated and upregulated, respectively. Despite this dysregulation, the abundances of the SPM products of these enzymes (ie, RvD1 and RvD2) were unaltered in freshly isolated SMG cells suggesting that other cell populations (eg, lymphocytes) may be responsible for the overabundance of SPMs that we observed. The elevation of SPMs noted here appeared to be sex mediated, meaning that it was observed only in one sex (females). Given that SS primarily affects females (roughly 90% of diagnosed cases), these results may provide some insights into the mechanisms underlying the observed sexual dimorphism.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by diminished secretory function of the exocrine glands. Treatments for hyposalivation are limited to the use of saliva substitutes and medications that provide only temporary relief. In light of the high degree of need and the limitations of current therapies, development of alternative treatments to restore functioning is essential. Resolvins (Rv), which are highly potent lipid mediators, offer a viable alternative for better treating inflammatory diseases such as SS. The goal of this study was to determine whether systemic preventive treatment with Aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) reduces inflammation and preserves secretory functioning in NOD/ShiLtJ SS-like mice. Our results indicate that systemic treatment with AT-RvD1 diminishes the progression of the disease in salivary epithelium from female mice as follows: (a) improves secretory function, (b) reduces pro-inflammatory molecule gene expression, (c) increases anti-inflammatory molecule gene expression and (d) induces M2 macrophage polarization. Finally, AT-RvD1 decreases lymphocytic infiltration into the salivary glands when used with small doses of the steroid, dexamethasone, and promotes the tissue healing process.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results.
Project description:Previous studies have evaluated the roles of T and B cells in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS); however, their relationships with age-dependent and metabolic abnormalities remain unclear. We examined the impacts of changes associated with aging or metabolic abnormalities on populations of T and B cells and SS disease severity. We detected increased populations of IL-17-producing T and B cells, which regulate inflammation, in the salivary glands of NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Inflammation-induced human submandibular gland cell death, determined based on p-MLKL and RIPK3 expression levels, was significantly increased by IL-17 treatment. Among IL-17-expressing cells in the salivary gland, peripheral blood, and spleen, the α4β7 (gut-homing integrin)-negative population was significantly increased in aged NOD/ShiLtJ mice. The α4β7-positive population markedly increased in the intestines of aged NOD/ShiLtJ mice following retinoic acid (RA) treatment. A significant increase in α4β7-negative IL-17-expressing cells in salivary glands may be involved in the onset and progression of SS. These results suggest the potential therapeutic utility of RA in SS treatment.
Project description:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) down-modulates various immune responses by engaging the co-inhibitory receptor programmed death-1. Expression of PD-L1 and programmed death-1 is elevated in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The objective of this study is to define the role of endogenous PD-L1 in SS pathogenesis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of this disease. We inhibited endogenous PD-L1 function by intraperitoneal administration of a blocking antibody to 6 week-old female NOD/ShiLtJ mice repeatedly during a 9-day period. PD-L1 blockade accelerated leukocyte infiltration and caspase-3 activation in the submandibular gland (SMG), production of antinuclear and anti-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) autoantibodies and impairment of saliva secretion, indicative of accelerated development and onset of SS. The effect of PD-L1 blockade was associated with increased T- and B cells and T helper 1 cytokine IFN-? in the SMG. Local administration of exogenous IFN-? to the SMG led to impaired salivary secretion accompanied by down-regulation of aquaporin 5 and an increase in anti-M3R autoantibodies. Conversely, neutralization of IFN-? markedly improved salivary secretion and aquaporin 5 expression in anti-PD-L1-treated NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Hence, endogenous PD-L1 hinders the development and onset of SS in NOD mice, in part by suppressing IFN-? production.
Project description:Resolvins are potent anti-inflammatory mediators derived from ω-3 fatty acids. Results from our previous studies indicated that resolvin D1 (RvD1) blocks pro-inflammatory responses in salivary glands. Furthermore, RvD1 enhances salivary epithelial integrity, demonstrating its potential use for the restoration of salivary gland function in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We investigated whether the RvD1 biosynthetic machinery (e.g., cytosolic phospholipase A2, calcium-independent phospholipase A2, 12/15 and 5-lipoxygenase) is expressed in mouse submandibular glands (mSMG), using qPCR and Western blot analyses. Additionally, we determined the localization of RvD1 biosynthetic machinery in mSMG and human minor salivary glands (hMSG), with and without SS, using confocal microscopy. Finally, we measured RvD1 levels in cell supernatants from mSMG cell cultures and freshly isolated mSMG cells, with and without SS, using ELISA. Our results indicate that: (1) RvD1 machinery is expressed in mouse and human salivary glands; (2) polar distribution of RvD1 biosynthetic machinery is lost in hMSG with SS; (3) RvD1 levels in mSMG cell culture supernatants increased with time; and (4) RvD1 levels in mSMG cell supernatants, with and without SS, were similar. These studies demonstrate that the RvD1 biosynthesis machinery is expressed and functional in salivary glands with and without SS.
Project description:Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop Sjögren's-like syndrome (Ss) and a gradual loss of saliva secretory function. Our previous study showed that injections of matched normal spleen cells with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) reversed salivary gland dysfunction in 14-week-old NOD mice, which had established Ss. The spleen and bone marrow are closely related organs, and both are among the first sites of hematopoiesis during gestation. Noticing a rapidly increasing number of clinical trials using bone marrow (BM) cells treatments for autoimmune diseases, we tested if BM cells can prevent Ss and restore salivary glands' function. We injected CFA and MHC class I-matched normal BM cells in 7-week-old NOD mice, which had not yet developed Ss. We found at week 52 post-treatment that all NOD mice receiving BM cells and CFA had a recovery of salivary flow and were protected from Ss and diabetes. BM cells-treated mice had their salivary function restored quantitatively and qualitatively. Saliva flow was higher (p<0.05) in BM cells-transplanted mice when compared to control mice, which continued to deteriorate over time. Total proteins, epidermal growth factor, amylase, and electrolytes concentrations in saliva of BM cells-treated mice were not significantly changed at week 44 and 52 post-therapy when compared to pre-therapy (when the mice did not have Ss). Restoration of salivary flow could have resulted from a combination of rescue and paracrine effects from BM cells. This study suggests that a combined immuno- and cell-based therapy can permanently prevent Ss and restored salivary function in NOD mice.
Project description:Evidences have suggested that Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is associated with viral infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of respiratory viral poly(I:C) in the pathogenesis of SS and potential mechanisms using a SS-like NOD/ShiLtJ (NOD) mouse model. 5-week female NOD mice were intratracheally administered poly(I:C) every other day for 5 times to mimic viral infection. Pilocarpine induced saliva secretion was determined every 8 days. Submandibular glands (SMG) and lungs were harvested for the detection of pathological changes. We found that intratracheal administration of poly(I:C) significantly advanced and enhanced the reduction of saliva flow rate in NOD mice. Furthermore, poly(I:C) treatment aggravated the histopathological lesions and inflammatory cells infiltration in SMG. Accompanied by elevated expression of IFN cytokines and IL-33, Th1 activation was enhanced in SMG of poly(I:C)-treated NOD mice, but Th17 cells activation was unchanged among the groups. In addition, intratracheal poly(I:C) exposure promoted the expression of IL-33 and increased T cells proportion in the lung, which were consistent with the change in SMG. Therefore, intratracheal poly(I:C) exposure aggravated the immunological and function disorder of SMG in NOD mice.